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JY' <^t d 



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OF THE 




MASSACHUSETTS 

AGRICULTURAL 

COLLEGE 

No._.L5:490_...DATE._QLr-LS3.4--. 

souRcaiZoJle^e^._.4:UTnd5.. 

ScunSfL 




This book may be kept out 

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only, and is subject to a fine of ITVR 
CENTS a day thereafter. It will be due on 
the day indicated below. 

MAR 151895 



June 30, 1891.] 



THE 






GARDENERS 





7\ 
JJLi 



% WLttkU Ellustratcb Journal 



OF 



Horticulture and Allied Subjects. 



(ESTABLISHED IN 1841.) 



VOL XV.-TH1RD SERIES. 



JANUARY TO JUNE. 1894. 



LONDON : 
41, WELLINGTON STREET, COVENT GARDEN, W.C. 



1894. 



ft*. 

G-ltt 



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.O DON ^^ ^ 

BRADBURY, AONEW, & CO. LIMP,, PRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS. 



Gardeners' Chronicle,] 



[•Tune 30, 1694. 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 



JANUARY TO JUNE, 1894. 



Abchasica, origin of specific name, 

113 
Aberdeen, a new park at, 758 
Acacia Baileyana, 36; A. dealbata, 

268, 599 
Acacias at Kew, 366 
Adenandra umbellate, 637 
Adiantum Farleyense, 267 
Agapetes macrantha, 501 
Agave americana. flowering of, 786 ; 

A. applanata, 727 ; A. potatorum, 628 
Agricultural banks, 16 ; prosperity, 

140 
Agriculture, commercial, 814 
Ailantbus, how to spell, 274 
Ainslisea Walkeri, 18 
Allamanda, fruiting of, 633 
Allotments, 35 ; at Richmond, 373 ; 

how, pay, 438 
Almonds for shrubberies, 504 
Amaryllis at Messrs. Kerr & Sons, 441 
Amelanchier Botrvapium, 177 
American blight, 18 
American fruit crops, 788 
Anadendrum medium, differing leaves 

of, 526 
Analyses of Californian fruits, 591 ; of 

Cattleya, 175; of Chrysanthemum, 

778 
Anemone blanda, destruction of tubers 

of, 274 ; A. Robinsoniana, 529 
AngTascum Humblotii, 202 ; A. ses- 

quipedale, 136 
Anoiganthus breviflorus, 472 
Ant, the white, in Natal timber, 599 
Anthracite coal, 329; and boilers, 177 
Anthurium Chamberlaini, 655 
Anthuriums, seedling, at Highbury, 9, 

48 
Antwerp, L'Exposition Universelle, 

238, 305, 792 
Anvil, foliage from the, 534 
Aotus gracillima, 720 
Aphis on Strawberries, 502 
Apiary, the, 41, 138, 235, 337, 435 531, 

659, 755 
Aponogeton distachyon, 759 
Aposporous Hart's-tongue Fern, 652 
Apple, Emperor Alexander, 20 ; 

Grange's Pearnaain, 240; Grange's 

Winter Pearmain, 275 ; and Pear 

growing for profit, 541, 570, 571, 

572, 630, 790 ; the Raspberry-, 432 ; 

trees, pruning newly-planted. 341 
Apples, double - flowered, 788; im- 
ported, 567 ; poisonous, 270 
Arancaria Bidwillii, fruiting in Java 

465 
Arisffimas at Kew, 398 
Aristolochia gigas var. Sturtevantii 

693 
Art and horticulture, 338 
Asarum macranthum, 18 
Asparagus, heavy, 693 
Aster, a white branching, 268 
Aubrietia deltoidea Campbelli, 570 
Aubrietias, 591 ; the culture of. 495 
Ancuba japonica in berry, 601, 631; 

the fertilisation of the flowers of, 

505 



Auderghem, Brussels, the gardens at, 

430 
Auricula, Dr. Hardy, 569; the, 105, 

722 
Auriculas and glazed pots, 790 
Australia, garden and orchard produce 

in, 237 
Australian fruit production, 305 
Australian fruit and dairy profuce for 

the Eist, 39 
Azalea mollis, 38 
Azaleas, Ghent and other, 655 ; A. 

Indian, the culture of, 778; A in 

the Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, 310 



B 



Bacteria as the causa of disease, 471 

liiiley, Mr. F. M., 206 

Balsam of Peru, the collection of, 561 

Baltet, M. Chas., 174 

Bamboo, the Whampoa, 559 

Bamboos, a classification of hardy, 

239,301,368,431; hardy, 167, 209, 

407 
Bambusa nana, 18; B. tessellata, 240 
Bark, gnawed by horses, 632 
Barringtonia samoensis, 655 
Basal rot in Daffodils, 379, 558 625 
Bath, Mr. R. H., the farm of, 206 
Batoum, vegetable products a', 72 
Bean, Sutton's Tender-and-True, 279 ; 

the Seville Longford, 690 
Beckett's extension Chrysanthemum 

cup and tube, 791 
Bee-keeping in urban byways, 305 
Bees, early brood rearing of, 112; in 

January, a swarm of 177, 208 
Begonia corallina, 730 
Belgium, notes from, 791 
Balvoir, appointment of gardener at, 

110 
Benthamia fragifera, 178 
Berberidopsis corallina, 37 
Berberis Fremonti, 112, 144, 175 ; B. 

ilicifolia, 178 ; B. stenophylla, 570 
Bergen, parks at, 80 
Birch, fertilisation of the, 788 
Bland, J. Edmund, 146 
Blomefield, Rev. Leonard, 307 

BOOKS, Notices of :— AboutOrchids 

(Fred. Boyle), 47; Amateur Orchid 
Cultivators' Guide Book (H, A. Bur- 
berry), 440 ; An Introduction to 
Structural Botany (Flowering 
Plants) (D. H. Scott). 728; Berk- 
shire Flora {Mr. G. C. Druce), io; 
Biographical Index of British and 
Irish Botanists, 338 ; British and 
Irish Press Guide, 568 ; Bulletin of 
the Trinidad Royal Botanic Gardens, 
237 ; By Moorland and Sea (Francis 
A. Knight), 272 ; Catalogue of the 
Timber Museum at Kew, 339; 
Census Orchidearum (M. Th, 
Duraad), 270 ; Chrysanthemums 
and their Culture (E. Molyneux), 
728 ; Conspectus Floras Afncae, 
272 ; Contributions from the Unitpd 
States National Herbarium, 276 



Dictionnaire Pratique d'Horticulture 
et de Jardinage, 470 ; Dictionnaire 
Pratique d'Horticulture, 237, 727; 
Die Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 
374 ; Exotic Plants from the Royal 
Gardens, Kew (Margaret Meen) 197 ; 
Flora of British India, 725 ; Flora 
of Somerset, the (Rev. R.P.Murray), 
112; Flora of the Assyrian Monu- 
ments (E. Bonavia). 14; Flowering 
plants of Western India (Rev. A. K. 
Nairne), 563 ; I Funghi pici damnosi- 
alle piante coltivate (Dr. P. Foglino), 
16 ; Genus Masdevallia, the (by Miss 
Florence H. Woolward), 240 ; Hardy 
Ornamental Flowering Trees and 
Shrubs (A.D. Webster). 174; Heat- 
ing by hot water (WalUr Jones), 
503 ; Histoire des Plantes, 597 ; In- 
jurious Insects, report on (Miss 
Ormerod), 374 ; Johnson's Gardeners' 
Dictionary, 726 ; Journal of the Kew 
Guild, 660 ; Journal of the Linnean 
Society, 237 ; Kew Bulletin, 76, 205, 
534, 725, 757; Les Ennemis de la 
Vigne.et les moyens de lescombattre, 
696 ; Les Fleurs de Pleine Terre, &c. 
( Vilmorin, Andrieux <f- Co ) 726 ; Man, 
the primeval Savage ( Worthington 
G. Smith), 727 ; Manual of Orchid- 
aceous Plants, pt. x. ( Veitch <$• Sons), 
657 ; Monograph of Lichens f iund in 
Britain (•/. M. Crombie, M.A ), 765 ; 
Mules : their breeding, keening, and 
exhibition (IF. H. Vale), 788; Na- 
tural History of Piante, their forms, 
growth, reproduction, and distribu- 
tion (F. W. Oliver), 694; North 
American Flora, 726 ; O nject lessons 
in botanv from Forest, Field, and 
Garden (Ed. Snelqrove, B.A ). 406 ; 
Odorographia (•/. 'Ch. Saioe. F L S.), 
695; Orchid Album, the, 78; Petit 
Glide Pratique de Jardinage, &c. 
(S. Mottet), 696; Potter's Popular 
Gardening, 471; Practical Botany 
for Beginners (Professor Bower), 
660; Practical Forestry (Angus D. 
Webster), 599 ; Revue de Viticulture, 
78 ; Rosarians' Year Book, the, 78 ; 
Students' Introductory Handbook of 
Systematic Botany (J. W. Oliver), 
406; A Student's Text-book of 
Botany (Sydney H. Vines, M.A. 
F.R.S., £e), 471 ; Surveying and 
Surveying Instruments (E. A. T. 
Middleton), 568 ; Taschenflora des 
Alnen Wanderers (Dr. C. Schrbter), 
566; The Book of Choice Ferns 
(George Schneider), 503; The 
Country Month by Month (J. A, 
Owen) 341 ; The Fruit Growers' 
Ynar Book, 306; The Garden that 
I Love (Alfred Austin), 728; The 
Orchid-Seekers : a Story of Adven- 
ture in Borneo (Ashmore Russan and 
Fred. Boyle), 47 ; The Scientist's 
International Directory (S. E. 
Cassino). 340; Tree Pruning (A. des 
Cars), 504 ; Trees of Commerce 
(Mr. Stevenson), 503; Weather Lore, 
a Collection of Proverbs, Sayings, 



and Rules concerning the Weather 
(R. Inwards, F.R.A.S.), 79; Xenia 
Orchidacea (Dr. Krdnzlin), 45 

Bordeaux, the vegetable products of, 

688 
Bosnia, the Plum trade of, 278 
Botanical Magazine, 16, 338, 501, 596, 

757 
Botany, the new, in relation to plant 

culture, 304 
Botrytis cinerea, 567 
B -occoli, Veitch's Model, 789 ; Veitch's 

Self-Protecting, 147 
Brownea grandiceps, 473 
Brown's Forestry, new edition of. 17 
Brussels, round 430, 504, 528, 662 
Bulb, seed, and plant trade enoloyei, 

19 
Bulbs flowering well, 208 
Bulbophyllum mandibulare, 163 
Burvenich, Professor, 173 



Cabbage competition, 726 

Cabbage, Ellam's Early. 790 

Cabbages bolting, 601, 630 

Cacti, hardy. 567 

Caladiums, 760 

Calanthes, the culture of, 332 

Calceolarias, herbaceous, 654 ; mal- 
formed, 733 

Californian competition in fruit, 400 ; 
frnits, analysis of, 591 ; notes, 701 

Calochortus elegans var. amceuu', 810 

Caltha palustria var. monstroaa pleDa, 
400 

Calypso borealis, 473 

Cambridge University, cultural science 
in, 297 

Camellias at the Birmingham Bota- 
nical Gardens, 298 

Camoensia maxima, 236 

Campanula Hendersoni, 535 

Camphor trade of China, the, 788 

Canada, library and news- room at the 
office for, 206 ; mixed farming, fruit 
culture in, 502 ; the agricultural 
resources of, 439; Beet-sugar in, 503 

Canary Isles, gardens in the, 436 

Cane, the Whangee, 559 

Carmichael, the late Charles A. M., 341 

Carnation and Picotee, the, 721 

Carnation Souvenir de la Malmaison, 
730; C. the tree. 105; Uriah Pike, 
145, 178 ; diseases and hardiness of 
the, 410 

Carnations at Ferrieres, 528 

Catalogues, a criticism of, 308 

Catasetum Rodigasianum var. tene- 
brosum, 527 

Cattleya Arnoldiana at M. Peeters, 
Brussels, 791 ; C. chocoensia at 
home, 440; C. intermedia var. 
splendens. 687; C. labiata Triansei 
vars.. 400; C. 1. Mendeli, Broom- 
field HouBe variety, 589 ; C. labistn, 
the chemical composition of, 175 



IV The Gardeners' Chronicle,] 



INDEX. 



[June 30, 1894. 



C. Lawrenceana at Tring Park, 

29S; C. Luddemannia alba, 690; 

C. Mossise, a fine, 747 ; C. Rex, 

202 ; C. Triactei alba, 208 
Canna Italia, 173 
Caucasus, horticulture iu the, 397 
Cauliflowers, 82 

Ceanothua Veitchianus, 720, 789 
Cedar forest, a notable, 340 
Cpdrus atlantica, 473 ; C. Libani, 307, 

377 ; large, 408 
Celery, 376 

Census Orchidearum, 270 
Cercis siliquaatrum, 570 
CevloD, the report of the Botanic 

Gardens at, 535, 813 
Cherry, a new disease of the Morello, 

757 
Chicago Exhibition, British awards at, 

534 
Chicago, floral Btatue at, 789 
Chilham, its Castle and gardens, 525 
China, camphor trade of, 78S 
Chinese and Japanese matting, 41 
Chionodoxas, the, 266 
Chiswick, trials at, 306 ; working stu- 
dents at, 207 
Choisya ternata, 698 
Cholmondeley Castle gardens, 589 
Chondrorhyncha Chesterton!, 527 
Christmas, 1S39, plants in bloom at, 

471 
Chrysanthemum boards expanding, 49 
Chrysanthemum cupandtube, Beckett's 

extension, 791 
Chrysanthemum exhibitions, how to 

improve, 49 
Chrysanthemum, food requirements of 

the, 778 
Chrysanthemum, Jno. Noble, 14 
Chrysanthemum, the, 560 
Chrysanthemums and their first pot- 
ting, 274; Anemone-flowered, 11; 

exhibiting new, 20; inartistic, 112; 

in May, 746; large, 42; late, 11; 

new, 11 ; stopping, 51, 113 
Chysis laevis, 231 
Cimicifuga japonica, 104 
Cineraria, the, 104 
Cinerarias at Bookham, 406 
Cirrhopetalum picturatum, Veitch's 

variety, 298 
Ciseus mexicana, 10 
Citrus trifoliata, 232 
Clematis balearica, 266; C. disease, 

17 ; C. montana, 758 
Clerodendron splendens, 268 
Ciethra alnifolia, 178 
Cloth for covering grafts, 376 
Clouds of smoke used to protect from 

frost, 263 
Club in Sprouts, remedy for the, 442 
Cochlioda Noezliana, 653 
Cockchafer is caught in Germanv, how 

the, 629 
Cockchafers, 698 
Ccelogyne cristata, scented, 265, 378, 

442, 474 ; bearing nine flowers, 

231; C. var. L^moniana, 307; with 

many flowers, 308 
Ccelocyne corrugata, 71 ; C. Dajana, 

463, 694 ; C. Mossise, 400, 450 
College, Swanley Horticultural, 786 
Commons, the preservation of. 10 
Compton Place, Eastbourne, 2.32 
Continuation school gardens 789 
Cookaon's, Mr., Orchids at, 266 
Coombe Warren Gardens, 143 
Cornus alba vara., 177 
Corynoatylis Hybanthua, 170 
Cosmos, doubling the, 143 
Costa Rica, Coffee and Banana culti- 
vation in, 788 
County Council lectures, 139 
Covent Garden li'eboat, 207 
Cowarth Park, 727 
Crinnm giganteum, 720 ; C. latifolium, 

590 j C. podophyllum, 590; C. 

Roozeniaium, 199 
Crocus imperati, 145 
Cucumber culture, 19, 308 334 
Cucumbers and woodlice, 698 
Culture, deep, 730 
Cupressus and Laurel injured by salt 

winds, 144 
Currant, black, crossed with red, 442 



Currant mite, black, 439 

Currant mite in Cambridgeshire, 464 

Cyclam»n, seedling, 698 ; seed, vitality 
of, 241 

Cymbidium Lowiannm, 463 

Cypripedium Annie Measures, 657 ; 
C. Boxalli, varieties, 36; C. conco- 
Lawre, 527 ; C. Godetroysa leuco- 
chilum, 717, 815; C. Haynaldianum, 
with divided lower sepals, 519 ; C. 
Klotzachianum, 625; C. Lawrebel X 
Lawrenceanum,527; a dimerous, 780; 
C. Mastersianum. 593; C. Poyntz- 
ianum, 36; C. Ssdeni x, var. can- 
didulum, 231 ; C. seedlings, 654 ; 
C. selligerum majusX, 231; C. su- 
perbiens, 463; C, three stamens in 
a, 172 ; C. X Winniannm, 590 

Cypripediums at Stand Hall, 199 ; in 
the Orchidojihile, 716 

Cyrtanthus anguBtifolius, 473 

Cytisus biflorus, 570 



Daffodil, a late-flowering, 473, 570; 
D. Sir Watkin, 407, 442 

Daffodils, basal rot in. 379. 558. 625 ; 
the green in, 377, 442, 474 

Dam pier, Captain, as a botanist, 429, 
464 

Daohue Blagayana, 276 . D. Genkwa, 
277; D. Mezereum, 242; D. rupes- 
tris, 637 

Davallia Mooreana, 332 

Davenham Bank, Malvern, Grapes at, 
732 

Death Valley, California, botany of, 
555 

Dandrobium atro-violaceum, 112; D. 
chrysanthum, 564; formosum gi- 
ganteum, 654; D. Davoniauum, 
495 ; D. glomeratum, 653 ; D. no- 
bile and a Potato, 136 ; D. n. var. 
Cooksoni, 439 ; D. n. pulcherrimum, 
410; D. n, varieties of, 265; D. 
Phalsenopsis Schroderianum, 231, 
3-8, 370; D. Wardianum, a mon- 
ster, 496 

Darmatobotrya Saundersii, 18 

Dea'zia gracilis, 593 

Dimerous Cypripedium Lawrence- 
anum, 780 

Dimorphanthus mandshuricua, 82 

Divers, Mr. and Mrs., presentation to, 
206 

Dodders, the, 266 

Doronicum plantagineum excelsum, 
591 

Dracaana thalioides, 137 

Dracophyllum gracile, the culture of, 
600 

Drainage water, 567 

Dropmore in spring, 598 

Droaophyllum lusitanicum, 592 

Drugs, the adulteration of, 438; vege- 
table, 721 

Drummond, the late Mr. W. C, 17 

Dry-rot in a wooden horse, 143 

Dulwich Park, 535 

Duroline, 143 



Earl's Court, the late exhibition at, 

308 
Edinburgh Botanic Gardens, 636 
Eelworm8 and vegetation, 372 
Egypt, gardening in, 651 
Egyptian garden at Christmas, an, 10 
Elder, golden, 178 
Electric light in gardens, 143 
Elmet Hall, Lsseda, 533 568 
Emigration prospects, 46 
Epacris, the, 408 
Epilobium latifolium. 10 
Epping Forest, 564, 600 
Epping Forest, the committee's repo:t 

on, 807, 812 
Eranthis hyemalis, 199 
Eric* ChamisBonis, 720; E. codonodes, 

505 



Eriostemons, the culture of, 232 
Erythronium Dens canis vars., 431 ; 

the speciea of, 620 
Escallonia punctata, 720 
Eucalyptus, hardiness of, 207 
Eucharis, erandiflora, successfully 

treated, 208 ; hybrid, 143 
Eucryphia pinnatifolia, 108, 140 
Eugenia polypetala, 636 
Eulophiella Elisabethte 370 
Eupatorium ianthinum. 592 
Exacum macranthum, 331 
Examinations in horticulture, 436, 533 
Exhibition of 1866, International 

Horticultural, 21, 48 
Exhibits, the relative value of, 177, 

536, 601, 632, 699, 759. 789 
Exochorda grandiflora, 400, 568 
Explosion at Messrs. Vilmorin, 

Andrieux & Co., 207 



Fatsia japonica, 752 

Fernery, a British, 587, 747 

Ferns, filmy, 239 ; culture of, 331 

Fertilisation of the Bircb, 788 

Fig culture, notes, on, 432; trees in 
narrow borders, 464 

Fmdlay, Mr. Bruce, presentation to, 
633 

Finnochio, 279 

Finsbury Park, a new conservatory at, 
439 

Florida and fiction, 815 

Flower garden, the, 13, 41, 74, 107, 
)38, 170, 203, 234, 269, 303, 336, 
371. 403, 435, 467. 499, '530. 563, 
595, 623, 658, 690, 722, 753, 785, 811 

Flower seller, a Japanese, 9 ; trade in 
south-east France, 136 

Flowera, artificial colouring of, 82 

Flowers from France. 101 

Flowers in glass, 702 

Flowera, atemming and wiring, 6S6 

Fly, green, death to, 527 

Fly in greenhouaea, 375 

Footpaths in gardena, 505 ; safe, 374 

Forest plantations, thinning native, 
112 

Forestry, 170, 402, 656, 783 

Forestry, commercial aspect of, 300 

Forestry, conflicting schools of, 277, 
508; Highland Society's examina- 
tion in, 442 

Forsythiaa, the, 477 

Fowl'a-dung as a dressing for Vines, 
571 

France, the trade in flowers in, 101, 
136 

Frost on Tea Rosea, the effect of, 731 ; 
aevere, in Ireland, 82 

Frosts, the late, 699, 730 

Fruit and flower industries in Cam- 
bridgeshire, 623 

Fruit blossom at Coombe Abbey, 717 

Fruit, Californian competition in, 400; 
Colonial, 502 ; crops and the frost, 
759 ; culture for profit, 541 ; from 
the Cape. 406; growing, small, 406; 
judging, 760 ; prospects, 500, 815 ; in 
Kent, 731 ; iu Scotland, 377 ; in the 
South, 698; show and conference at 
Worcester, 788 ; show, proposed 
autumn, 404 ; the great, 436 

Fruit show at the Crystal Palace, the 
coming, 812 

Fruit trees blooming on the young 
wood, 536 ; the pruning of newly- 
planted, 631, 691 

Fruits, analysis of Californian, 591 ; 
the growth of, 111 

Fruits under glass. 13, 41, 75, 107, 
139, 171, 202, 235. 269, 303, 337, 
370, 402, 435, 466. 499, 530, 563, 
594, 626, 658, 690 723, 754, 784, 810 

Fuchsia, a hybrid, 238 

Fulham, soma rare old trees at, 338 

Fungus kingdom, the, 298 334 



Gaillardias, 275 
GalanthuB FoBteri, 199 



Galanthuaea, 145 

Garden produce, current low prices of, 

505 
Gardenia canker, 605 
Gardenia8, the culture of, 465 
Gardening as a profession, 622, 697 
Gardening periodicals, &c, list of, 51 
Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institu- 
tion, 45, 76, 340; annual dinner of 
the, 813 
Gardens, continuation school, 789 
Gardiner, Mr. W., retirement of, 17 
Garrya elliptica, 137, 442 
Genista elegans. 568; G. scoparia var. 

Andreana, 760 
Gentiana acaulis at Wisley, 236 
Gibson teatimonial fund, 5t>7 
Gilbert, Sir J. H., pre8entation to, 270 ; 

the lectures of, 206 
Glasgow, Chrysanthemum Society for, 

46,82 
Gooseberry Bawfly, 174 
Gourd, a new, 340 
Graft hybrids, 727 
Grange, the, Charlcombe, 782 
Grape-growing, 730 
Grapes, shanking of, 20 145, 176 
Grass-land, manuring, 497 
Greenhouse flowers at Kew, 398 
Greenhouse plants, hard-wooded, 40, 
232, 408, 494, 558. 600, 788 



H 



Hampton Court Gardens, 566 ; Poly- 
anthuses at, 174 

Hardy Fruit Garden, 12. 42, 74, 106, 
139, 170, 203, 234, 268. 302, 336, 
371, 402, 434. 467. 499, 531. 562, 
594, 627, 658, 690, 723, 755, 785, 811 

Heather edging for beds, 241 

Hepaticas at Kew, 366 

Herbaceous border, 688 753 

Herbs, 379 

Hesperis matronalis alba plena, 753 

Highbury, Orchids at, 329 

Hippeastrum, the, 50 

Hippocastanum californicum, 398 

" Hollyhock, heavily hangs the," 760 

Hollyhock, the, 50 

Horticultural Club, 110, 236, 373, 501, 
628, 786 

Horticultural teaching, 142 

Horticulture in the Caucasus, 397; 
organiaation in, 532 

Hyacinth diaeaaes, 592 ; enow at Haar- 
lem, 340 

Hybridisation in Narciasus, 463 505 

Hybrid8, natural and artificial. 110 

Hydrangea Thomaa Hogg, 566 

Hydrangeas on single Bteni9, 693 



Iberis correaafolia, 753 

Iggulden, Mr,, presentation to, 694 

Imports of vegetables &c , 375 

Insecticide, a good, 760 

Instruction in agriculture in Ireland, 
727 

Inula glanduloaa, 753 

Ireland, proposed department of agri- 
culture for, 373 

Iris alata, 166 ; disease, 718 

Irises, early, 209 

l80chilua linearis, 104 

Ivy, as an ornamental fence, 275 



Japan, an ancient Pine in, 366 

Japanese flower seller, a, 9 ; horticul- 
tural literature, 69 ; Pine tree, 
trained, to represent a junk, 140 

Java, Araucarin, Bidwillii in, 465 

Jerez and its Vines, 683 

Jerusalem, the Orange Colocynth and 
Olive wood in, 688 



The Gardeuers' Chronicle,] 



INDEX. 



[June 30, 1894. 



Juniper berries, 17 
Janiperus virginiana forest, 340 
Junk, Pine tree trained to represent 
a, 140 



K 



Kew Gabdens, 534 ; the popular side 
of, 5 

Kew note*,. 18, 144, 198, 267, 366, 39S, 
472, 568, 590, 655 

Kitchen earden, tbe. 12. 41. 75, 107, 
139, 170, 203, 235, 269 303, 336, 
370, 403. 434. 407, 499, 5*1, 563, 
595, 657, 659, 691, 722, 754, 785, 811 

Knife v. secateur, 442 



Labels, garden, 176 ; permanent, 275, 

342 
Lachenalia Nelsoni, 472 
Lachenalias at Hedsor Park, 377 
Laeken, conservatory chapel at, 662 
Lselia, a fine hybrid, 747 
Lselia albida Stobartiana, 36 ; L, 

anceps and its varieties, 717 ; L. 

a., a white, 172; L. a. var. Ash- 

worthiana, 103 ; L. a. vestalis, 168 ; 

L. elegans Weathersiana, 82 ; L. 

grandis, 747 ; L. crandis tenebrosa, 

495; L. majalis, 717; L. purpurara, 

Clark's var., 653 ; L. tenebrosa, 687 ; 

L. tenebrosa, peloria in, 780 
Laalio-CattleyaX Frederick Boyle, 809 
Lagerstrcemia Flos Reginae, 76 
Lagerstrcemia in Brazil, 138 
Lagerstrcemia indica, 536 
Langwater, Mass., U.S.A., Orchids at, 

508 
Lapagerias, double - flowered, 788 ; 

failure of, 601 
Larch disease, 307, 718 
Larch, quick growth of, 697, 759 
Lathyrus violaceus, 398 
Lawes, Sir J. B., presentation to, 270 

Law NOTES :— Gongh v. Wood & Co., 
309; Queen v. Dennis, 701; Lem- 
mon v. Webb, 636 ; Trade fixtures, 
removal of, 309 ; Walnuts case, 701 

Lemna gibba, flowers of, 308 

Lemoine, M., and the Legion of 
Honour, 534 

Lemon-growing in New South Wales, 
178 

Lendy, the late Captain, 110 

Lent, lagging, 377 

Leptactinia Manni, 18 

Leucadendron argenteum, 572, 698, 701 

Libraries, public, and Horticultural 
works, 16 

Light, and animal coloration, 137 

Light, artificial, and seeds, 145 

Lilacs, varieties of, 593 

Linden, Jean, aB a botanist, 599 as a 
botanical collector, 401 

Lindley Library and the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society, 307, 340-342, 760, 
789 

Lissochilus Krebsii, 463 

Literature, Japanese Horticultural, 69 

Lithospermum prostratum, 590 

London markets, 404 

Lourya campanulata. 273 

Ljcaste Skinneri, 104 



M 

Magnesium light and plants, 20 
Magnolia conspicua, 504; M. Lennei, 

570; M. purpurea, 504 
Maize, 176; the origin of, 142 
Manna in Sicily, collection of, 17 
Manure for Potatos, 173 ; oyster shells, 

as, 503 ; for meadows, 308, 342 
Manures, tbe distribution of, 619 



Manuring grass-land, 441, 497; the 
relative value of plants for green, 
i37 

Margam Abbey, notes from, 134 

Margaret Meen, 241 

Market gardening, a profession for our 
sons, 133, 200, 332, 462, 556 

Market Gardeners' Compensation Bill, 
692 

Markets for London, 404 

Markets, provincial, 114 

Marseilles, oil seeds at, 782 

Martinet, M„ 566 

Masdevallia Courtauldiana X, 590; M. 
Geleniana x, 590; M. Measures- 
iana X, 590 

Matting, Chinese and Japanese, 41 

Mauldslie Castle, Lanarkshire, 114 

May, the cold weather in, 730 

Mcintosh, Chas., the late, 241 

Mcintosh, the home of James, 201 

Mealy bug and its destruction, 724 

Medinilla magnifica, 472 

Megasea Stracheyi, 688 

Megaseas, Mr. Harrison Weir's, 557 

Melbourne, Azaleas in the Botanic 
Gardens at, 340 

Melianthus msjor flowering, 240, 274 

Memorial gardens, 566 ; trees, 628 ; 
at Sulhampstead, 790 

Metropolitan Public Gardens Associa- 
tion, 338 

Mignonette for winter, 781 

Milanji, plants of, 752 

Mildew, downy, on Vines, 689 

Miltonia festiva, 716 

Mimuluses, 701 

Misleto propagation, 605 

Moncrieff House, Rose fence at, 697 

Moore, Mr. F. W., 471 

Mooseland and Muskegs, 790 

Morris, Dr., 813 

Mosses and lichens on trees, 208 

Musa Cavendishii at Parkfield, 340 

Mushroom growing, 376 

Mushrooms in queer places, 759 ; varie- 
ties of, 788 



N 



Nanodes Medusas, 780 

Nant-y-Glyn, Yucca gloriosa at, 340 

Napoleona imperalis, 690 

Narcissi at Kew, 366 

Narcissus, hybridisation in, 468 ; a 

hybrid, 332, 443 
Narcissus, an extra crop of Poet's, 505 ; 

at Kew, 398 ; poeticus var. prsecox, 

39S 
Natal, the weather iD, 661 
National Footpath Preservation So- 
ciety, 237 
Nematus ribesii, 174 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, public narks at, 

748, 814 ; planting of the Town 

Moor at, 238 
New South Wales, gardeners in, 566 
New York Agricultural Experiment 

Station, 374 
New Zealand hospital, a, 302 
Normandy, fruits and flowers in, 598 
Norway, gardening, 80 ; notes on, 79, 

276. 309 
Nova Scotia, 813 
Novelties of 1893, 7, 36, 72 
Nurseryman, the, 720 

NURSERY NOTES: — Backhouse, H, 
& Co.. 310; Balchin, W. & Sons, 
765; Barr. P. & Sons, 444; Bull, 
Mr. W., 696; Cannell, H. & Sons, 
696 ; Cave, Mr. A. E„ 376 ; Charles- 
worth, Sbuttleworth & Co., 444 ; 
Douglas, Mr. J., 406 ; Icatou, Mr. 
W.. 497 ; James, W. J., Woodside, 
114; Jones. H. J., 335; Ker, R. P. 
& Sons, 441 ; L'Horticulture Inter- 
nationale, Brussels, 528 ; Laing, J. 
& Sons, 335, 561 ; Mount, Mr. G., 
624; St. George's Nursery Co., 335 ; 
Veitcb, J. & Sons, 375, 473, 732; 
Waterer, Anthony, 560 ; Williams, 
B. S. & Son, 144, 496 

Nursery and Seed Trade Association, 
annual meeting of, 700 



Nut crops in the Trebizond, 598 
Nuttallia cerasiformis. 242 
Nuytsia floribunda, 473 
Njmpboea gigantea, 205, 237 
Nymphaeas, hybrid, 103 



Oak and Ash plantations, 535 

Oak bark season, the. 656 

Oak, the evergreen, 177 ; the Lucombe, 

and seed sowing, 113 
Oakwood, flowering trees and shrubs 

at, 600 ; Orchids at, 229 

OBITUARY:— Brown, James, 310 
Carmichael. Charles, A. M., 346 
Chapman, J. C, 115; Evershed, H. 
411 ; Hardy, Geo., 411 ; Ingram 
William, 50 ; Lobb, Thomas, 636 
Lovell, Jno., 278; Macmillan, Ro 
bert, 85; Maddern, Geo., 346; Row. 
lands, W„ 115; Rust, Joseph, 573 
Smith, Henry, 411 ; Spruce, Richard 
21; Truelove, W„ 84; Webb 
Henry, 411; Weir, Jno. Jenner, 411 
Whittaker, Joseph, 379; Williams 
W. H, 84 

Odontoglossum cordatum aureum 
810 ; O. coronarium, 747 ; O 
crinitum, 36; O. crispum, 462 
O. c. var. apiatum, 375 ; O. elegans 
Sander's variety, 441 ; O. Krameri 
albidum, 71; O, Pescatorei, 202. 
O. pulcbellum majua, 400 ; O. Rossi 
majus, 21 

Oil seeds at Marseilles, 782 

Omar Khayyam, Rose of, 746 

Oncidium ampliatutn majus, 370 ; O. 
macranthum, 462; O. pulchellum, 
104 

Onion crop in 1893, 168 ; maggot, the 
208, 630; the, as a perennial, 790 

Onion, the Potato-, 11 

Orange tree, a large, 179 

Oranges, Suntara, 406 

Orchard-houses, &c, 777 

Orchards and rosaries, south and west, 
745 

Orchid cultivation in England and in 
Belgium, 41 

Orchid-houses, the. 13, 42, 75, 106, 
138, 171, 203, 233, 268, 302, 336, 
370, 403, 434, 466. 498 530. 562, 
594, 626, 658, 691, 722, 755,784, 810 

Orchid roots, 748 

Orchids at Clare Lawn, 266, 496 ; at 
Dr. Capart's, Brussels. 504 ; at High- 
bury, 329 ; at Kew, 366; at Lang- 
water, Mass., U.S.A., 508; at Mr. 
Cookson's, 266 ; at Northchurch, 
Berkhamsted, 556 ; at Oakwood, 
229 ; at Parkfield, 329, 747, 589 ; at 
Pickering Lodge, 536 ; at Sunning- 
dale Park, 590; at the Botanical 
Gardens, Birmingham, 265 ; at the 
"Vineyard Nurseries, Garaton, 340 ; 
at Trent Park, 622 ; at Tyntesfield, 
71 ; at Utrecht, 178 ; easily grown, 
165; from Mr. W. M. Aopleton, 
622; hardy terrestrial, 461, 496; 
new, at M. Ch. Vuylsteke's, 110; 
noteworthy, of 1894. 7 ; Sale at 
Pickering Lodge, 598, 629; South 
African, 71; special, of 1893. ..36 

Ornithochilus fuscus, 655 

Orphan Fund, Royal Gardeners', 18. 
140, 204, 43S, 534, 564, 628, 631 

Ortgies, Ed., jubilee of, as a gardener, 
306 

Osborne, memorial trees at, 21 

O wner and tenant occupant, 402 

Oxygen, vegetable life, and, 278 

Oxford Botanic Garden, 725 



Packing material, the new continental 

790 
Palumbina Candida, 810 
Panax quinquefolia, 655 



Pansies, a painting of, 143 

Pansy, the, 780 

Papaver umbrosum, 758 

Parkfield, Orchids at, 590 

Park Place Gardens, Henley - on - 

Thames, 728 
Parks, a pocket lexicon for the, 406 ; 

public, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 748 
Passiflora alata, 18 
Pasture, preparing in allotment for 

permanent, 506 
Paulownia imperialis, 629, 631 
Pavia macrostachya at Coombe Wood, 

45 
Peas, good early, 570 ; Chelsea Gem, 

601 ; Sutton'fl Me.v Queen, 791 ; 

early, 146, 626, 699, 730; main 

crop, 74 ; in trenches, growing, 177, 

178, 275 ; methods of sowing, 208 ; 

sown in pots, and planted out, 147 
Peach-buds dropping. 169, 208, 275, 

377, 407, 441, 442, 505 
Peach culture, a failure in, 631 
Peaches on the open wall, 633 
Pear blossom to set, failure of. 570 
Pear crop in Kent, 1893. ..105; scab, 

and the Bordeaux Mixture, 567 ; 

the Jargonelle, as a pictorial tree, 

505 
Pears in 1893, 136 ; market, 570 
Peckham Rye Park, opening of, 629 
Pelargoniums, zonal, winter-flowering, 

105 
Peloria in Lselia tenebrosa. 780 
Pendell Court Gardens, 632 
Penllergare, 10 

Pentstemon Menziesii Scouleri, 760 
Perfume in flowers, the production of, 

438 
Periodicals, list of gardening, 51 
Peronospora viticola on Vine, 689 
Peziza Willkommii, 307 
Phaius Blumei var. asaamicns, 202 ; 

P. Owenianusx, 783 
Phalsenopsis at home, the, 299 ; P. 

Aphrodite, a remarkable spike of, 

237; P. Schilleriana purpurea, 266 ; 

P. tetraspis, 655 
Phlox S. F. Wilson, 535, 601; P. 

lilacina, 630 ; P. the dwarf, 631 
Phoenix canadensis, 404 
Phormium tenax in Cornwall, 814 
Phrynium sanguineum, 400 
Phyllocactus, the culture of, 688 
Phylloxera laws, 308 
Physianthus graveolens, 731 
Picea ajanensis, 6t»7 
Pickering Lodge, Orchids at, 536 
Picotees, 105 

Pillmen in the pillory, 724 
Pimeleas, the culture of, 40 
Pine, an ancient, at Karasaki, 368 
Pink Society, a proposed, 377 
Pink, the Chinese, 75S ; the florists, 

780 
Pinus insignia, 21, 82, 144, 177 ; P., aud 

ornamental planting, 76 ; P. Monte- 

zumod, 273 
Pithecolobium unguiscatum, 10 
Plantations of Oak and Ash, 506, 535, 

601 ; thinning, 170, 783 
Plant nomenclature, confusion in, 730 

Plant Portraits:— Abeiiatriflora, 
727 ; Adiantum Clsesii, 727 ; ^Eschy- 
nanthus obconica, 16 ; Aerides 
Lawrenceas, 174 ; Aganisia lepida, 
79 ; Allamanda Hendersoni, 567 ; 
Amorphophallus Elliottii, 501 ; 
Anthurium Leon Radziwiil, 18; A. 
Princess Lise Radziwill, 18; Apple 
Ben Davis, 727 ; A. Count OrlofT, 
79 ; Ari8toloehia tricaudata, 174 ; 
Azalea indica, 727 ; Barringtonia 
samoensis, 173 ; Begonia scabrida, 
501 ; Berberis Fremonti, 79 ; Big- 
nonia venusta, 567 ; Bougainvillea 
glabra, Sander's variety, 727 ; 
Braaaia Lawrenceana, 727 ; Bud- 
dleia Colvillei, 727; Calochortus 
amcanus, 727 ; Campanula excisa, 
757; Canna Queen Charlotte, 375; 
Caraguata conifera, 757 ; Carnation 
Pride of Britain, 174 ; Cataeetum 
atratum, 79 ; C. Imachootianum, 
174; Cattleya Acklandise var. Sal- 



VI The Gardeners' Chronicle,] 



INDEX. 



[June 30, 1894. 



monea, 79 ; C. Eldorado Tar. 
Treyeranas, 174; C. Lord Roths- 
child, 567; C. Rex, 727; Cercidi- 
phyUum japonieum, ; Chrysan- 

themum Mdlle. Marie Cordonnier, 
567 ; Chysis bractesceos, 727 ; 
Clematis graveolens, 567 ; Ccelogyne 
caprea, IS ; Cordvline lineata var. 
purpurascens, 375 ; Cypripedium 
Adrastus, 727 ; C. Aphrodite, 273 ; 
C. Claadii x , 79 ; C. X fasciaatam, 
174 ; C. insigne Sanderas, 273 ; 
C. lo grande, 273; C. Latbamia- 
num X, 79; C. phillipinense, 174; 
C. Roebelina, 18; C. callosum San- 
deras, 727; C. superbiens, 471; C. 
Weathersianum, 79; C. Winifred 
Hollington, 568; JJendrobinm atro- 
violaceum, 273; D. Devonianum, 
471 ; D. Earyalus, 727 ; D. sphegidi- 
glossum, 18 ; Dyckia Desmetiana, 
173; Echinops ruthenicns, 375; 
Easagnus multiflora, 173; Epiden- 
drnm Elliai, 727; Eranthemum An- 
dersoni, 79 ; Erica verticillata, 375 ; 
Eri08temon densifolium, 727; E. liui- 
folium, 727 ; Erythroxylon coca, 16; 
Eacharis Lowii, 727 ; Ealopbiella 
Elisabethas. 18 ; Eulophia Warburg- 
iana,18; Gardenia Stanleyana, 174; 
Genm reptans. 568 ; Gladiolus oppo- 
aitiflorus, 727; Gynerium saccha- 
roides, 596; Helianthus lastiflorus, 
727 ; Pnolidota seequitorta, 18 ; Hil- 
lia petrandra, 596; Hippeaatrum bra- 
chyandrum,338; Hydnophytum lou- 
giflorum, 338 ; Incarvillea Delavayi, 
79 ; Ipomasa ternata Briggsii, 174 ; 
Iris Helenas, 568; Kalanchoe mar- 
morata, 16 ; Lachenalia aurea gigan- 
tea, 273 ; Lasliaanceps Schroderiana, 
79 ; L. grandiB tenebrosa, 471 ; 
Lilium Lowi, 471; L. speciosum 
'Opal," 273; Listostrachys Met- 
tenias, 18 ; Linaria macedonica, 
306; Lonicera aemperBorens, 568; 
Lowia maxillarioides, 502 ; Luisia 
Griffithii, 18 ; Mamillaria barbata, 
375 ; Maranta Fascinator, 568 ; M. 
majestica. 174 ; Maadevallia Chi- 
mera, 306 ; Maxillaria longipes, 18 ; 
M. Btriata, 79; Melittis melisBO- 
phyllum, 79; Mertensia virginica, 
375; Muscan botryoides, 18; Nar- 
cissus Weardale Perfection, 568; 
Nectarine Early Rivers, 727 ; Nerine 
excellens, 79; Nidularinin innocenti, 
568; Nymphasa Marliaceacarnea,79; 
Odontoglossum prionopetalnm, 7^; 
Oncidium macranthum, 471 ; 0. 
sarcodes, 79 ; Osteomeles anthylli- 
difolia, 568, 596; Pasonia Emodi, 
174; Pear Alphand, 568; P. Benrre" 
Clairgeau, 375 ; P. Fertility, 375 ; 
P. King Charles of Wurtemburg, 
174 ; P. Premicesde Marie Lesueur, 
375 ; Pelargonium Drummondii, 
338 ; Pentarhaphia longiflora, 173 ; 
Phaiua Cooksoni x, 79; Pleuro- 
thallis gelida, 18 ; P. Kiefersteini- 
ana, 18 ; P. Roezlii, 79 ; Phyllaga- 
tbia hirsuta, 375 ; Porphyroeoma 
lanceolata, 375; Prunushumilis, 16; 
P. orthosepala, 727; Ptychosperma 
elegans. 338 ; Ranunculus cortusas- 
foliua,306; Rodreguezia Lehmannii, 
18; Rhododendron irroratum, 757; 
Saccolabium Wendlandianum, 18; 
Saintpaulia ionantha, 727 ; Sanse- 
viera Kirkii, 757; Sarraeenia vario- 
laris, 174; Sesbania punicea, 596; 
Sobralia xantholeuca, 16; Solanum 
muticum, 568; Sonerila orientalis 
Robert Sallier, 375; Spirasa Anthony 
Waterer,727; Strawberry The Czar, 
568;Strept'icarpusDunnii,727; Stro- 
bilanthea Dyerianus, 727; Tigridia 
lilucfa, 568; Tephrosia macrantha, 
727; Thornsonia nepalensis, 338; 
Thunbergia Harrisii. 568 ; Tricho- 
pilia Hymenantha, 79; T. Kienasti- 
ana, 18; Trichopus z^ylanicus. 502; 
Trillium grandiflorum, 306 ; Vanda 
teres Andersoni, 79; Veronica ano- 
mala, 757; V. cunresaoides, 601; 
V. lycopodioides, 173 ; Vigna Btro- 



bilophora t 727 ; Zygopetalum Wailes- 
ianum, 727 

Plants, new of 1893 ...7 

Plants, New and Noteworthy, 

Describbd : — Aloe heteracantha, 
620; A. striata, 5S8; Angrascum 
Fournierianum, 808 ; Autholyza 
Scuweinfurthii, 5S8 ; Aeplenium 
barbadense, 134 ; A. Guildingii, 70 ; 
Aspidiumnemoroaum, 134 ; Berberis 
Fremonti, 70; Bolbophyllum Hook- 
erianum, 685 ; Brachychilum Hors- 
fieldii, 652 ; Cattleya X Arthuriana, 
102; Cypripedium X Anton Joly, 
198; C. X Gravesias, 298 ; C.xMme. 
Jules Hye, 198 ; C. x Pandora, 230 ; 
C. x trlumphans, 198 ; Cyrtanthus 
O'Brienii, 716 ; Cyrtopera papillosa, 
166 ; Dendrobium x Ainsworthii, 
Cypher's variety, 660; D. atro-vio- 
laceum, 112; D. Augustas Victorias, 
374 ; D. crepidatum, Tring Park 
variety, 620 ; D. Wardianum pic- 
turn, 298; Gazania bracteata, 620 ; 
Gmelina hystrix, 746 ; Grammato- 
phyllum Gulielmi secundi, 374; 
Impatiens auricoma, 556; Laslia 
anceps var. Ashworthiana, 103; 
L. a. Hollidayana, 166 ; Las io- 
Cattleya x Pittiana, 264 ; L -C. x 
the Hon. Mrs. Aator, 230; Maxil- 
laria Sanderiana var. Fuerstenbergi- 
ans, 526; Megaclioium nummulana, 
685; Miltonia x Bleuana nobilior, 
366; Musa aurantiaca, 102: Mf- 
rosma nana, 652; Masdevallia nu- 
ailla, 166; Narcissus TrimoD, 230; 
Nephrodium baai attenuatum, 330; 
N. bibrachiatum, 230; N. grana- 
dense, 198 ; N. mmoatum, 264; 
Oncidium Sanderianum, 166 ; Phyl- 
lanthus (?) elongatus, 526 ; Pleuro- 
thallia maculata, 166 ; P. pergra- 
cilis, 166 ; P. nnistriata, 166 ; Poly- 
podium grenadense, 134; Polysta- 
chya Buchanani, 166 ; Prunus Wat- 
soni, 588; Ptychococcus paradoxus, 
526 ; Rhododendron Maddeni, var. 
longiflora, 684; R. Schlippenbachii, 
462; Saxifraga apiculata, 556; 
Scaphosepalum microdactylum, 166 ; 
Sobralia pumila, 166; Spirasa brac- 
teata, 746 ; Stenospermatium mul- 
tiovulatum, 684; Todea Moorei,526 ; 
Trichocentrum albiflorum, 166; 
Trichomanes fruticulosum, 71 ; Tro- 
chodendron aralioides, 716; Tulipa 
Sprengeri, 716 ; Vanda tricolor 
Lewisii, 494 ; Vitis Coignetias, 8 ; 
Weldenia Candida, 534 ; Widdring- 
tonia Whytei, 746 

Plants, new or noteworthy, at Geneva, 

778 
Plants under glass, 12, 42, 74, 107, 

139, 171, 202, 234, 268, 302, 337, 

371, 402, 434, 466, 498, 529, 562, 

595, 627, 659, 691, 723, 754, 784, 

810 
Plowright, lecture by Professor, 298, 

334 
Plum Reine Clande, 17 
Plum trade in Bosnia, 278 
Plums blooming on the young wood, 

377 
Poinciana Gilliesii, 72, 144 
Poisoning from American Apples, the 

alleged, 341 
Poisonous Apples, 270 
Pollen, the coloration of, 180 
Polyanthus Border Maid, 654; the 

gold-laced, 560 
Polygonum Bachalinense, the culture 

of, 198, 208, 630, 726 
Pomegranate tree, out-of-doors, 241 ; 

pruning of the, 208 
Post OHice and rural industries, o41 ; 

sagacity, 788 
Potato culture, 233, 432, 506 
Potato crop, the, 730 
Potato disease,727, 786; Potato-Onion, 

the, 11, 22, 279; se;s cut v. whole, 

145 
Potatos, 536; coloured, 699, 791 



earh, 730, 789 ; frosted, 760 ; manure 

for,173 
Pothos fi.-xaosus, differing leaves of, 

526 
Press Congress, first International, 

237 
Primroses, Mr. Wilson's blue, 474 
Privet, the new Golden, 720 
Prostanthera lasianthoa, 720 
Protea cjnaroides, 591 
Pruning newly-planted Apple trees, 

341, 731 
Prunus Davidiana, 277 ; P. divaricata 

at Kew, 398 
Psychotria jasminiflora, 592 
Pceris ludens, 786 
Palmonaria saccharata, 760 
Pyrus japonica as a hrdge plant, 720 ; 

P. Maulei, 752 



Rain on plants, effect of, 142 

Raleigh and hia introductions, 436 

Ranunculus aconitifolius, fl.-pl., 689; 
R. acris, and skin irritation, 598 ; 
R. canus, 399 ; R. cortnsasfolius, 
636; R. Lyalli, 629 

Raspberry-moth, the, 661 

Recreation grounds at Bedford and 
Willesden, 341 

Renanthera coccinea in bloom, 272 

Reunion, Vanilla in, 272 

Rhapis humilis, 529 

Rhododendron carnpaoulatum, 570; 
R. jasminiflorum roseum, 720; R. 
prascox, 242; R. Princess Wm. of 
Wurtemburg, 596 

Rhododendron show on the Embink- 
ment, 788 

Rhododendrons, 637 

Richardia, a red-apathed, 701 ; R. 
Pentlandii, 590 

R'chardias for profit, 631 ; in the 
Tranavaal, 178 

Riley's, Professor, retirement, 693 

Riviera, the past winter in the, 534 

Rockville, Ferns at, 697 

Rodgersia podophylla, 400 

Roella ciliata, culture of, 558 

Roots of Orchids, the, 748 

Rosary, the, 38, 752 

Rose, Augustine Guinoisseau, 300; 
fixtures for 1894, 757 ; garden in 
April, the, 463 ; the, 715 

Rose of Omar Khayyam, 746 

Rose notes, 700 ; prospects, 601 ; Rove 
d'Or, 753; season, the coming, 559; 
show fixtures, 305, 372. 438 

Roses, after the winter, 329 ; and the 
National Society, 143; climbing, 
under glass, 367; hybrid perpetual 
and Tea, 168 ; in Scotland, 637 ; 
pruning, 300 ; selection of Tea, 656 ; 
stocks and soils for, 300 ; synony- 
mous, and the National Society, 
238 ; Tea, a selection of 592 ; the 
longevity and toughness of, 731 

Roupellia grata, 591 

Royal Horticultural Society, 172, 204 

Royal Horticultural Society's exami- 
nations, 533 

Rubua deliciosus, 720 

Rust in Wheat, 732 

Rust, Mr., retirement of, 17 



Salfoed pnblic paiks, 47 
Sander, presentation tn Miss, 78 
Saponaria ocymoides, 753 
Saxifraga apiculata cordifolia, 591 ; 

S. luteo - purpurea, 267, 342; S. 

oppositifolia, vars., 267 ; S. Stracheyi, 

760 
Seal" insect, a new, 506 
Schizostylis coccinea, .S2 
School gardens, continuation, 759, 789 

Scientific Committee: Alterna- 
ting gcneratiim, 634 ; American 
blight, &c, 241, 378, Aquilegia 



Stuartii, 634 ; Ash, coccid on, 
572 ; Asparagus fasciated, 792 ; 
A/, ileus, diseased, 443 ; Beetle 
attacking Orchids, 378 ; Camellias, 
Azaleas, &c, diseased, 378 ; Cedar 
of Goa, 378 ; Coryanthes Wolfii, 634 
Crinum capense, 634; Cypripedium 
with three lips, 572 ; Daffodil can 
do, what a, 506, Daffodils, basal rot 
in, 241 ; " Droppers " in Snowdrops, 
792; Earwigs, 443; Hawthorn, 
precocious flowering of, 572 ; Horse- 
Chestnuts, cankered, 792 ; Iris 
iberica, 634 ; Ivies, 378 ; Juniper, 
the Bermuda, 507; Lilium candi- 
dum diseased, 792; Lily leaves 
diseased, 572 ; Monstrosities in 
Calceolarias, 7rf2; Narcissus, varie- 
gation iD, 507 ; Oranges absorb- 
ing of odoriferous vapours, 572; 
Oranges, Suntara and other, 506; 
Orchid tnber, leafy shoots from the 
base of an, 506 ; Pear, exfoliated 
bark in, 378; Pears, damaged by 
frost, 792 ; Photos from the Trans- 
vaal, 792 ; Polygonum leaves marked 
by frost, 792 ; Potato and sulphate 
of copper, 241 ; Primroses, " blue," 
378 ; Primula capitata, the decay of, 
241 ; Rhododendrons and Gaul- 
therias, injuries to leaves of, 634; 
R. from Sikkim, 634 ; R. Himalayan, 
443; Root-galls, 378; Saxifragaluteo- 
parpurea (apiculata), 443, 506; 
Subterranean shoots, 443 ; Tri- 
folium subterraneum, 792 ; tubers, 
edible, 241 ; Tulip, abnormal. 443 ; 
Weir, Mr. Jenner, the late, 443, 506 ; 
Xyleborus morigerus, 378 

Scilla and Chionodoxa, disease of, 463 
Scilly, the flower trade o f , 502 
Scoliopus Bigelowi, 241, 267 
Scolopendrium vulgare, aposporou 1 , 

652 
Scotland, shrubs and Rhododendrons 

flowering in, 567 
Seakale, 336 ; sutuoitutes for, 309, 441 ; 

early, 209 
Season in Switzerland, th?, 21 
Seed trade, the, 71 

Seeds, and artificial light, 145, 176; ger- 
mination of old, 406; vitality of, 

470 ; the demand for, 534 
Selenipedium X grande var. atratum, 

692; S. X pulchellum, 104; S. Sar- 

gentianum, 781 
Senecio doronicum, 689 ; S. grandi- 

folius, 267 ; S. sagittifolius, 535, 590 
Shamrock, 439 
Shanking of Grapes, 145, 176 
Shortia galaci folia, 400 
Shows and garden charities, 49 
Shows, marking entry cards at, 789 
Shrubs, early flowering, Mr. Paul on, 

493 
Sibthorpian professorship, the, 727 
Sicana atro-purpurea, 340 
Silk Tnssor, a new kind of, 180 
Smoke, as a protection from frost, 263 
Smoke v. frost, 731 
Snowdrops, a monograph of, 374 
Soils, firm, as against loose, 275, 407 
Soils, plant food in, 654 
Somerset, the flora of, 112 
Species, the origin of, by hybridisation, 

143 

SOCIETIES: — Ancient Society of York 
Florists, 115; Antwerp International 
Horticultural, 668; Birmingham Bo- 
tanical, 541 ; Birmingham Horti- 
cultural, 346 ; Birmingham and 
District Amateur Gardeners' Asso- 
ciation, 207 ; Blackheath and Lew- 
ieham Horticultural, 46; Bourne- 
mouth and District Gardeners', 78 ; 
Brighton and Sussex, 443 ; Brussels 
<>rchide»nne, 111,237, 288,345,469, 
791; Butley Tulip, 758; Cardiff Hor- 
ticultural, 110; Colchester Roae, 792; 
Crystal Palace, 378.603; Devon and 
Exeter Gardeners', 410 ; Dutch Hor- 
ticultural and Botanical, 471, 567, 
693 ; Eastbourne Horticultural, 78 ; 
East End Horticultural, 207 ; Edin- 



The Gardeners' Chronicle,] 



INDEX. 



[June 30, 1894. 



Vll 



burgh Royal Botanic, 241, 373, 507, 
789; Ghent Royal Agricultural and 
Botanical, 46, 207. 374, 471, 
75S ; Highgate and District Chry- 
santhemum, 305 ; Isle of Wight 
Horticultural, 726, 793 ; Linnean, 
15, 110, 172. 236. 305, 373, 
534, 596, 692, 724, 757, 813 ; Lon- 
don Pansy and Viola, 693, 764 ; 
Manchester Royal Botanic, 344, 
634; National Auricula and Primula, 
306, 539; Nat. Auricula, Northern, 
573 ; Nat. Carnation and Picotee, 306 ; 
Nat. Chrysanthemum, 140, 241, 338, 
438, 566, 604 ; National Rose, 786 ; 
Nat. Rose, Southern Section, 818 ; 
Newcastle Horticultural, 572; North 
of Scotland Horticultural and Arbo- 
ricnltural, 410, 697; Peeblesshire 
Horticultural, 443 ; Richmond Hor- 
ticultural. 306, S19 ; Royal Botanic, 
236, 346, 507, 699 ; Royal Caledonian 
Horticultural. 476 ; Royal Horti- 
cultural. 83. 172, 204. 209, 342,408, 
474, 533, 537, 663, 761, 815 ; Royal 
Horticultural Temple Show, 663; 
Royal Horticultural Society of 
Aberdeen, 111 ; Royal National 
Tulip, Southern, 174, 566, 603; 
Royal Oxford Horticultural, 792 ; 
Scottish Horticultural, 629 ; Scot- 
tish Pansy, 306 ; Shropshire Hor- 
ticultural, 17, 507 ; Southamp- 
ton Royal Horticultural, 634 ; 
Southern Pink, 503, 764 ; Stoke New- 
ington Chrysanthemum, 110, 406; 
Tadcaeter Paxton, 211, 340 ; Taun- 
ton Horticultural, 23-j ; Ulster Hor- 
ticultural, 111 ; Wilts Horticultural, 
305; Wolverhampton Horticultural, 
46 ; Yorkshire Gala, the, 46, 792 

Spices, garbelling of, 365 

Spirsea arguta, 569, 784 

Sports, the origin of, 201 

Sprnce, the late Richard, 173 

Stachys tuberifera, 211 

Stand Hall, Cypripediums at, 199 

Stangeria paradoxa, 372; S. p. var. 

schizodon, 18 
Stanhopea ecornnta, 687 
Stocks, new, 104 
Stocktaking, 46, 206, 374, 470, 598, 

758 
Straits Settlements, Annual Report of 

the Forests Department of the, 779 
Strawberry, Emperor William, 727 ; 

S. Laxton's Noble, 789; prospects, 



601; S. Royal Sovereign, 594; S. 

Scarlet Queen, 562 ; S., the origin of 

the cultivated, 758 
Strawberries, early, 789 
Streptocarpus Dyeri x , 590 ; S. Wend- 

landii, 590 
Streptocarpuses, seedling, 432 
Stylidium armeria, 720 
Stylochiton maximus, 782 
Sugar-cane disease in Barbados, 779 
Sugar Maples, 237 
Sunningdale Park, Orchids at, 590 
Surveyors' Forestry Museum, 630 
Surveyors' Institution, the, 78, 237, 

272, 373 
Swanley Horticultural College, 786 
Syringa vulgaris, varieties of, 593 
Syringe, a new, 406 



Tea cultivation in the United States, 

656 
Tea in China, tablet, 340 
Technical and secondary education in 

Surrey, 76 
Technical education, 108 ; by the 

Cambs. County Council, 757 ; in 

Aberdeenshire, 693 ; in Dorset, 406 ; 

in the Isle of Wight, 726 
Tecoma Smithii, 18, 438 
Temperate zone, fruits and vegetables 

of the, 757 
Temple Show, the, 660, 694 
Testimonial epidemic, 724 
Tetratheca ericoides, 536 
Tetrathecas, the culture of, 494 
Texas, a sunny home in the States, 

791 
Thunbergia laurifolia, 268 
Thunias and Epidendrums at Messrs. 

Sander & Co.'s, 717 
Tiarella cordifolia, 591 
Timber trees, varieties of, 17 
Tobacco leaves as an insecticide, 82 
Tomato experiments, 751 
Tomatos for profit, 199, 274; the 

raising of, 660 ; open air, 758 
Toxicophlcea epectabilis, 209 
Trade notes, 1893. 142 
Trained fruit trees, extension of, 761 
Transvaal, Richardias in the, 178 
Travellers' notes, a, 38, 264, 399, 504, 

557, 686, 718, 780 
Tree, a lightning- struck, 815 
Tree-guard, the Waverley, 309 



Trees and shrubs, 720, 752, 784 ; hardy, 
500 ; hardy ornamental, 48 ; the 
conference on, 112 

Trees at Fulham, some rare old, 338 ; 
memorial, 628 ; the internal tem- 
perature of, 439 

Trichocentrum tigrinum, 231 

Trinidad Botanic Garden, 779 

Trollius, 688 

TulipaKaufmanniana, 379 

Tulip Proserpine, 439 

Tulips at Keir House, 637; florists', 
654 ; in the Cambridge Botanic 
GardeD, 559 ; late flowering, 685 ; 
parrot, 630, 698 ; list of, 593 ; the 
green in, 506 

Turnip-tops, 147, 177, 208 

Turnips, forcing, 211 

Tussor silk, a new kind of, 180 

Tyntesfield Orchids the, 71 



U 



Ulmcs plumosa aurea, 720 
Universities, cultural science in the, 

297 
Utrecht, Orchids at, 178 



Vanda teres, 687 

Vanilla in Reunion, 272 

Vanilla planifolia, the artificial ferti- 
lisation of, 693 

Vaporiser, Richards', 406, 442, 474 

Vegetable drugs, 721 ; products of, 
72 

Vegetables, and prices, 536 ; and the 
frost, 477 ; an American on English, 
438 ; the relative value of exhi- 
bition, 441 

Venidium calendulaceum, 721 

Veitch, medallists, the, 756 ; memorial 
trust, 76, 789 

Veitcb, Mr., and the Orchid Com- 
mittee, 405 

Victoria, rates of carriage of fruit in, 
237 

Vilmorin, M. M. de, and the Legion 
of Honour, 534 

Vine, a MexicaD, 10 ; borders, more 
about, 655 ; curious behaviour of a, 
536 ; downy mildews of, 689 ; grow- 



ing, notes on, 230 ; stems, severe 

stripping of, 49 
Vines, diseased, 208 bleeding treat- 
ment of, 698, 730, 759 ; rapid growth 

of, 632 
Vineyard Nurseries, Hammersmith 

660 
Vineyards of Cumberland, N. S. W. 
Violet culture, 440 

725 
Viticulture at the antipodes, 175 
Vitis Coignetite, 18, 44, 48, 375 
Vuylsteke's, new Orchids at M. Ch.. 

110 



W 

Wasps, early, 113 

Weather, and vegetation, the, 503 ; 
hard, in Lincolnshire, 49; in the 
North of Scotland, 661 ; in Sussex, 
the, 46; return of cold, 662; in 
Yorkshire, severe, 145 ; the mild, 17, 
82; the recent wintry, 44; twent)- 
eight years', 142 

Weigelas, the, 752 

Weir, Jenner, the late, 443, 506 

Weldenia Candida, 534 

Weybridge, early flowering plants at, 
241 

Whampoa Bamboo, the, 559 

Wbangee Cane, the, 559 

Widdringtonia Whytei. 661 

Williams' Memorial Medal, the, 205 

Willingham fruit industry, 623 

Wilts County Council, 439 

Wiring flowers, 686 

Wolverhampton Horticultural Society, 
46 

Wood management, 19, 81 

Woodlands, our, 751 

Woodlice in Cucumber-houses, 731 

Woods, mixed, 402 ; paving, 40 



Yadoo fibre, Chrysanthemums iD, 759 
Yosemite Valley and its vegetation, 432 
Yucca gloriosa, 304; at Nant-y-Glyu 
340 



Zyoopbtaldm crinitum, 590 



Vlil Tlie Gardeners' Chronicle.] 



INDEX. 



[Jime 30, 1S94. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Acacia Baileyana, 37 ; A. podalyrii- 

folia, 39 
Agapetee macrantha, 501 
Allamanda, a fruit of, 633 
Anadendrum medium, varying forms 

of leaves of, 527 
Anemone fungus, 47S 
Apples, a fruitful branch of, 505 
Araucaria Bidwillii, cone of, 465 
Arieajma fimbriatum, 763 
Arundinaria japonica, 239; A. Simoni, 

301 ; A. Veitchii, 169 
Auricula, Dr. Hardy, 5;9 



B 



Bamboo, a distorted, 559 ; with oblique 

nodes, 561 
Bambusa teesellata, 167 
Beckett's extension Chrysanthemum 

cup and tube, 791 
Bergen, park at, 81 
Birthplace of the Mclntoshes, 201 
Bland, J. E., portrait of, 146 



Calceolarias malformed, 733 
Calochortus elegans var. amcenus, 810 
Cholmondeley Castle Gardens, llalpas, 

589 
Chrysanthemum, Jno. Noble, 15 
Clarke, Col. Trevor, portrait of, 749 
Ccelogyne Dayana, 695 ; C. Mossite, 

401 
Crinum Roozenianum, 199 
Cynips aptera, 280 
Cypripedium, Annie Measures, 657 ; C. 

GodefroyiE leucocheilum, ^815 ; C. 

Gravesis, 299 ; C. Klotzschianum, 

625 ; C. Ma8tersianum. 593 ; C. 

X Winifred HollingtoD, 495 



Dendrobium atro-violaceum, 113 ; D. 
chrysanthum, as grown at East- 



hamp8tead Park, 565 ; D. glomer- 
atum, 653; D. Pnalaenopsis var. 
Schroderianum, 339 
Dracaana thalioides, 137 



Elmet Hall, view in the gardens at, 533 
Ervthronium giganteum var. albiflorum, 

621 ; E. Hendersoni, 623 
Eucryphia pinnatifolia at Coombe 

Wood, 109 
Exacum maeranthuni, 331 



Flowers, stemming and wiring, 6S6 



Greenhouse, a travelling, 667 



I 



Ingram, William, 50 



Japanese flower-seller, a, 9 ; Pine tree, 
trained to represent sailing junk, 141 



K 

Kent, A. H., portrait of, 749 



Laeken, conservatory chapel at, 661 
LaHia anceps var, Ashworthiana, 103 



Lselio-Cattleya X Frederick Boyle, 

80 J 
Ltelio-Cattleya X Pittiana, 265 ; L.-C. 

xThe Hon. Mrs. Astor, 231 
Lagerstrcemia flos Reginai, 77 
Larch disease, 307 
Linden, M. Jean, 345 
Loropetalum chinsnse, 343 



M 

Margam Abbey, 135 
Martin, Jas., portrait of, 749 
Mclntoshes, birthplace of the. 201 
Mildew, downy, on Vines, 689 
Mushroom, malformed, 510 



N 



Narcissus, a hybrid, 333 ; N. poeticus 

var. prajcox, 399 ; N. Trimon, 233 
Nicholson, Geo,, portrait of, 749 
Nymphaja gigantea as growing in the 
Lagoon in the Brisbane Botanic 
Garden, 205 



Odontoglossum crispum var. apiatum, 
375 ; O. elegans, 441 ; O. house at 
L'Horticulture Internationale, Brus- 
sels, 529 

Oacidium Lacasianum, 497 



Passiflora alata, fiuit of, 19 

Pear bush in bloom at Coombe Abbey, 
719 ; slug worm of the, 703 ; tree on 
wall with the spurs laid in on top of 
each shoot, 717 

Peronoepora viticola, 689 

Ptziza Willkommii, 307 

Phaius Owenianusx, 787 

Phoenix canadensis in the Public Gar- 
den, Madeira, 405 



Phyllostflchvs Kumasaca, 369 ; P. Q>»- 
lioi, 431 ;" P. nigra, 369 ; P. viridi 
glaucescens, 433 

Pine, gigantic, at Karaaoki, Japan, 367 

Pinus Montezuma, 271; sections of, 275 

Poinciana Gilliesi, 73 

Ptsria ludens, 783 



Rhododendron, Princesa William of 
Wtirtemburg, 597 ; R. Schlippen- 
bachii, 469 

Rivers, T. F., portrait of, 749 

Root-gall, caused by a fly. 280 

Rust, Joseph, the late, 729 



Santa Catalina, Grand Canary, garden 

at, 437 
Saxifraga apiculata, 557 
Scillaa, disease of, 463 
Scoliopus Bigelowii, 267 
Stlenipedium Sargentianum, 781 



Tbi*ple show, a view taken at the, 694 

Toxicophlcca spectabilis, 209 

Tree guard and support, the Waverley, 

309 
Trochodendron aralioidea, 725 



Vaporiser, a new, 407 
Vine, inarching the, 337 
Vines, downy mildew on, 689 



W 

Waverley tree guard and support, 309 



Agate potatorum, ploweuing in Palm House at Kew, May 19, 
Cypripedium grande, var. atratum, June 2. 
Gentiana acaulis, at Wisley, February 24. 
Jesmond Dene Park, view in, June 16, 
L^jlia anceps, a white, February 10, 



SUPPLEMENTARY ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Pavia macrostachya, at Coombe Wood, January 13. 
Saccolabium guttatum, June 80. 
Stangeria paradoxa, var. schizodon, March 24. 
Yucca gloriosa, at Nant Hall, March 10. 




No. 367.— Vol. XV. 



f Third 1 
\ Sebies. J 



SATUEDAY, JANUAEY 6, 1894. 



fRegt. as a Newspaper. / PRICE 3d. 

[WITH SUPPLEMENT.} POST-FREE, 3Jd. 



CONTENTS. 



Agricultural Banks 


16 


Obituary — 




American blight 


iti 


Spruce. Richard 


21 


Anthuriums at Highbury, 




Orphan Fund, the Royal 




seedlings 


V 


Gardeners' 


Irt 


Book notice :— 




Passiflora alata 


18 


Flora of the Assyrian 




Penllergare 


10 


monuments 


14 


Pinus insigais 


21 


Botanical Magazine 


16 


Pithecolobium uoguis- 




Bulb, seed, and plant trade 




cata 


10 


employes 


19 


Plants, new or note- 




Chrysanthemum John 




worthy i — 




Noble 


14 


Vitis Coignetise 


8 


Chrysanthemums, A ne- 




Potato Onion, the 


10 


mone- flowered ... 


10 


Season in Switzerland, 




,, late 


10 


the 


81 


,, new 


10 


Shanking of Grapes 


20 


Commons, preservation of 


16 


Societies : — 




Cucumber growing 


1» 


Linnean 


IS 


Egyptian gardenat Christ- 




Shropshire Horticul- 




mas, an 


11) 


tural 


17 


Epilobium latifolium 


10 


Tree of Life, the 


14 


Exhibiting cut Chrysan- 




Vitis Coignetiee 


18 


themums 


2i) 


Week's work, the — 




Japanese flower- seller, a . 


9 


Flower garden, the ... 


13 


Kew notes 


18 


Fruits under glass 


13 


Magnesium light, and 




Hardy fruit garden 


12 


plants 


20 


Kitchen garden, the ... 


12 


Manna 


17 


Orchid-houses, the 


1.1 


Mexican Vine, the 


10 


Plants under glass 


12 


Novelties of 1893 


7 


wood management 


19 


ILLU8TR 


ATION8, 




Chrysanthemum, Jno. Noble 




15 


Japanese flower-seller, a .. 






9 


Passiflora alata, fruit of .. 






19 


"GARDENERS' 


CHRONICLE." 




Continued Increase 


in the Circulation. 



Important to Advertisers. — The Publisher 
has the satisfaction of announcing that the 
circulation of the " Gardeners' Chronicle " has, 
since the reduction in the price of the paper, 
Increased to the extent of 75 per Cent. 

Advertisers are reminded that the " Chronicle" 
circulates among country gentlemen and 

ALL CLASSES OP GARDENERS AND GARDEN- 
LOVERS at home, that it has a specially large 
FOREIGN AND COLONIAL CIRCULATION, and 

that it is preserved for reference in all the 
principal Libraries. 

ADVERTISERS will greatly assist our efforts 
to get to Press earlier, by forwarding their 
favours as EARLY IN THE WEEK as 
possible. 

HC ANNELL and SONS' 
• SEEDS. 

Their Catalogue of the above will be sent post-free to all their 
friends and coming customers on application. Its value will 
surprise many, also the success of their Own Grown Seeds. It 
is a fact their superior quality increased our orders 2000 last 
season, absolutely proving they are better in every respect, and 
Five Silver Medals awarded at London Big Shows for Vege- 
tables confirm it, and with their mode of business, is evidently 
highly appreciated all over the World. 

FOR SALE.-OIL PAINTING, by E. Moira. 
Subject, " Camden Park, ChislehurBt, 1860." The various 
changes which Camden Estate has undergone since 1860 render 
this work of unusual interest. Offers invited. Can be seen 
by arrangement.— G. E., Gardeners' Chronicle Office 41 Wel- 
lington street, Strand, W.C. 

ENGLISH CYCLOPEDIA, Arts and Science, 
8 vols., and 1 vol. Supplement. Also, NATURAL HIS- 
TORY, 4 vols, in two books, and Supplement, 2 vols, in one book 
by C. Knight. Over 16,000 pages, profusely illustrated. The 
■whole same size, half leather bound, to be Sold cheap. — W. X 
Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington St., Strand, W C ' 



N' 



OW READY.— SUTTON'S AMATEUR'S 

GUIDE in HORTICULTURE for 1894. 



SUTTON'S AMATEUR'S GUIDE for 1894 
contains full particulars of the best Vegetables for the 
table, the best disease - resisting Potatoa, and the most 
beautiful Flowers. 

S^UTTON'S AMATEUR'S GUIDE for 1894 

KJ is beautifully illustrated with numerous Engravings, 
Coloured Plates, and Photographs. 

Price Is , post-free; gratis to Customers, from 

SUTTON and SONS, THE QUEEN'S 
SEEDSMEN, READING. 

Trade Price Current for 1891. 

PETER LAWSON and SONS, Limited, have 
posted their ANNUAL CATALOGUE of SEEDS to their 
customers, but if any have been inadvertently omitted, copies 
will be seat upon application. 

1, George 4th Bridge, Edinburgh. 

BOX'S BEGONIA SEED.— For germination 
and quality of flowers superior to all others. Per 
packet, single mixed, Is. and 2s. 6d. ; larger packets, 55. ; 
double mixed, packets. Is. Qd. and 2s. 6rf. ; larger packets, 55. 
Sow now. Ask for PRICE LIST of Tubers, and Pamphlet 
on Culture. 
JOHN R. BOX, Seedsman and Begonia Grower, Croydon. 

ASPARAGUS of fine quality.— For Foroing : 
5-yr. old, splendid roots, 12f. 6d. per 100 ; 6-yr. old, 
extra fine selected, 155. per 100. For planting: 3-yr. old, 
25j. per 1000; do., selected, 35s. per 1000; 4-yr. old, 6s. per 100. 
All quotations are free on rail, and for cash with order. My 
Asparagus always makes the very top price at Covent Garden. 
J. J. CLARK, Market Gardener, Goldstone. Brighton. 

To the Trade 

W ATKINS and SIMPSON have posted 
their WHOLESALE SEED CATALOGUE for 1894 to 
all their customers. If not received, another copy will be sent 
on application. 
Seed Warehouse, 13, Exeter Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

J JACKSON, 3a, The Crescent, Peckham 
• Rye, S.E., is open to receive Consignments of CHOICE 
CUT BLOOMS and FOLIAGE to SELL on COMMISSION. 
Boxes and Labels on application. 

To the Trade. 

NUTTING and SONS have posted their 
NEW TRADE CATALOGUE of SEEDS to all their 
Customers. If not received, oblige by notifying the same. 
106, Southwark Street, London, S.E. 

Important to Mushroom Growers. 

CUTHBERT'S SPECIALITE MUSHROOM 
SPAWN. Always alike ; most productive. Hundreds 
of testimonials. Per bushel, 5s. 

R. and G. CUTHBERT, Seed, Bulb, and Plant Merchant, 
Southgate, N. Established 1797. 

SUPERB ORCHIDS, CHEAP.— Thousands 
to select from. Write for LIST, free. 
P. MOABTHUR, The LondonNursery, 4, MaidaVale.London.W. 



w 



ANTED.— Lord Beaconsfield, Banmforth's 

Seedling, and Superlative RASPBERRY CANES. 
W. HORNE, Cliffe, near Rochester. 



WANTED, 2000 IRISH IVY, rooted trails. 
State lowest price. 
GARDENER, Ivy Cottage, Crayford Hill, Crayford, Kent.'" 

WANTED, ORCHID and Choioe WHITE 
BLOOMS, in large or small quantities, for Cash. 
Boxes supplied. 
MANAGER, Cumberland Park Nurseries, Willesden Junction. 

ANTED, good-established Early-fruiting 

PEACH and NECTARINE TREES for Early Peach- 
house. State lowest price. 
J. MADDOX. Br yn Glas. Newport. Mon. 

TO THE TRADE.— WANTED, Flowering 
Plants, in 48's, cheap for retail, Cinerarias, Bouvardias, 
Mignonette, Ericas, Lily of the Valley, and other Plants, Ferns, 
c —Particulars, &o., to ROBINSON, Florist, Halstead, Essex. 



M 



RASPBERRY CANES.— Norwich Wonder, 
Carter's Prolific, also Fastolf, well rooted. 
Not less than 500 canes of either sort supplied. 
ALBERT BATH. Vine Court, Sevenoaks, Kent. 

To the Trade. 

COOPER, TABER, and CO., Limited, have 
posted their GENERAL WHOLESALE CATALOGUE 
to all their customers. If not received, another copy will be 
sent on application.— 90, Southwark Street, London, 3.E. 

Special Trade Offer. 

WILLIAM ICETON has a magnificent Stock 
of the leading kinds ot PALMS, ARAUCARIAS, and 
FICUS, in small pots, to offer cheap. Areca Lutescens, Cocoa 
Wedd., Corypha Aug.. Phoenix rup , Latania borb., Kentiaa 
Fos. and Bel., Araucaria excelsa, Ficua elaatica, Dracsenas 
Lindenii and Doucetti. 

Putney Park Lane, Putney, S.W. 

YATT'S PROLIFIC POTATOS for Sale, 

true, 60s. per ton. 
G. F. YOUNG, Swineshead Abbey, Boston. 

VINES.— Grand Fruiting and Planting Canes, 
extra strong, and well-ripened. A very low price to a 
large buyer. 

CUCUMBER SEED, Rochford variety, same as gave so 
much satisfaction last season ; per 100, 5s. 2d., poat free. 
A. A. BENNETT. F.R.H.S., 
Ashford Vineyard, Cobham, Surrey. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM CUTTINGS.-Gloria 
Mundi, Peter the Great, Elaine, Mona. Bernard, Source 
d'Or, Madame Desgrangea, Is. 6<£. per ]00. 12s. per 1000. Lady 
Lawrence, Garden des PlanteB, and Fulton, 2s. Gd. per 100, 
£1 per 1000. Roots to offer. 

CHIPPERFIELD, Florist, Hampton Hill, Middlesex. 

300,000 STRONG ^RASPBERRY 

BATJMFORTH'S SEEDLING sample 100 6s. 6d. 

CARTER'S PROLIFIC ditto 4s. id. 

NORWICH WONDER and FASTOLF ditto 3s. 3d. 

Prices per 1000 on application. Special quotations to large 

buyers. 

R. H. BATH, Osborne Farm, Wisbech. 

ORCHIDS. — Many rare and choice Cattleyas, 
Oypripediums, Dendrobiums, Odontoglossums, &c, 
always in stock. Inspection invited. Please write for LIST. 

W. L. LEWIS AMD CO., F.R.H.S., Chase Side, Southgate, 
London, N. 

Prize Cob Filberts. 

MR. COOPER, Western Elms, Reading (late 
of Calcot Gardens), is the largest grower of Prize Cob 
Filberts in the Kingdom ; 20,000 fine young Trees now ready 
for Sale. Pamphlets and Price Lists on Application. 

Covent Garden Market. 

CHAS. E. COOPER, Wholesale Florist and 
Commission Salesman, 33, Russell Street, Covent 
Garden, and 370, New Flower Market, W.C, is open to receive 
consignments of choice Cut Flowers, Ferns, Foliage, &c. Also 
the Provincial Trade supplied at market prices. For terms 
and further particulars, apply as above. Price List on applica- 
tion. Telegrams, " Lapageria, London." Bankers, The 
National Bank, Limited, Charing Cross Branch. 

HORTICULTURAL SHEET GLASS. 
Stock Lists and Prices on application. 
GEORGE FARMILOE and SONS, Lead, Glass, Oil, and 
Colour Merchants, 34. St. John St., WestSmithfield, London. 

J WEEKS & Co., Horticultural Builders 
• to Her Majesty, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, H.M 
Government, Admiralty Dept., War Dept., Royal Hort. Soc., 
Royal Botanic Soc., Parka and Public Buildings, Patentees of 
the Duplex Upright Tubular Boilers, King'sRoad, Chelsea, S.W. 

THOMSON'S VINE and PLANT MANURE. 
— This Manure can be had as formerly from all Nurserymen 
and Seedsmen, under Analysis by the Edinburgh City Analyst. 
Agent for London:— Mr. J. GEORGE, 14, Redgrave Road 
Putney, S.W. 

Agent for the Channel Islands :— Mr. J. H. PARSONS, 
Market Place, Guernsey. 

Sole Makers:— WM. THOMSON AND SONS, Ltd., Tweed 
Vineyard, Clovenfordf. 

Price Lists and Testimonials on application. 



THE GAltDENEBS* CHRONICLE. 



[January C, 1894. 



SALE S by AUCT ION . 

Wednesday Next. 
A Collection of well-grown Dwarf-trained and Pyramid 
FRUIT TREES. Hardy Ornamental SHRUBS and 
TREES, BORDER PLANTS. LILIUMS from Japnn, 
DUTCH BULBS and LILIUMS, Specimen PALMS, a 
quantity of Earthenware Rustic FLOWER VASES, POTS, 
BOXES, &c. ; SPIRJE1S, LILY OF THE VALLEY, 
BEGONIAS, GLOXINIAS, &c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL the above by 
AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 3S. King St., Covent 
Garden, W.C., on WEDNESDAY NEXT, January 10, at half- 
past 12 o'clock precisely. 

On view morning of Sale and Catalogues had. 

Thursday Next. 

An IMPORTATION of 15,000 LILIUM AURATUM and other 
LILIES in the finest possible condition, just received direct 
from Japan ; TUBEROSES, BEGONIAS, GLOXINIAS, 
DUTCH BULBS ant LILIUMS, 2000 SPIR.EA, 1000 
DIELYTRAS, Choice GLADIOLI, 3000 LILY of the 
VALLEY Crowns and Clumps, &c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will include the above 
in his SALE by AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 38, King 
Street, Covent Garden, W.C., on THURSDAY NEXT, Jan. 11. 
On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Thursday Next. 

VALUABLE IMPORTED and ESTABLISHED ORCHIDS. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL by AUC- 
TION, at his Great Rooms, 38, King Street, Covent 
Garden, W.C., on THURSDAY NEXT, January 11, at half- 
past 12 o'Clocfc precisely, an Importation of 5 Cases of 
CATTLEYAS 'probably Mendelii), just received direct, a 
Collection of ESTABLISHED ORCHIDS, some in Flower and 
Bud, &c. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday Next. 

GREAT UNRESERVED SALES OF DUTCH BULBS. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL by AUCTION, at their Central Sale Rooms, 
67 and 68. Cheapside, London, E.C.. on the above days, 
large consignments of first-class HYACINTHS, TULIPS, 
CROCUS, NARCISSUS, and other Bulbs, from Holland, lotted 
to suit large and small buyers. 

On view mornings of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

, Wednesday Next 

15,155 LILIUM AUR4.TUM, contents of 210 cases just to 
hand, from Japan, in fine condition; also 50 AZALEA 
INDICA, and 50 CAMELLIAS in Bud ; 100 PALMS in 
variety, from Belgium; 50 AMARYLLIS SEEDLINGS, 
000 A. EQUESTRtS, 400 PANCRATIUM FRAGRANS, 
BEGONIAS in variety, 200 Dwarf ROSES, 100 Standard 
ROSES, 6000 LILY OF THE VALLEY Berlin Crowns, 
DIELYTRAS, IRIS SUSIANA, CARNATIONS and PICO- 
TEES, SPIR.12A COMPACTA MULTIFLORA, 50 lots of 
GREENHOUSE FERNS, and 80 TREE FERNS. CYATHEA 
CUNNINGHAMI, just received from New Zealand. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL the above by AUCTION, at their Central Sale 
Rooms, 67 and 68, Cheapside, London, E.C., on WEDNESDAY' 
NEXT, January 10. at 12 o'clock. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues hsd. 

Friday Next, January 12. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL by AUCTION, at their Central Sale Rooms. 67 
and 68, Cheapside, London, E.C., on FRIDAY NEXT, 
anuary 12, at half-past 12 o'clock, by order of Messr° 
SAKDER&Co.,St. Albins, valuable 

IMPORTED and ESTABLISHED ORCHIDS, 

among which will be found the grand new type of 

ONCIDIUM JONESIANUM VAR. SUPERBUM. 

The New CYRTOPODIUM VIRESCENS. 

CATTLEYA SPECIES from a New Source, 

Never before Collected over. 

The rare and beautiful 

SPATHOGLOTTIS VIELLARDJJ. 

CATTLEYA SPECIES ( GU ATE M A LE N S IS ? ) . 

Thn rare DENDROBIUM D'ALBERTISI. 

Strong Plants of the great Elephant Moth Dendrobe 

DENDROBIUM PHAL^ESOFSIS SCHRODERIANUM. 

CATTLEY/A LEOPOLDI PERNAMBUCENSIS 

PERISTERIA ASPERSA VARS. 

ZYGOPETALUM GRAMINIFOLIUM, 

A grand lot of a newly-imported Oncidium, which is no 

doubt the rare and beautiful 

ONCIDIUM MARSHALLIANUM, 

in fine condition, many of the plants having truly remarkable 

bulbs. 

CYPRIPEDIUM ROTHSCHILDIANUM, splendid plants 

EPIDENDRUM OINNABARINUM. 

CCELOGYNE PANDURATA. CYPRIPEDIUM EXUL 

DENDROBIUM LEECHIANUM. 

DENDROBIUM NOBILE COOKSONIANUM. 

A magnificent lot of the Lang-tang Mountains variety of 

DENDROBIUM NOBILE, 

the grandest ever imported. 
CCELOGYNES.LYOASTES, SCHOMBURGKIAS, L/T3LIAS, &c. 
On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

TueBday. January 16. -Special Sale. 

2000 various LILIES. 4000 LILIUM AUKATUM, extra fine • 
JfA^T^JSISfS? 118 ' Mtra «°e: 500° Hybr d 
GLADIOLI, 40 BEGONIAS. 2000 SPIH.KAS &c 

T1ESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS 

= , \ W ' U 2? LL , £"^ bove b * AU CTION at their Central 
Sale Rooms, 67 and 68,,Cheapside, London.'E.O on TUESDAY 
January 16, at 12 o'clock. ■ ' "™ A "' 



Blackheath, Kent. 

(Three minutes' walk from Blackheath Station.) 

By order of the Executors of the late BRYAN DONKIN. Esq. 

MESSRS, PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL by AUCTION, on the Premises, Eastnor House, 
Blackheath, S.E., on WEDNESDAY, January 17, at half-past 
12 o'clock precisely, the whole of the ESTABLISHED 
ORCHIDS, consisting of Odontoglossum Alexandras, O. graude, 
O. Edwardii, O. nebulosum album, Oncidium macranthum, 
Dendrobium nobile nobilius, D. Ainsworthii, D. Phalrenopsis 
Schrodera?, Cypri|:edium Rothschildianum, C. Druryi. C. 
Elliottianum. C. selligerum, and others. CYMBIDIUM 
GIGANTEUM, fine plant ; Augrrecums, Vandas. Cattle) as, 
Masdevallias, Ccclogynes, Zygopetalums, Laslias, Grammato- 
phyllum Seegerirnum, Vanda Sanderiana, Phalffinopsis of sorts, 
and many other choice Orchids in variety, together with the 
STOVE and GREENHOUSE PLANTS, including Eucharis, 
Davallias, Camellias, Azaleas, Lapagerias, Callas, Amaryllis. 
GARDEN ROLLER, MOWING MACHINE, FLOWER POTS, 
GARDEN TOOLS, &c. 

May be viewed the day prior and morning of Sale. 'Catalogues 
can be obtained on the Premises of Messrs. STREET, POYN- 
DER and WHATLEY, Solicitors, 27, Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
W.C. ; and of the Auctioneers, 67 and 68, Cheapside, 
London, E.C. 



Bagshot, Surrey. 

HIGHLY IMPORTANT UNRESERVED SALE, 

Held in consequence of the Death of the late Mr. John 

Waterer, with the concurrence of the Executors. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS 
will SELL by AUCTION, on the Premises, the cele- 
brated Bagshot Nurseries, on WEDNESDAY and THURSDAY, 
February 14 and 15, commencing at 12 o'clock precisely each 
day, several Acres of NURSERY STOCK, grown to the 
greatest perfection, and exceedingly well rooted. Lotted to 
suit the Trade and other large Buyers. 

Fuller particulars will appear. 

By order of the Exors. of the late J. C. Bowrlng, Esq. 

IMPORTANT UNRESERVED SALE of the celebrated Forest 
Farm COLLECTION OF ESTABLISHED ORCHIDS, 

TVfESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS are 

A'-i- favoured with instructions to SELL bv AUCTION early 
in the Spring, at their Central Sale Rooms/67 and 68, Cheap- 
side. London, E.C, the entire Collection of ESTABLISHED 
ORCHIDS formed by the late J. C. Bowring, Esq., who, for a 
period of thirty years has [been a successful grower. The 
plants generally are in fine condition, and include the follow- 
ing items : — 

Pha'ssnopsis (the whole of which are in splendid health) 
tetraspes speciosa var. Imperatrix, violacea Bowringeana 
(several), violacea, Schrodera?, Stuartiana, Schilleriana, amabi- 
lis, grandiflora, Lowi. roseum, and others ; Thrixpermum Eerk- 
leyii and unguiculatum, Angnecums (several species) ; Vanda 
Sanderiana (fine plant), Vanda Batemania; (a remarkable spe- 
c lmen with several growths). Ccerulea (grand plant with 
sixteen growths), fine pieces of suavis and tricolor ; Aerifies 
Sanderiana and Lawrenceana ; Grammatophyllum Ellsi, Onci- 
dium lanceanum (fine healthy plant). A large assortment cf 
healthy Cypripediums, including a batch of undowered seed- 
ling hybrids; also Winnianum, Lathamianum, Leda (Rolfe), 
unique, selligerum majus, amandum, Morganire, Pauli. Dru- 
ryii, Sallied Hyeanum, Measuresianum, and others; Dendro- 
bium Leechianum. splendidissum grandiflorum, transparens 
album, Gnffithianum, Boxalli, Falconeri (fine specimen), 
superbiens. Goldei ; Arundina bambuscefolia (splendid plant), 
Sobralia xantholeuca.lLycaste Skinnerialba, Ccclogyne Dayana 
grandis, Odontoglossum laeve, Epidendnim Stamfordianum, 
Laalia purpurata (many fine pieces), Cattleya Meudeli, aurea, 
Tnantc, Gaskelliana and Bowringiana; Lrelia anceps, nivalis, 
and other white varieties, grandis tenebrosa ; Sobralia «p»cies 
alba (true), with eight bulbs; Cattleya Rex, undowered, from 
Linden s importation ; Cypripedium cenantkum superbum, 
fine plant ; Sobralia xantholeuca, fine plant.with nine growths ■ 
Cypripedium Ashburtonin? expansum Cooksonii ; ditto macrop- 
terum (rare)Lowi Xsuperbiens.with two growths ; Lndia autum- 
nalis Fostermanni (true), with seven bulbs ; Dendrobium 
nobile Cooksoni; ditto nobile nobilius; Cypripedium orpha- 
num, with two growths; ditto polystigmaticum, with five 
growths ; ditto regale, fine piece, &c. 

No Plants will be sold prior to the Auction. Catalogues 
when ready may be had of the Auctioneers and Valuers, 
b7 and 68, Cheapside. London, E.C. 



WANTED, to RENT, 400 feet or more of 

™ GLASS of modern construction, for growing Tomatos 
Chrysanthemums, &c, within 20 miles of London. No Stock 
Address TODD, Qu een's Road, Thames Ditton. 

WANTED to RENT, a SMALL "~NUR- 

v„t- t SE ? Y o »„' t '" n J?? 9y reach o£ Covent Garden. — 
Particulars to B. M., 41, Wellingto n Street, Strand, W.C. 

rVO LET, a NURSERY containing 10 Houses 

J~ about 12.000 feet of Glass, in good working order, suitable 
for Cucumbers. Tomatos, &c, with Office, Coach-house, 
Stabling &c.-,n all, about an aero of Land.-G. C, Carnarvon 
House, Acton Lane, Chiswick, W. 



Abbey Wood. 

Under a DEED of ASSIGNMENT. 
IMPORTANT to FLORISTS, FRUIT, and PLANT GROWERS 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS are 
instructed to SELL by tender, as a going concern, the 
beneficial INTEREST in the LEASE of the Market Nur<ery 
known as "Ship Logs," Abbey Wood, Kent, comprising 
3 acres 1 rood 37 poles of NURSERY LAND, together with 
thirteen Greenhouses and Vineries standing thereon The 
property is held for a term of eighteen and a half years un- 
expired at a rental of £77 9s. 3d. The Vineries are planted 
with Vines in good condition, and there is an extensive stock 
of Ferns, EuchariB, Roses, and Peach Trees. Tenders will be 
opened at the offices of Messrs. Protheroe & Morris at twelve 
o'Clock on Monday, January 22. The vendors do not bind 
themselves to accept the highest or any tender. Forms of 
tender, with full particulars as to the Lease and Stock may bo 
obtained of Messrs. Lawrence & Jerome. Solicitors, 31, Thread- 
needle Street, E.C, or of Messrs. PROTHEROE AN1> Moulds 
67 & 69, Cheapside, London, E.C. 



G 



C 



Fifty Nurseries, Market Gardens, Florist and Seed 

BUSINESSES to be DISPOSED OF. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS' 
HORTICULTURAL REGISTER contains full parti- 
culars of the above, and can be obtained, gratis, at 
67 and 68, Cheapside, London, E.C. 

FOR ORCHIDS and GARDENERS 
to Grow Them, apply to SANDER'S, St. Albans. The finest 
stock of Orchids in the World.— 3 minutes from St. Pancras. 

ROS COLMAR. — Good Planting Canes, 

Is. id. each. Cash with Order. 
P. EOULTON, Beechenlea Nursery, Swanley, Kent. 

nPOMATOS— Young plants, best varieties, 6s. 

J- per 100.— Cash with order. 

JOHN HORSEFIELD, Nurseryma n, Hampton-on-Thames. 

CUCUMBER SEED.— A Gentleman's Gar- 
dener has some Lo:kie's Perfection (True) for Sale. 
50, post-free, 2s. ; 100, 3s. 6d. 

WM. COMPTON, Lambley, Nottingham. 

H O I C E GERMAN 

FLOWER and VEGETABLE SEEDS. 

CATALOGUES free on application. 

FRED. RQiMER, Seed Grower. Que dlinburg, Germany. 

pHRYSANTHEMUM CUTTINGS.— Elaine, 

\J Duchess of Teck, Hero of Stoke Ncwington, Is. 3d. per 
10), 12s. per 1000 ; Madame Lacroix, 2s. 6a!. per 100. 
Mr. W. CLARKE, Milton, Northampton. 

^0 000 EUONYMUS, Green and Golden, 

ts\Ji\J\J\J all splendid bushy plants.— GREEN : 12 in. 
to 15 in., at 30s. per 100; 15 in. to 18 in., at 40s. per 100; 
18 in. to 21 in., at 55s. per 100; 21 in. to 24 in., at 75s. per 100 ; 
30 in. to 40 in. at special prices. 

GOLDEN : 5 in. to 12 in, at 3s. to Ss. per dozen. Cash with 
order. J. J. CLARK, Goldstone, Brighton. 

T-f AST LOTHIAN STOCKS.— Now is the time 

-L' to Sow FORBES' CELEBRATED STRAIN, in six 
distinct sorts, viz. : Crimson, Purple, Scarlet, White, Crimson- 
Wallllower-leaved, and White Wallflower-leaved, each sort. 
Is., 2s. 6rf., and 5s. per packet. Catalogues free. 

JOHN FORBES, Nurserym an, Hawick, Scotland. 

SPECIAL OFFER.— Rollisson's Telegraph 
CUCUMBER SEED, the best for all purposes, 50 for 
Is. Id., 100 for 2s., cash with order. 
S. BARRATT, Cucumber Grower, Radcliff-o n-Trent, Notts. 

HPO BE SUCCESSFUL in Growing Flowers 

J- and Vegetables to perfection, vou must have " DOB- 
BIE'S CATALOGUE AND COMPETITOR'S GUIDE " as your 
i onstant companion. " I thank you for your excellent 
and practical Guide, which is the best I ever had." A speci- 
men of hundreds of testimonials. The book is ready now. It 
consists of nearly 200 pages, and is sent free by post for 4d. 
Please apply early if you want to be sure of getting a copy. 

DOBB1E and CO., Florists and Seed Growers to the Queen, 
Rothesay, Scotland. 

To Nurserymen, Builders, Local Boards, Vestries, &c. 

AND OTHERS WHO INTEND 
PLANTING TREES and SHRUBS THI3 SEASON. 

ROBERT NEAL, The Nurseries, Trinity 
Road. Wandsworth, S.W., begs to offer an extensive 
stock of FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUBS 
ROSES, GRAPE VINES, FRUIT TREES, CLIMBING 
PLANTS, &c, which being grown in the neighbourhood of 
London are especially suitable for Town Planting. Alsoalarge 
stock of extra fine SEAKALE and RHUBARB, for forcing. 
CATALOGUES free on application. 

pALADIUM BULBS, mixed, extra large, 

V/ good sorts, 6s. to 9s. per doz., to clear. 

GLOXINIA BULBS, choicest strain, including Defiance 
(scarlet), Corona, Emperor Frederic, and finest spotted va- 
rieties, good bulbs, 9s. to 12s. per doz. ; good mixed, at 6s. 
per dozen. 

BEGONIA BULBS (Single), for bedding or pot culture, fine 
strain, 4s. per doz., 20s. per 100. 

The above Bulbs sent free for cash with order. 

ARALIA SIEBOLDII, grand plants, in 4S's, 6s. per doz. ; in 
60's, 3s. per doz., 20s. per 100. Free on rail, cash with order. 
J. LION, Park Nursery, Stanmore. M iddlesex. 

FERNS ! FERNS ! ! and DECORATIVE 

J- PLANTS.— Trade Ferns, in 2J inch pots, Slove and 
Greenhouse, 30 best selling sorts, 12s. per 100 ; Stores, 6s. per 
100 ; large ditto, in 48's, 10 best selling sorts, 6s. per dozen. 
Adiantum cuneatum, in 48's, for cutting (value in fronds), 6s. 
and 8s. per dozen ; ditto, for making large plants quickly 
(bushy), 16s. and 20s. per 100. Aralias, Grevilleas, Solanums, 
Cyperus, in 48's, 6s. per dozen. Ficus, Palms, Dracffinas, Erica 
hyemalis, and Cyclamen, Is. each. Beat (Trade) Value, packed 
free, Cash with Order.— J. SMITH, London Fern Nurseries, 
Loughborough Junction, London, S.W. 

PALMS, FERNS, &c— KENT1AS, fine, in 
48's, 12s. per dozen; six sorts of PALMS, in 48's, 9j. 
and 12s. per doz. ; Large KENTIAS, in 60's. 5s. and 6s. per doz. ; 
eight sorts of PALMS, in 60's, 4s. and 5s. per doz. ; do. in large 
thumbs, ,'ls. per doz., 20s. per 100 ; ARALIAS, in 48's, 5s. and 
6s. per doz.; twelve best sorts of FERNS, 12s. per 100; 
ASPARAGUS PLUMOSUS NANUS, 6s. per doz. ; variety of 
FERNS in 48's, 5s. & 6s. per doz. Free on rail. Cash with order 
LANE AND MARTIN, 227, Brixton Road, London, S.W. 

(CLEARANCE SALE 61? BULBS, 

^ AT REDUCED PRICES. 

Bulbs for Spring and Summer Flowering. 

HYACINTHS, DAFFODILS, POLYANTHUS NARCISSI, 

TULIPS, SNOWFLAKES, CHIONODOXAS, GIANT 

SNOWDROPS, &c. 

Clearance Price List, free on application to 

BARR and SON, 12, King Street, Covent Garden, Loudon. 



Januaby 6, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



CATTLEYA TRIAN^E. 

Just to hand, per s.s. Para, a superb lot, in magnificent order, plants being of medium size, and 

beautifully leaved, with eyes dormant. 



ODONTOGLOSSUM PESCATOREI 

Our Collector writes that this lovely Orchid is fast becoming exhausted in its native habitat, and he 
has experienced very great difficulty in finding such a fine consignment as those ije now offer. 



VANDA CCERULEA. 

Splendid importation from same localities as our last, from which have flowered so many grand forms. 
Mr. Boxall writes:— "The colour of the Vanda is simply splendid." 
INSPECTION RESPECTFULLY INVITED. 



HUGH LOW & CO., Clapton Nursery, London, N.E . 

All Flower 4" Vegetable SEEDS are supplied post-free, and arrive within tea days after receipt of order. 



CHR. LORENZ, 

Now Ready, 

The ENGLISH EDITION of 
LOKENZ'S 



ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUE, 

With MOKE than Two 
Hondeed Beautiful 
Engravings and Exact 

CULTUBAL DlBECTIONS. 

Gratis and Post Free on 
application. 



THE LARGEST AND OLDEST 
GERMAN SEED HOUSE, 



ERFURT. 



Postage for Letters to Germany, 
2\d. ; Postcards, Id. 




Before you order your 

SEEDS 

FOB THE SPRING, 

read The 

ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUE, 

For Owners of Gardens, 
and Amateurs, of the 
Largest and Oldest Seed 
House on the Continent, 
and you will BUY your 
SEEDS much CHEAPER 
than from 
Any Other Firm. 



CHR. LORENZ, 

SEED GROWER and MERCHANT, 

Seedsman by Special Warrant to H.M. the Empress of Germany, H.M. the King of Saxony, H.M. the King of Bavaria, 

H.M. the King of the Netherlands, H.M. the King of Roumania, H.M. the King of Servia 

H.R.H. the Grand Duke of Hesse, H.H. the Duke of Anhalt. 

100-103, JOHN STBEET ERFURT, GERMANY. 



WHOLES ALE SEED CATA LOGUE. 

We have now published our Wholesale Catalogue of 

VECETABLE& FLOWER SEEDS 

Containing also the best Novelties of the Season, MAY BE 
HAD ON APPLICATION. Any of our Customers not having 
received one by post will oblige by letting us know, when 
another shall at once be posted. 



WATKINS&SIMPSON, 

BULB AHD SEED MERCHANTS, 

EXETER ST., STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

Seed & Trial Grounds— Feltham & Twickenham, Middlesex. 

COVERT PLANTS-COVERT PLANTS. 

EVEROtREEN PRIVETS, 2 to 3 feet, at 21s. per 1000. 
SNOWBERRY, 3 to 4 feet, at 30s. per 1000. 
GORSE, 1 to 2 feet, at I5s. per 1000. 
SCARLET DOGWOOD, 2 to 3 feet, at 15s. per 100. 
All stout transplanted plants. 



JOHN PERKINS & SON, 

52, MARKET SQUARE, NORTHAMPTON. 



NOTHING 
NOTHING 



is too small. 



is too much trouble. 



The Trade Supplied. 

E. D. SHUTTLEWORTH $ CO, Ltd., 
{Albert Nurseries) 

PECKHAM RYE, LONDON, 8.E., 
and FLEET, HANTS. 



CHARL ES SHARPE & CO. 

Seed Growers — Seed Merchants 

Cultivateurs — Marchands Grainiers 

Samenculture — Samenhaiidlung. 



TRADE CATALOGUES 



IN 



ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN. 

SLEAF0RD, ENGLAND 



LUCIEN LINDEN'S WORKS ON HORTICULTURE, 

PUBLISHED IN THE FRENCH .LANGUAGE. 

LES ORCHIDEES EXOJIQUES ET LEUR CULTURE EN EUROPE. La culture Beige devoid ! Traite complet consacre - 

a la cultare des principals merveilles de la Flore tropicale, 800 pages de texte, grand in 8°, nombreuses gravures dans et hors texte, sera mis 
en vente en Mars prochain. 20s. (25 francs) l'exemplaire. 

L'lLLUSTRATION HORTICOLE. Transformed k partir de 1894, en un nouveau Journal populaire de 1' horticulture 

danstoutes sea branches, paraissant le 15 et le 30 de chaque mois. Journal illustrS de tons les progres horticoles, le pins complet et le 
meilleur marche de tons ceux publics en langne Franchise, 24 numeros par an, 24 magniflques planches colorizes, grand in 8°, 384 pages de 
texte, nombreoses gravures. 12s. (15 francs), par an, pour toute l'union postale. 

LE JOURNAL DES ORCHIDEES. Guide pratique de culture paraissant le l er et le 15 de chaque mois. 16 pages 

de tezte par numero, gravures, public aveo la collaboration de 50 Orchidophiles de tous les pays. 8s, (10 francs) par an pour toute l'union postale. 

LA LINDENIA. Iconographie des Orchide'es ouvrage de'die' au grand Botaniste Esplorateur J. Linden. 4 grandes 

planches adimrables executes par numero, parait tous les mois. Editions separees en langue franchise et en anglais. Prix sur demande. 

Tf*tJ!T! J .r - P in ) the Ll " iin \ a > 9 remarked by all who are qualified to Rive an •• LindmS&a one of the books which are indispensable to every serious student 
aa I note too that the crimson and nurnle colours. wh,vb it. ;« .r.H;flR^„u *■« „;,.., ,•„ „ .5.... .* ^-.l-j. __ *£_ -., __* ,,_. : _j „„, — ; nn ii^ - 



"The 
opinion, ana Inote too that the crimson and purple colours.'which "it 7s so difficult' to rivTiVa picfoir*e 
come out to the life in the Lindenia and what is of equal importance they do not fade as they do in most 
other publications which give coloured plates of Orchids. — James O'Brien Oct 2 1893 

ON SOUSCRIT AUX 



BUREAUX: 100, RUE BELLIARD, 



of Orchids, and will naturally find aplace in all botanical and horticultural libraries; 
the beauty of the illustrations and their fidelity to Nature commend it to all lovers 
of handsome books."— Garden and Forest. Dec. 20, 1893. 

BRUXELLES. 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jantjaby 6, 1894. 



To the Trade. 

IMPORTANT NOTICE.— When you are in 
London, it will be well worth your time to pay a visit to 
Albert Nurseries. Peckham Rye, S.E. ; or Fleet, Hants. You 
can make your notes, and have a business look round, combined 
with an outing ; you will not be worried to order. 

E. D. SHUTTXEWORTH AND CO., Ltd., 
Awarded Silver-gilt Flora Medal by the Royal Horticultural 
Society; also Gold, Silver-gilt. Silver, and Bronze Medals, 
Prizes, and Certificates at other Firstclass Shows. Our 
specialty— really good stuff grown for the Trade. ^ 



H. CANNELL & SONS' 

SEEDS. 



Their Catalogue of the above will be sent post 
free to all their friends and coming customers 
on application. Its value will surprise many, 
also the success of their OWN GROWN SEEDS. 
It is a fact their superior quality inoreased our 
orders 2000 last season, absolutely proving they 
are better in every respeot, and Five Silver 
Medaxs awarded at London Big Shows for 
Vegetables oonfirm it, and with their mode of 
business is evidently highly appreciated all 
over the World. 

THE FOLLOWING ARE A PROOF :- 

N. NAKJUM)AIYA, Goveri ment Central Press, Bangalore, 
East Iodies, December 13, 1893. 
I have heard from so many how well your Seeds do out here, 
send me the enclosed. 

G. D. COUSINS, Esq.. Norton Villa, Norton, Malton, 
December 30. 1893. 
I have so often heard my friends speak fo highly of your 
Seeds, that I shall be glad if you will kindly send me your 
Catalogue. 

SWANLEY, KENT. 



QUICK, ENGLISH WHITE THORN.— 
4,000 four years old and 14,000 five years old, both trans- 
planted. Height of four years old 38 inches. The 14,00) has 
been cut off ; all strong and healthy, 18s. per 1000, free on 
Rail at Lynn Docks, G.E.R.— Apply to the NORFOLK 
ESTUARY COMPANY, 20, Whitehall Place, London, S.W. 

Old-Fashloned and Garden Roses. 

GEO. COOLING and SONS' ROSE CATA- 
LOGUE contains a full list of Old-Fashioned and 
Decorative Garden Roses, and a beautiful Coloured Plate o£ 
the Copper Austrian and other Briars. It will be forwarded 
post-free on application. A Silver Medal was awarded to 
G. C. & Sons for their collection of Old-Fashioned Roses at the 
Temple Show of the Royal Horticultural Society, and nume- 
rous prizes and Certificates throughout the season. 
The Nurseries, Bath. 



WINTER -FLOWERING CARNATIONS. 
— Miss Joliffe Improved, best flesh pink, Autumn 
struck Cuttings, 4s. 6rf. per dozen, 15s. per 100. Cash with 
order.— CRANE and CLABKE, The Nurseries, March, Cambs. 

Chrysanthemums. — Chrysanthemums. 

TO MARKET GROWERS and OTHERS,— 
The four best kinds for Market : President Hyde, best 
yellow; Florence Percy, best white; Source d'Or, best bronze, 
the prevailing eolour ; Cannell'a Elsie, best cream. My 
salesmen have repeatedly returned me as much again per box 
for the latter two sorte over all others. Splendid strong 
Cuttings, 2s. 6d. per 100, by Parcel Post. Also the following, 
at Tery low prices : — Lord Canning, splendid late white; 
Lacroix, Molyneux, Sunflower, Rocher. Florence Davis, Eyns- 
ford White. Beauty of Exmouth, and a host of others. Strong 
cuttings, true to name.— W. CONNELLY, Lyme Regis. 




WATER SUPPLY 

FOB 

Gardens and Greenhouses. 

NO SKILLED SUPERINTENDENCE, OR DANGER. 



THE "RIDER" HOT-AIR ENGINE 

Raises 1000 gallons 80 feet high for an expendi- 
ture of ONE PENNYWORTH of Fuel. 



Cbanston's Nubsebies say : 
sorry to be without it now." 



- " We should be very 



SOLE MAKERS:— 



HAYWARD TYLER & CO., 

Address : 39, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, E.C. 




THE QUEEN OF WHITE SWEET PEAS, 

" Emily Henderson." 



A GLORIOUSLY beautiful acquisition of American origin. Abso- 
lutely pure white, as clear as alabaster and as lustrous as 
satin. The flowers, of remarkable substance, are borne on long 
stiff peduncles, are extra large, with broad round standards that stand 
up boldly without reflex or curl. 

The plants are robust, compact and branching, producing such 
a prodigal abundance of flowers, that the plants appear as if covered with 
snow. From one plant, specially cultivated, we have cut in one season the 
seemingly incredible number of 1035 sprays of bloom. 

In earliness, it outrivals all competitors by nearly two weeks, and 
continues a veritable " cut-and-come-again " to the end of Autumn. The 
fragrance is most delicious and distinct. 

For forcing' under glass it is particularly adapted. 

CAN BE PROCURED (in the original sealed packets 

of the introducers) FROM THE LEADING 

seedsmen of GREAT BRITAIN 

AND THE CONTINENT. 



Price, 



( Per packet {about jo seeds). . 
\ Per ounce (about joo seeds). 



6d. 



rthTffrfnTI I The EMILY HENDERSON Sweet Pea can be had 
UdULlUlI I true this year only in the original packets and 
ounces, sealed with the " red trade mark " label of the introducers, 
which protects you, your seedsmen and ourselves, as we have reason to 
believe that other whites will be foisted on the market this season as the 
"Emily Henderson."— PETER HENDERSON & CO., New York, U. S. A. 



Janoart 6, 18'J^.j 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



ROSES.— The finest varieties in cultivation. 
The best Trees in commerce. For trees worth any three 
of the scrubs often distributed ; for large, bushy well-ripened 
trees with abundant roots ; for trees in the pink of condition ; 
for the cream of Koses, choicest offspring of the Eosarian's 
skill and love. Send for list and sample dozen, to 
WILL TAYLER. Hampton, Middlesex. 

ISAAC MATTHEWS and SON have for 
immediate disposal as follows, all of first-class quality, in 
full health and vigour : — 
RHODODENDRONS, White, full of buds. 
,, Scarlet and other varieties, full of buds. 
„ Hybrid Seedlingsand Ponticum varieties, from 1 to 4 feet, 
at remarkably low prices, all bushy fine plants. 
PRIVET, Oval- Leaf, from 2 to i feet, fine; ASH, Common, 
and MOUNTAIN BEECH ; HAZEL, HORSE CHEST- 
NUTS, ELM. LARCH, AUSTRIAN PINE, POPLARS 
(various), EVERGREEN PRIVET, THORN QUICK, 
SCOTCH FIR, SPRUCE, SYCAMORE, and WILLOWS, 
all good, well-grown Trees, from 1J to 4 feet, and upwards. 
ROSES, AUCUBAS, BERBERIS AQUIFOLIA, BOX, 
CUFRESSUS, DOGWOOD, GOLDEN ELDERS, HOL- 
LIES, IVIES, LAURELS, RETINOSPORAS, English and 
Irish YEWS, AZALEAS (various), and many other varie- 
ties. For Price List, apply to — 

The Nurseries, Milton, Stoke-on-Trent. 

BURM ESE L ILIES. 

HUGH LOW & CO. 

Have just received, per s.-s. Yorkshire, a grand 
Consignment of L. NEPALENSE and L. 
SULPHUREUM (WALLICHIANUM SU- 
PERBUM), which they propose to offer at 
greatly reduced prices. The bulbs vary very 
much in appearance, and new varieties may be 
confidently expected. 

CLAPTON NPBSEBY, LONDON, N.E. 
NOW READY.-NOW BEADY. 

DANIELS' 

ILLUSTRATED GUIDE and 

SEED CATALOGUE 

For AMATEUR GARDENERS, 
Spring. 1894. 

Containing 132 pages, imperial size, of beautifully illustrated 
letterpress, three superb coloured plates, a select list of 
Choice Kitchen Garden and Flower Seeds, Seed Potatos, 
Fruit Trees, Roses, Clematises, Carnations, and other florets' 
flowers, with copious notes on cultivation, and a list of 
the beBt novelties of the season. The whole enclosed in 
a charmingly printed coloured wrapper. This will be found 
by far the best and most complete Garden Catalogue yet 
published, and should certainly be in the hands of all who are 
interested in horticulture. 

PRICE 18., POST FREE. 
The Shilling to be deducted from first order of 5s. or upwards. 

DANIELS BROS., 

ROYAL NORFOLK SEED ESTABLISHMENT, 
NORWICH. 

J. DAVIES & SON 

Have a fine Stock of the Following to Offer:— 

SWEET-SCENTED RHODODENDRONS, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. 
each; their new Dwarf varieties, 2s., 3s., and fs. each, all 
covered with buds; also 20,000 choice named hardy kinds, 
bushy, and well-budded, cheap by the 100, to clear ground. 

AZALEA MOLLIS Seedlings in various colours, 12 to 20 
buds, 9s. per dozen, 60s. per 100; best named mollis. Ghent, 
and other varieties, well-budded, 24s. per dozen, splendid plants. 

DAPHNE INDICA RUBRA, in Flower and Bud, Is. Gd., 2s., 
and 2s. 6<f. each. 

LILIUM AURATUM, 30,000 home-grown, sound flowering 
bulbs, at 3s., 6s., and 9s. per dozen, less per 100. 

CATALOGUE of General Stock free on application. 
BROOK LANE NURSERY, ORMSKLBK. LANCASHIRE. 



PUN TING SE ASON, 

HABDILK^BOWH 



TREES & PLANTS, 

EVER GREENS, ROSES, to. 

N U RS ERIES 4QO AO RE S: 

MI ■XTBH8IYB HOOK. UipwtlM lariU* 

Prtoed Catalogues Gratia * Poat Fraa. 

THI 

XlRIERIU 



DlCKSONS 



(LIMIT BD) 



NOW IS THE TIME TO PLANT. 

Send for our NEW DESCRIPTIVE and PRICED 
CATALOGUE of FRUIT TREES. ROSES, CONI- 
FERS, SHRUBS, FOREST TREES, CLIMBERS, 
HERBACEOUS PLANTS, &c. A large Stock grown. 

LANDSCAPE GARDENING 

A leading feature. Plans, Specifications, and Estimates 
prepared. 

GEO. JACKMAN & SON, 

WOKING NURSERY, WOKING, SURREY. 
Established 1810. Abea 150 aches. 

"best LATE APPLET 

WE CAN STRONGLY RECOMMEND OUR NEW APPLE 
" NEWTON WONDER," 

as the best late Apple in cultivation ; fruit keeps till June ; 
large, -well-coloured, perfect form, splendid cooking quality; 
tree a vigorous grower, free from canker, and very productive. 

Awarded First-class Certificate, R.H.S.. Dec. 1887. 

Now Widely Known. Descriptive Catalogue of Fruits 

on Application. 
J. R. PEA RSON & SON3, Chilwell Nurseries, Notts. 

CUTBUSH'S MILL- 
track MUSHROOM SPAWN. 
— Everyone can readily grow Mush- 
rooms, and by using this Spawn will 
ensure success. All growers speak in 
high praise of the quality. Numerous 
Testimonials. None genuine unlesB 
in Bealed packages, and printed cul- 
tural directions enclosed with our 
signature attached. 

Pri«e, 6s. per bushel, Is. extra for 
package; or, Is. per cake, free per 
Parcel Post. 

WM. CTJTBUSH & SON, Nurserymen and Seed Merchants, 
flighgate Nurseries, London, N.. and Barnet, Herts. 

SPECIAL CULTURE OF 

FRUIT TREES AND ROSES. 

A LARGE AND SELECT STOCK IS NOW 
OFFERED FOR SALE. 
The Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of 
Fruits, post-free, 3d. 

The Desoriptive Catalogue of Koses, post-free. 




THOMAS RIVERS & SON, 

THE NURSEBIES, 

SAWBRIDGEWORTH, HERTS. 

GOLD MEDAL 
CHRYS ANTHE MUMS. 

My Collection has been awarded this season two Gold 
Medals, two Silver Gilt, one Silver, and one Bronze, the 
highest award in each case. The National Chrysanthemum 
Society's Gold Medal being the only one ever awarded to a 
Collection of Cut Blooms. 

My Stock is in fine condition, and all who are interested in 
Chrysanthemums should secure a copy of my new. Descriptive, 
and Hlustrated Catalogue, the most useful and complete ever 
published, which contains Cultural Articles by Mr. Charles E. 
Shea, and Mr. H. Shoesmith ; also Cultural Notes, by Mr. E. 
Beckett. Postrfree, 7 stamps. 

H. J. JONES, 

Ryecroft Nursery, Hither Green, Lewlsnam, S.E. 

THE COLORADO BLUE SPRUCE. 

ABIES PUNGENS GLAUCA and ARGENTEA. 
Handsome specimens, 3, 4, 5, and 6 feet high. These are all 
of the Bluest type, and undoubtedly the finest plants in 
commerce. They are all Seedlings, the plants usually met 
with being grafted on the Common Spruce Fir. 

ANTHONY WATERER, 

KNAP HILL NURSERY, WOKING. SURREY. 

FRUIT TREES. 

To MARKET and PRIVATE GROWERS. 

We hold an extensive Stock of all hinds of the above, 

in first-rate quality aid at reasonable prices. 

Intending Planters would do well to send for Descriptive 

Catalogue free on application. 

S. SPOONER & SONS, 

HOUNSLOW NURSERIES, MIDDLESEX. 



CHRYSANTHEMUMS, Strong-rooted Cut- 
tings. — Lacroix, Source d'Or, Elaine, Desgranges, 4s. per 
100, Carriage paid. Germania. strong stuff, in big 60's. 
JOHNSON and CO., The Nurseries, Hampton. 

ORCHIDS.— Odont. orispum, Pescatorea, 5s., 
75. Hi/.; Rossi majus, Leelia harpopbylla, Cyp. insigne, 
2s. i>(/., 3s. Qd. t 5s. , all in bud ; and many others. 
H. BROCHNER, Hessle, Yorkshire. 

SEED CATALOGUE for 1894.— Just pub- 
lished, with everything priced, containing Novelties of 
sterling merit, both in VEGETABLE and FLOWER SEEDS. 
PosWree on application to WILLIAM BULL. F.L.S., 
Establishment for New and Rare Plants and Seeds, 536, King's 
Road, Chelsea, London, S.E. 

CHELSEA GEM PEA, the best early dwarf 
Marrow sort, 2s. per qt. EARLIEST OF ALL PEA. 
earliest round blue, lOd. per qt. VFITCH'S EXTRA EARLY 
PEA, very early sort. Is. per qt. Orders, 10s. upwards, free. 
Seed Catalogues free. 

F. MfLLER AND CO., 267, Fulham Riad, London. S.W. 

NEW CHRYSANTHEMUMS.— Mrs. C. J. 
Salter, awarded 5 Fmfc-class Certificates ; Mrs. Jeremiah 
Colman, First-class Certificate ; and many other Novelties, all 
fully described in my special list, now ready. Post free from 
W. WELLS, Earlswood Nurseries, Redhill, Surrey. 

BEGONIAS A SPECIALTY. — Awarded 
Seven Gold Medals, Gold Cup, and only Gold Medals for 
Begonias at the International Horticultural Exhibition. Seed 
saved from Prize Plants. Choicest mixed, Single or Double 
varieties, Is., 2s. Qd,, and 5s. per packet. Collections (Seed), 
Single, Twelve named varieties, separate, 5s. 6rf. ; Six ditto, 
3s. Tubers, named singles, from 18s. to 60s. per dozen ; 
Choicest Seedlings, 4s. to 21s. per dozen; BeddiDg, choicest, 
3s. to 9s. per dozen ; Choicest named Doubles, from 18s. per 
dozen; Choicest Seedlings, 12s. to 30s. per dozen; Choicest 
mixed, for bedding. 9s. to 18s. per dozen. Catalogues gratis. 

JOHN LAING amd SONS, Begonia Growers, &c, Forest 
Hill, London, S.E. 



ANDERSON'S RUSSIA MATS 

Are the Best and Cheapest. 

GARDEN SUNDRIES OF EVERY KIND. 

Illustrated CATALOGUE post-free on application. 



n GLASS. 



JAMES T. ANDERSON, 
135 & 137, COMMERCIAL ST., LONDON, E. 

HORTICULTURAL 

A Large Stock 
always on Hand . 

Special quotations for quantities. 

WHITE LEAD, OILS, AND COLOURS 

At lowest possible prices. 

NICH0LLS& CLARKE, 

6, HIGH STREET, SHOREDITCH, 

LONDON, E. 




THIS GREENHOUSE erected and heated complete, in 
any part of the country, best materials only, workmanship 
guaranteed, 25 ft. by 12ft., £50; 30ft. by 15ft, £70. Brick- 
work excepted. For particulars, see our Catalogue. posMree. 




Superior Portable Frames, large stock ready for 

immediate use, well made, painted four coats, glazed with 
21-oz. glass, carriage paid:— 1-light frame, 4X6, 365. 6rf. ; 
2-light frame, 6X8, 58s. ; 3-light frame, 12 X 6. 85j. 6<i. 

Span-roof Frames, 9 x 5, £3 15s. ; 12 x 6, £5 ; 16 x 6, 
£7 10s. Can send off same day as ordered, 



HARDY BRUINS., 



%SS LEICESTER 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



January 6, 1894.] 



FRUIT TREES, 
ROSES iess POTS, 

VINES, 

OF ALL THE FINEST VARIETIES, 
NEW AND OLD. 



HUGH LOW & CO,, 

BUSH HILL NURSERY, 
ENFIELD. 



For PLEASURE and PROFIT. 




Nothing so Profitable 

and Easy to Grow. 
80 ACRES IN STOCK. 



Hundreds of 

Thousands. 

Bushes in variety. Packing and Carriage Free for Cash 

with Order. Sa. per dozen, 60s. per 100. 

All othek Nursery Stock Carriage Forward. 

Roses in Pots from 15s. per doz. 

Ornamental Trees, 91 Acres. 

4 Acres of Glass. 

CLEMATIS (80,000), from 15*. per dozen. 

N.B. — Single Plants are sold at slightly increased prices. 



bEEDi 



The Best procurable. 
Lists Free. 



GENERAL CATALOGUE 

(over 140 pages) of Nursery Stock 1 , artistically produced, 

containing some hundreds of illustrations, and full of 

valuable information, sent FREE. 

RICHARD SMITH & GO., WORGESTER. 



ONLY THE BEST' 



Pttas, 12 quarts. 


Cauliflower, 2 pitta. 


Mustard, 1 pint. 


Beans, 4£ quaits. 


Celery and Endive, 


Melon, 2 pkts. 


Beet, 2oz. 


each 2 pkts. 


Onion, 4 oz. 


Borecole, Brussels 


Cress, 8 oz. and 2 pkts. 


Parsley, 2 oz. 


Sprouts, Broccoli, 


Cucumber, 3 pkts. 


Parsnip, 4 oz. 


and Cabbage, 19 


Herbs, 6 pkts. 


Radi-h, 8 oz. 


pkts. 


Leek, 1 pkt. 


Spinach, ]£ pints 


Carrot, 6 oz. 


Lettuce, 4 pkts. 


Turnips, 4 oz. 



GARAWAY & CO. 

SUPPLY tilt BEST at HOST MODERATE PRICES. 

All Orders Carriage Paid, and for Cash with Order, 
15 per Cent, discount allowed. 

THEIR CLIFTON 2-CUIHEA COLLECTION 

CONSISTS of 

uliflower, 

lery and 
=ach 2 pkl 
ess, 8 oz. a 
cumber. Z 
srbs, 6 pkt 
ek, 1 pkt. 
ttuce, 4 p 
Salaafy, Scorzonera.VcgetableMarrow, Mixed Gourd, Rampion, 
Tomato, Capsicum, and Corn Salad, each 1 pkt. 
Any article not required can be omitted and others of equal 
value substituted. 

NOVELTIES in- FLOWER SEEDS 

COMPRISE 

ANTIRRHINUM, QUEEN OF NOP.TH, pure white, per 

packet, Is. 
ARISTOLOCUfA ELEGAN8, Kreenhourse creeper, per pkt., Is 
1) UfUA, SINGLE CACTUS, good for cutting, per pkt Is 
MARIGOLD, UWARF SINGLE, "LEGION OS HONOUR," 

very beautiful, rer packet, u. 
PETUNIA, GIANT OF CALIFORNIA, exquisitely fringed, 

per i acket, Is. 
POPPY, AM6EICAN FLAG, double and beautifully ooloured, 

per packet, >>/ 
rtltvn l,i, QAK.4.WAY, Wrrte, the finest while ever raised, 

p ir packet, 23. 6cl. and . r ,s. 
SCHUBERTIa GRANDIFLOKA, fine warm greenhouse clim- 
ro white, and better than StephanotiB, per pkt., 

2s. fid. And many other varieties. 

ANNUALS, fifteen packets for Is. 

CATALOGUES POST- FEW ON APPLICA TION. 



GARAWAY & CO., 

DUEDHAM DOWN, CLIFTON, BRISTOL. 



EITGH'S CL1M 




(6 to 7 ft. high). Raised by Mr. Ward, of LongfoTd Castle Gardens, Salisbury. 



A CLIMBING!- BEAN of the Canadian Wonder type, but more vigorous and brandling. It is 
exceedingly proliflo, and oomes in about three weeks before Scarlet Runner Beans. Fine for Forcing. 

CERTIFICATE of MERIT at EXETER and TAUNTON FLOWER SHOWS, 1893. 

Price, per packet, 2s. 

TO BE OBTAINED OF— 

ROBERT VEITCH & SON, 





i 54, HIGH STREET, EXETER; 

AND 

JAMES VEITGH & SONS, CHELSEA, S.W. 



NOW READY. 



HARPE'S ILLUSTRATED 

1894. DESCRIPTIVE 

Post-free on application to 

CHARLES SHAKPE & CO., 
SEED FARMERS AND MERCHANTS, SLEAFOED. 





SEEDS 



GKSON, 



TAIT'S 



NEW ILLUSTRATED PRICED CATALOGUE 
of VEGETABLE and FLOWER SEEDS 

IS NO W P RELISHED $ MA Y BE HAD FREE ON AP PLICA TION. 



A Copy has been Posted to eaoh of their Customers. Should anyone not have received it they will 

be pleased to forward another copy. 



ROYAL SEED ESTABLISHMENT, CORPORATION STREET, MANCHESTER. 



ORTICDLTURAL BUILDER. 

Every description of GREENHOUSES, LIGHTS, &C. 

ER 



Best ({iiality and workmanship, 2 inches thick, 6 ft. by 1 ft., 
iron bar across, and very strong, 'Is. Qd. each, 50.S. doz., £10 for 
50 Lights, free on rail in London. Cash or reference with order. 



Timber sufficient to build 100 feet by 12 feet house. Roof 
Ventilators, Door. &c. Put on rail in London. Price, £9 10s. 
Send for detailed specification, to — 



W. DUNCAN TUCKER, HORTICULTURAL WORKS, TOTTENHAM. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, just issued. 



January 6, 1891.] 



THE GAJiDENEllS' C1UWNICLE. 



KENT, 

THE GARDEN OF ENGLAND. 



eo. BUNYARD 

EXTENSIVE NURSERIES, 

AIDSTONE, 

KENT, 

OFFER to Purchasers the FINEST STOCK of 
DEVELOPED 



IN BRITAIN. 



Their larger-sized Trees Emit at once. 

" Kent —I may tell you I have bought fruit trees 
from live other large growers, and yours were far the 
best examples." 

Special attention is called to their specimen 
Espalier Apples, Amateur's Standard Apples, 
Cordon, Gridiron, Double Cordon, and very large 
Pyramidal Apples on Paradise Stocks, all of which 
will fruit the first year of 'planting. 

Large Pyramidal Plums, Peaches, and Nec- 
tarines, trained on stems 2 feet to 6 feet. Per- 
fectly ripened and bristling with fruit buds. 

" Middlesex.— Am delighted with the fruit trees 
—a splendid lot— so clean and robust, with fine roots." 

Extra fine Peaches and Nectarines in Pots, 
5s. to 10s. 6d, 

Trained Peaches and Nectarines in Pots, to 
fruit at once, 5s. to 7s 6d. 

Short-jointed and well-ripened Vines, &c. 

And every kind and style of Fruit Trees. 

Royal Jubilee Apple, fine standards, 3/6 each. 

"Scotland — Apple trees received last week in 
splendid condition." 

"Hants.— The specimen Pears came to har.d, 
scarcely a twig brokeD." 

" Cheshire. — Have found your trees more correctly 
named than any I have purchased elsewhere." 

A grand lot of Scotch Fir, 4 feet to 6 feet, 
stout and well-rooted. 

Specimen Austrian Pines, 4 feet to 8 feet. 

Christmas Trees (Spruce) up to 20 feet. 

" Kircudbright — I have had splendid fruit from 
the trees you sent me last year." 

" Suffolll. — You have sent us a grand lot of fruit 
trees." 

"Guernsey. — The fruit trees you eent me were 
infinitely better in every way than a neighbour's, who 
purchased elsewhere." 



125 ACRES Well-grown 
NURSERY STOCK. 



BUNYARD & CO., 

MEECHANT NUESEEYMEN, 

FRUIT TREE GROWERS, FLORISTS, 
LANDSCAPE GARDENERS, &o. 

MAIDSTONE, KENT, 

Catalogues for all Departments. 




SPRING 



SATALOGUE 



FOR 1894, 



Beautifully Illustrated with Five Coloured Plates (illus- 
trating Cucumbers, Onions, Beans, Celf.ri', Frimulas, 
Gloxinias. Silenes, Antirrhinums. Convolvulus, and 
chrysanthemums), ana hundreds of Engravings. Also 
containing complete Cultural Instructions, an Article on 
"Beautiful Borders," List of Novelties, &c, &c. 

NOW READY, POST FREE, Is., 

which may be deducted til subsequent Orders. 
Abridged Edition, ready on Feb. 1, Gratis and Post Free. 

S;edsmen Vjy Royal Warrants, 




THE BEST 

ARD 

^Z7 Jl]?JlJ 




AT MOST MODERATE PRICES. 

SEED POTATOS, 
GARDEN TOOLS, & SUNDRIES. 

Descriptive Catalogue No. 432, Post Free 

on Application. 

Delivered Free by Rail or Parcel Post. 

v _ Seed Growers 



'HESTER 



ANTHONY WATERER 

Invites an inspection from intending Planters to the fol- 
lowing well-grown TREES, having stout, clean stems, 
with handsomely-furnished, well-balanced heads, and from 
frequently transplanting are splendidly rooted; the girth 
of the Btem is taken at 4 feet from the ground :— 
ACER DASYCARPUM, 14 to 20 feet, girth 4 to 8 inches. 

, WIERI LACINIATUM, 10 to 14 feet, girth 3 to 5 inch. 
„ NEGUNDO VARIEGATA, Standards, 8 to 10 feet. 
„ REITENBACHI, 12 to 14 feet, girth 4 to 5 inches. 
„ SCHWEDLERI, 12 to 18 feet, girth 4 to 8 inches. 
„ WORLEYI, 12 to 14 feet, girth 3 to 6 inches. 
BEECH, Purple, Pyramids, and Standards, 10 to 20 feet, girth 

4 to 9 inches. 
BIRCH, Silver, 12 to 14 feet, girth 3 to 5 inches. 
CERASUS SEROTINA (American Bird Cherry), 12 to 16 feet, 

girth 6 to 7 inches. 
CHESTNUTS, Horse, 14 to 20 feet, girth 6 to 11 inches. 
„ Double White, 14 to 16 feet, girth 6 to 8 inches. 

Scarlet, 12 to 18 feet, girth 4 to 10 inches. 
„ „ Brioti, 10 to 14 feet. 
ELMS, English, 10 to 12 feet, girth 3 to 6 inches. 
„ Guernsey, 16 to 18 feet, girth 7 to 9 inches. 
LIMES, 12, 16, and 20 feet, girth 3 to 10 inches. 
„ EUCHLORA or DASYSTYLA, 12 to 14 feet, girth 4 to 6 

Silver-leaved (Tilia argentea), 12 to 14 feet, girth 5 to 6 
inches. 
LIQUID AMBAJR, 6 to 10 feet. 
MAPLE, Norway, 12 to 16 feet. 
OAK, English, 12 to 14 feet, girth 4 to 5 inches. 

,, Scarlet American, 12 to 14 feet, girth 4 to 5 inches. 
POPLAB CANADENSIS NOVA (the true variety), 12 to 

16 feet, girth 6 to 7 inches. 
SYCAMORE, Common, 12 to 17 feet, girth 4 to 7 inches. 

„ Purple, 14 to 16 feet, girth 6 to 7 inches. 
THORNS, Double Pink, 8 to 10 feet. 
,, Paul's Scarlet, 8 to 10 feet. 
„ Double White, 8 to 10 feet. 

WEEPING TEEES. 

BEECH, Weeping, Pyramids, and Standards, 8 to 12 feet. 

,, Weeping, Purple, Pyramids and Standards, 7 to 12 feet. 
BIRCH, Young's Weeping, Pyramids and Standards, 8 to 
14 feet. 
ff Cutrleaved Weeping, Pyramids and Standards, 10 to 
12 feet. 
ELMS, Weeping, Pyramids and Standards, 7 to 14 feet. 
LARCH, Weeping, Pyramids, 8 to 10 feet. 

KNAP HILL NURSERY, WOKING, SURREY. 




THE 



(Btomidt 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1894. 



NOVELTIES OF 1893. 

THE past year was an important one in the 
matter of good additions to our gardens. 
All o'asses of plants seem to have been well 
recruited, and, in some sections, apparently lost- 
ground has been made up. This is specially 
noticeable in new, imported species of stove and 
greenhouse plants, so many of which made their 
debut at the Great Quinquennial Exhibition of 
the Royal Botanical and Agricultural Society 
of Ghent in April, 1803, and which were described 
and figured in our columns. 
Orchids 
have supplied the largest number of novelties, 
because of late years they have had a double 
chance of augmentation, by new species sent home 
by the plant collectors and by home-raised hybrids, 
the latter branch having increased in importance 
until now it is at least of equal interest to that 
of the foreign imports. Two very remarkable 
novelties specially presented themselves, viz., 
Eulophiella Elisabeths, whose charming wax-like 
white flowers were first seen on the specimen 
shown in their group of new plants by Messrs. 
Linden at the Great Ghent Show, and which was 
soon after made so plentiful by the exertions of 
Messrs. F. Sander & Co. ; and the very handsome 
and distinct Cypripedium Charlesworthii, more 
recently imported by Messrs. Charlesworth, Shut- 
tleworth & Co., of Heaton, Bradford, and which 
not only gives to gardens a fine new species, 
but also supplies the wherewithal to enable 
hybridists to recommence their work with fresh 
blood likely to give salutary results. 

Hybrids : Messrs. Veitch. 
In hybrid Orchids, Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons 
continue with unflagging zeal to produce novel- 
ties worthy of the grand things they have pre- 
viously sent out, their efforts being chiefly 
confined to the showier genera. Among hybrids 
between Lrelias and Cattleyas, their Lrelio- 
Cattleya x Nysa (L. crispa ? , C. Warscewiczii <$ ), 
for which Baron Sohroder received a First-class 
Certificate at the last meeting of the Royal Hor- 
ticultural Society, is a superb novelty ; and their 
L.-C. x Statteriana (L. Perrinii ? , C. labiata^), 
is a worthy companion to it. L.-C. x Epicasta 
(L. pumila?, C. Warscewiczii^), and L.-C. x 
Pisandra (L crispa ? , C. Eldorado £ ), are both 
good and richly-coloured flowers, and L.- C. x . 
Ascania (C. Trianrei 9 , L. xanthina^), of a pale 
yellow tint, and decidedly pretty. Of hybrids 
between Cattleyas, Cattleya x Chloris (Bow- 
ringiana?, maxima^), is a charming flower, 
combining the bright purple of C. Bowringiana, 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januaey 6, 1894. 



with the large flower of the other parent ; and 

C. x Pheidona (intermedia 9 , maxima (J ), a very 
delicately-tinted and worthy hybrid. 

Of the favourite genus Cypripedium, the best 
of those certificated to Messrs. Veitch at the 
Royal Horticultural Society in 1893, are C. x 
Aphrodite var. (niveum J , Lawrenceanum (J ), a 
great improvement on the original : C. x Minos 
(Spicerianum $ , Arthurianum^), its white 
dorsal sepal richly coloured with purple ; C. x 
CEnone (Hookene 9 , superbiens £ ) ; and of the 
Selenipedium section, C. x Clonius (conchi- 
ferumx $?. caudatum TVallisii^ ), a large and 
beautiful flower, with an ivory-white ground; 
0.x Penelaus (calurumj, caudatum Lindeni $ ), 
one of the darnest crimson of its class, and C. x 
Phcedra (Sedeni candidulum $ , Lindleyanum g ), 
cream-colour tinted rose. 

Among other remarkable hybrids raised by 
Messrs. Jas. Veitoh & Son, are Phaius x ama- 
bilis (grandifolius $ , tuberculosus £ ), very flori- 
ferous, and of a rich claret and yellow colour ; 
Calanthe x gigas (Vestita gigantea $ , Eegnieri 
Sanderiana <J ), a noble variety, with very large 
cream-coloured flowers, with deep rose centres ; 
Dendrobium x Niobe (tortile J, nobile^), and 

D. x statins (moniliforme x Dalhousianum). 

Mr. Cookson's Hybrids. 

Hybrids which emanate from the gardens of 
Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on- 
Tyne, bear on them the stamp of excellence. A 
very large proportion of the things raised and ex- 
hibited by Mr. Cookson are really first-class gains 
to our gardens. Of those of 1893, specially fine 
are Dendrobium X Bryan (luteolum $ , Wardia- 
num^), a charming thing, with a profusion of 
sulphur-tinted flowers; D. x Sybil (Linawia- 
num J , bigibbum <J ), with warm rosy-crimson 
blooms. In the plant there seemed but little 
trace of D. bigibbum, but the thicker leaves and 
other characters of the plant seem to prove that 
the cross was correctly recorded. D. X Owen- 
ianum (Linawianum majus x Wardianum gigan- 
teum) is another fine hybrid raised by Mr. Cook- 
son. Cattleya x Wm. Murray (MendeliixLaw- 
renceana), named after the clever gardener at 
Oakwood, is one of the best hybrids of 
the season ; C. x Harold (labiata Gaskel- 
liana 9 .Warscewiczii r$ ), scarcely less important ; 
L.-C. X Normanii (Laelia pumila J , Cattleya 
Dowiana^ ), a grand and richly-coloured flower, 
near to L. C. x Ingrami ; and Cypripedium x 
Sandero-superbiens, from seeds obtained by 
Captain Vipan, but raised by Mr. Cookson, a 
stately hybrid, although its flowers do not differ 
so much from others of the C. x Morganise class 
as one would have been led to expect by the 
peculiarly wavy petals of C. Sanderianum. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence. 
In Sir Trevor Lawrence's famed collection at 
Burford, as usual some very fine new species and 
varieties have been flowered during the past 
year. Of the Burford hybrids, Cypripedium x 
conco-Lawre (concolor x Lawrenceanum), that 
pretty companion to the best production of last 
year from these gardens, C. x Lawrebel ; and 
C. x oeno-superbiens, are prominent, and further 
improvements in Calanthes, and notably C. x 
Victoria liegia, a chastely delicate flower, has 
been shown. Among species first flowered or 
shown from liurf'ord are Phalienopsis fugax, a 
very singular and anomalous species ; Maxil- 
laria Banguinea, a pretty dwarf species with a 
profusion of flowers with bright carmine label- 
lums; Luisia Amesiana and L. volucris, two 
very singular Orchids; the Aganisia ionoptera 
of Linden ; and among Odontoglossums, O. 



Ruckerianum splendens, whioh is certainly the 
handsomest of that section of natural hybrid 
Odontoglossums. 

Baron Schroder. 

From Baron Schroder's gardens, The Dell, Eg- 
ham, one or two sterling new home-raised hybrids 
appear every year, and the best of the novelties 
raised by others are flowered and shown from 
these in far greater beauty than the raisers 
themselves ever contemplated, by reason of their 
excellent culture at Mr. Ballantine's hands. One 
very remarkable hybrid flowered at The Dell 
last year, viz , Lfelia x vitellina, with large and 
beautiful Indian yellow flowers ; the parentage 
was not recorded, but there is p-esumptive evi- 
dence, in its elegantly-shaped flowers, of its being 
the result of a cross between L. harpophylla and 
L. Perrinii. Loelio-Cattleya x Nysa also ob- 
tained a First-class Certificate when shown from 
The Dell collection ; and that unique plant, Cym- 
bidium Tracyanum, which was perhaps the best 
imported novelty of the year 1891, and which 
was illustrated in the Gardeners' Chronicle, 
January 31 of that date, has not belied our 
prediction that it was the noblest and most beau- 
tiful of the genus. It flowered last year with 
three immense spikes, which secured for Mr. 
Ballantine a Cultural Commendation. 

Mr. Chamberlain. 
Even more interesting than many strictly new 
species was the fine variety of Epicattleya x 
guatemalensis, with its pink - tinted, orange- 
coloured flowers, shown by the Right Honble. 
Joseph Chamberlain at the April meeting of 
the Royal Horticultural Society. The plant is 
specially noteworthy, as it gave the means of 
properly determining its correct botanical status, 
it having been known previously as Cattleya 
guatemalensis ever since it was discovered by 
Skinner growing in company with Cattleya 
Skinneri and Epidendrum aurantiacum, be- 
tween which two there is no doubt it is a 
natural hybrid. 

Messrs. Sander. 
The Orchid world is indebted to the enter- 
prise of Messrs. F. Sander & Co., of St. Albans, 
for some of the best new Orchids, both imported 
species and hybrids. Of the former, their im- 
portation of that superb strain of Cattleya Wars- 
oewiozii, known as " Sanderas," and out of which 
so many fine things have flowered, is of great 
importance. Out of it appeared the beautiful 
C. Warscewiczii Rothschildiana, which is one 
of the richest-coloured Cattleyas known, and has 
the labellum wholly of a rich violet-purple ; and 
on the other hand the unique C. W. Franoon- 
villensis, a grand white form which takes the 
same place in its section as C. Mossiie Reineck- 
iana does in C. Mossiee. Singularly enough, the 
Sanderian importation has given a parallel case 
in C. labiata vera, a fine white-petalled one, with 
coloured lip, having flowered with Wilberforce 
Bryant, Esq., at Stoke Park, and its counter- 
part with John Mills, Esq., at Bingwood. In 
view of the thousands of plants which have to 
be imported before one or two of these white 
forms appear, they cannot be too highly prizid. 
As the opposite of the white forms, we have the 
glowing dark C. labiata Sanderiana and C. 1. 
albanensis. The St. Albans importation of Den- 
drobium nobile has continued to give fine novel- 
ties, two of the best of last year being the soft 
pink U. n. Ballianum and the pure white D. n. 
Amesianum ; while the New Guinea importations 
have yielded good results in Dendrobium Impe- 
ratrix and D. veratrifolium. Of the others 



Coelogyne Sanderas is a charming thing ; Chysis 
Oweniana, a pretty pink species ; Odontoglos- 
sum Roablingianum, 0. Selwoodense, and O. 
Kranzlinii, new things which may be of hybrid 
origin, as but one plant of eaoh is known ; Epi- 
dendrum Wendlandianum, Saccolabium Moore- 
anum, Coelogyne Clarkei, Oncidium Sanderia- 
num, and Bulbophyllum Ericssoni, all of great 
botanical interest ; and Lajlio-Cattleya alba- 
nensis, a fine natural hybrid, presumably between 
Ltelia grandis and Cattleya labiata Warnerii. 

Hybrids— Of theSt. Albans hybrids of 1893, the 
most beautiful has been Cattleya x Lord Roths- 
child (Gaskelliana ? , aurea^ ), which bears some 
resemblance to C. x Massaiana. The next in 
importance is the handsome Ltclio-Cattleya x 
Maynardii (L. pumila Dayana 5 , Cattleya do- 
losa ^ ), which took the Silver-gilt Flora Medal of 
the Royal Horticultural Society for the best hybrid 
Orchid on June 6 last. Lfelia x Sanderse (xan- 
thina x Dormanii),and Masdevallia x Estradse- 
Shuttleworthii, are two very pretty plants. 
The list of new Cypripediums raised and 
flowered at St. Albans in 1893, is a very interest- 
ing one, and is worth enumerating in detail to 
indicate the crosses made, and which, as a rule, 
suggest their relative importance. They are C. x 
Davisiana (Boxalli atratum x Argas Mcen9ii); 
0. x mulus (hirsutissimum x Lawrenceanum) ; 
C. x Watsonianum (Harrisianum nigrum x 
concolor) ; C. x Massaianum (superciliare X 
Rothschildianum) ; C. X Fausianum (Dauthierii 
x calophyllum superbum) ; 0. x Hanischianum 
(albanense x reticulatum) ; C. x Lawre-con- 
color (the reverse of conco-Lawre) ; C. X Thayer- 
ianum (Lawrenoeanum x Boxalli atratum) ; 
C. x Marshianum (Harrisianum x cenanthum 
superbum ; C. x Measuresife (bellatulum x 
superbiens) ; C. x Troyanowskianum (insigne 
Chantinii X Io grandis) ; C. x Loewegren- 
ianum (Spicerianum X Io grandis) ; C. X Boy- 
leanum (Crossianum X Harrisianum) ; C. x 
Joseph Donat (Ashburtonife X Spicerianum) ; 
C. X Ridolfianum (Waellertianum X insigne 
Chantinii) ; and C. X Masonianum (villosum x 
Harrisianum superbum)— a very respectable 
record of species, varieties, and good hybrids. 

Kew. 
At the Royal Gardens, Kew, many novelties 
have, as usual, appeared. Two of the most im- 
portant to gardens are Disa X Premier (tri- 
petaloidesj, VeitehiiXrJ), and Disa X Kew- 
ensis (uniflora X tripetaloides), very pretty and 
free-growing rosy-crimson-flowered hybrids, 
both interesting and good. 

( To be continued. > 



New or Noteworthy Plants. 



VITIS COIGNETIiE* 
Now that attention has been called to this very 
beautiful Japanese Vine, by our extract from Garden 
and Forest (see p. 781 of our last volume), and 
Mr. Barbidge'a notice at p. 808, it may be well to 
put on record some facts concerning it culled from 
the account given in the lievue Horticole, 1890, p, 49. 

* Vitis Coiqnetia, Pulliat, in Plane/ton, Monog. AmpeHd. 
(D. C. Mon. Phan , vol. v., p. 325).— Rami's striatia, tomfnto 
floecoso, araneojo ferrugineo demuni plua miuua detersp in- 
dutis; cirrhia interuptis; folua ampliuaculia cordato-orbicu- 
latia angulatim3— 5 lobia, intequaliteietexserte dentatis supra 
demum glabratia subtua tomento eodem ac rami veatitia, inter 
n-rvorum venarumque reticulum impreaaum rugoaia coriaceia ; 
thyrsia pedunculatis baai srope cirrhiferia folio opposito brevi- 
oribua ; baccia in thyraofertili paucia globoaia diametro circiter 
1 cent., 2—3 epermia ; aeminibua ovoideis breviter rostratia 
loovibua aaturate fulvia; raphe filiformi in dipcum chaldzicum 
orbicularem dorealem excurrente. Vitis Labrusca, Thunb., 
Ft, Jap,, p. 103, non T>inn., Japan. 



January G, 1891] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



9 



From the account there given, it appears that the 
seeds were received originally from Japan by our old 
contributor Jean Sisley, so well known to many 
rosarians in this country. His daughter, Madame 
Coignet, was in 1875 travelling with her husband in 
the mountains of Japan, and sent home seeds of this 
Vine to her father, M. Sisley. From him they 
passed into the hands of Mr. Putliat, who, finding 
the seedlings presenting some remarkable charac- 
teristics, sent specimens to our old friend, M. Plan- 
chon, of Montpellier, at that time engaged in the 
preparation of a monograph on the Ampelidete for 
De Candolle's Suites an Prodromus. So much for 
the authentic history of the plant. Now we are told 
by Mr. Watson that it is probable that the grand old 
Vine in] Mr. Waterer's nursery at Knap Hill, which 
in autumn assumes such a glorious red colour, is 
really this Vitis Coignetiae. Mr. Waterer, we believe, 
has hitherto been unable to propagate the Vine in 



security enjoyed by the flowers, carried as the con- 
trivance is, by means of a pole resting on the shoulder 
of the man, to that of beiog rattled over the Btones 
in donkey-cart to the detriment of everything carried. 
And what would our street boys be doing with the 
flowers in the hinder receptacle ? They manage 
thes« thiops better in Japan. 

The illustration from which the woodcut was taken 
waB kindly furnished by Mr. J. H. Veitcb, whose 
travels in Japan, Cores, China, and other eastern 
countries, have been recorded in our columns during 
the last year. 



SEEDLING ANTHURIUMS AT 
HIGHBURY. 

After the flowering of Anthurium^Chamberlaini 
an increased interest in the cultivation and hybridi- 
sation was felt at Highbury, and the late Mr. E. 



and are plunged in a quantity of cocoa-refnse. One 
lot is of a very dark seedliDg resembling Andreannm 
X Chamberlaini, and another lot from an unnamed 
light seedling X Chamberlaini. In the stove some ex- 
cellent specimens were remarked in admirable health. 
There is a very fine plant of A. Veitchii, another of 
A. Leodense, in spathe ; and a grand specimen of A. 
Warocqueana is very conspicuous. 

Mr. Earp affords liberal application of manure to An- 
thuriums. consisting of dressings of rotted cow-dung. 
A plant of A. Chamberlaini growing in an elevated 
position some G feet from the floor, is a good ex- 
ample, each leaf averaging 4 feet in length, with 
footstalks five feet long, and the plant is nine feet 
wide. Belo»-, on the floor of the house, a bed has 
been formed in which a large quantity of fresh cow 
manure was placed for the strong aerial roots of the 
hanging plant, six to seven feet in length, and that 
have penetrated it themselves, forming masses of roots. 




Fl8. 1. — A JAPANESE FLOWER SELLEB. 



question, bnt at Kew there are several joung plants 
of Vitis Coignetiae, so that we may hope that it may 
soon be widely distributed. [See also a letter from 
Mr. Goldring, in Home Correspondence-] 



A JAPANESE FLOWER-SELLER. 

Nothing could better illustrate the differences in 
appliances and taBte between our own street dealers 
in cut flowers and those of sunny Japan than fig. 1. 
The light framework of Bamboo, with its short 
lengths of Bamboo cut at a node, so as to retain 
water wherewith to preserve the freshness of the 
blossoms, grasses, Iris Btems, and leave?, and the 
basket-like arrangement of the bottom tier, is as un- 
like a coster's barrow or the flower-girl's flat basket 
as it is possible to find. Apart from the prettiness 
of the whole as a street picture, compare the greater 



Cooper, the then gardener to Mr. Chamberlain, was 
successful in crossing A. Chamberlaini and A. An- 
dreanum, and others, bnt no record of these crosses 
was kept ; or, at any rate, none has been discovered. 
Some of these seedlings are now in flower as 
specimen- plante, one of which, marked No. 3, is of a 
pleasing shade of light cerise, with a white spadix, 
a spathe of fair size and good form, the foliage of the 
Anthurinm type. Seedling No. 2 has a spathe and 
spadix entirely white, and has distinct foliage ; 
another seedling, whose spathe has lately opened, is 
of a glossy light-crimson colour, with a light- coloured 
spadix, and shows the A. Chamberlaini parentage 
in the leaf; a seedling was noticed, which has a 
spathe of bright cerise, with a light-coloured spadix. 
Mr. W. Earp, Mr. Chamberlain's present gardener, 
has made some crosses, and about 100 young plants 
were observed in a low span-house growing in 48>, 



There is a striking instance at Impney, Droitwich, 
of the need of Monstera deliciosa for a large supply, 
of moisture, a grand plant, planted in the rockwork 
of the Fernery, having sent its roots into the water, 
and it is a question whether many of the Anthuriums 
would not thrive and become more conspicuous 
objects than they usually are if afforded similar 
conditions. 

Of other plants of which notice was taken r a- a 
superb Musa Ensete growing in a bed, which, 
although 5 feet high when planted in the conservatory 
in July, 1892, has a stem 10 feet high and 4 feet in 
circumference just above the soil; it has already 
reached the roof, and it has been necessary to 
shorten its leaves. Around it are masses of Hedy- 
chium Gardnerianum. Another large bed is occu- 
pied by a very fine Areca sapida, and across the 
top of the house over the doors is a curtain of the 



10 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januaby 6, 1894. 



CobcEa scandens variegata, a beautiful decorative 
plant, and a striking feature of the house. A houseful 
of well-grown Cyclamen was in full flower, and 
another very gay with double flowered Pelargonium 
zonal?, viz , Raspail, Turtle's Surprise, &c. W. D. 



Plant Notes. 



A MEXICAN VINE. 

Foe several years past attempts have been made 
in Portugal, Italy, and more recently in Austria, to 
cultivate a Mexican member of the family of 
the Ampelopsis, Cissus mexicana, a near rela- 
tion to the Vine, which it can replace in certain 
climates. Cissus mexicana grows freely in the 
province of Sinalva, in Mexico, a region where 
are made wine, vinegar, and certain excellent 
preserves called uvata, made with large red or 
white berries, which have exactly the same flavour 
as the Muscat Raisin. Its root glides among the 
rocks, and for eight months the plant is intensely 
dry. In the other four months the nourishment of 
the branches is completed, and in October the fruit 
is perfectly developed. The first sign of the 
branches is in June, during the rainy season, and 
their growth is very rapid. They soon climb into 
the neighbouring trees and rocks, stifling all other 
vegetation. The leaves, which are identical with 
those of English Vines, fall off at the end of October. 

If the condition of existence necessary for this 
Vine were obtained, there is no reason why it should 
not succeed in all parts of Europe where the cold is 
not intense, and it possesses the great advantage of 
contenting itself with rocks and arid lands, where 
ordinary VineB give no result at all. H. C. Fyfc, 
80, Elsham Road, Kensington, W, 

PlTHECOLOBIOH UNGUISCATA. 

This plant, better known under the name of Inga 
roses, but now placed under the above title, has for 
some time past been producing its lovely-coloured 
flowers abundantly in the Palm-house here. These 
are axillary, and when first visible are globular, the 
peduncles lengthening to about an inch, and bearing 
the flowers in a dense umbel. When in full flower, 
the calyx and corolla are entirely hidden by the 
numerous bright crimson stamens, nearly 2 inches 
in length. The leaves generally bear either three 
or four pairs of pinna;, the leaflets being small 
and numerous. Being a native of the tropics 
of America, it requires stove treatment, and 
even then it is a slow-growing subject, of a 
low and rather spreading habit. They should 
have plenty of sunlight to ripen the wood, and be 
given liberal treatment, the compost consisting of 
good fibrous loam, with a small amount of peat and 
sand. Cutting?, which strike readily, should be well 
established by autumn if struck in a brisk bottom- 
heat in spring. B,, Edinburgh. 



Foreign Correspondence. 

EPILOBIUM LATIFOLIUM. 

At p. 596 of your laBt volume it is noted that this 
very beautiful perennial is a native of damp places in 
Arctic America. In Northern Alaska, where it is 
raining or snowing half the time, it thrives on the 
mounds of dry sand or gravel thrown up by the tor- 
rents flowing from under the glaciers. It and Dryas 
octopetala are often found in little beds of earth 
ornamenting icebergs or glaciers. A moist atmo- 
sphere, though not a moist soil, ought to suit it well. 
Thomas Median, Germantown Nurseries, Phi/addphia. 

An Egyptian Garden at Christmas. 
While the greater part of Europe and the British 
Isles have been having storms and winterly weather, 
Alexandria, although open to the full force of the 
Mediterranean gales, has, with the exception of one 
windyday.so far escaped. Tothosefortunateenoughto 
be able to spend Christmas in Egypt, one cannot 



help comparing the difference in the aspect of the 
gardens here and at home. 

With the exception of Platanus orientalis, Populus 
fastigiata, P. alba, and Acacia Lebbec, which have 
just begun to show the approach of winter, most 
trees and shrubs are still in full leaf. 

Poinsettia pulcherrima is at the present time the 
glory of the gardens, the size of their bracts and the 
general appearance of the trees being much im- 
proved by the annual pruning they receive. The 
white variety is not much grown. Bougainvillea is 
now in full bloom, and to one seeing them for the 
first time it is a sight to be remembered. The 
bright sunshine makes the flowers of a much darker 
colour than we see them in England. Plumbago 
capensis is still in flower, and " Cryptostegia grandi- 
flora," Combretum racemosum, Tecoma capensis, 
and other climbers, still make a good show. In 
sheltered places Tecoma stans, with its masses of 
rich yellow flowers, makes a pretty effect. Koses are 
always in bloom. Plants of such varieties as La 
France, Souvenir de la Malmaison, Homer, and 
Mareehal Niel, have plenty of flowers ; while the 
tall Date Palms, Phoenix dactylifera, display their 
large waving heads of foliage and clusters of fruit. 

Schinus molle is largely used as shade-trees and 
hedges in the Greek portion of the town, where by 
far the best gardens exist; and from it hang clusters 
of dark-red berries much used by the English in 
place of Holly for decorations. Misleto, which is 
even indispensable in Egypt at Christmas-time, is 
imported from Constantinople. W. Draper , Alexandria, 
Egypt. 



PENLLERGAEE. 



It is always a pleasure to visit a well-appointed 
garden, where the object of the owner and of those in 
charge seems to be to obtain everything in the best 
condition that good culture and unremitting atten- 
tion can ensure. There is an earnestness and vitality 
about such places which afford the greatest satis- 
faction to an energetic horticulturist, and yield many 
agreeable and lasting memories. Few establishments 
so completely fulfil this ideal as Penllergare, the 
residence of Sir John T. D. Llewelyn, Bart., situated 
a few miles from Swansea ; and among the few that 
occur to me at this moment as corresponding in the 
excellent general keep and good cultivation displayed 
is Halton Gardens, Tring, where Mr. Sanders, who 
is gardener to A. de Rothschild, Esq., has done so 
much admirable work. But Penllergare enjoys some 
advantages of situation, which render it unique, and 
I regret that time will not permit me to give as full 
a description as I would wish of what may be unhesi- 
tatingly placed in the first rank of the best British 
gardens. 

Both time and taste have been devoted to the 
formation of Penllergare, for years ago it was cele- 
brated as the home of a gentleman with strong 
horticultural inclination, and the thought that Sir 
John has given to increasing the beauty and 
interest of his garden through so long a period has 
produced notable results. The main drive is a most 
attractive entrance to the garden, for being about a 
mile in length, with abundance of flourishing Ferns 
on each side, with here and there fine clumps of the 
stately Royal Fern, it has a charmingly natural 
effect. As we approach the house, there are won- 
derful banks of Rhododendrons and Azaleas, which 
in early summer afford an almost unrivalled display 
of varied bright and highly-coloured flowers. But 
the former are especially fine, for South Wales 
appears to be a real home of Rhododendrons ; the 
climate and soil suit them capitally, and such mag- 
nificent examples I have never seen elsewhere. 
There is an interest, too, about those at Penllergare, 
for a large number are seedlings that have been 
raised on the place, and they have yielded many 
novelties. At the time of my visit recently, a new 
Azalea and Rhododendron garden was being formed, 
the beds being cut out in the grass and planted in an 
informal manner with seedlings about 2 feet high, 
which may be confidently expected to give good 
results in a short time. 



Another feature of the drive and its neighbourhood 
is afforded by several vigorous and graceful Bamboos, 
from 12 to 15 feet high, and which remind one how 
much these fine plants are neglected in many dis- 
tricts where they would succeed quite well. The 
formation of a Bamboo garden at Kew has helped to- 
draw attention to them, and to prove that, with 
moderate shelter, they will thrive in gardens less 
fortunately situated than those in South Wales, the 
West of England, or the South of Ireland, where, of 
course, Bamboos and many other reputed tender 
plants luxuriate. 

In the other departments much conld be found 
worthy of note ; for example, the flower garden is 
tastefully designed and well planted during the 
season. The kitchen garden is cropped just as I like 
to see this important space occupied, and the best 
thing that can be said about it is, that all the vege- 
tables are in first-rate condition, and do not seem to 
have suffered in the least from the exceptionally dry 
season through which we have passed. One reason 
for this is to be found in the fact that the able head- 
gardener, Mr. Warmington, believes in deep digging 
and plentiful supplies of manure, and has carried out 
his practice consistently for sufficient time to prove 
its advantage. Many others could testify to similar 
results, and " there is nothing like digging " might 
be safely adopted as a motto in most gardens. 

Taming to the glass-houses, the Orchid collection 
first commands our attention, as there are four 
houses devoted to these plants, and Penllergare was 
noted for its Orchids long before they were as popu- 
lar as they are at the present time. All the largest 
are represented by numerous select species and 
hybrids, and the plants throughout are remarkable 
for their healthy condition. 

An extraordinary display of Calanthes is provided 
in November and December, and at the time of my 
visit strongly-grown plants of C. Veitchii were bear- 
ing vigorous spikes of flowers four feet in length ; 
very seldom indeed are those useful winter- flowering 
Orchids found in such grand condition as at Penller- 
gare, and they are now alone worth a long journey to 
see. Such spikes could only be produced by well-deve- 
loped pseudobulbs, the result of a long season of 
growth, made under the most liberal system of culture. 
The Cypripediums are also in perfect health, and 
comprise nearly sixty varieties and hybrids, amongst 
them being some of the choicest, as for instance, 
C. oenanthum superbum, which is still one of the 
most beautifully coloured varieties ever raised, and 
is especially interesting as being the first seedling 
which flowered from a cross in which one of the 
parents was a hybrid. C. cenanthum was raised 
from a cross between C. Harrisianum and C. 
insigne Maulei, and the first named plant was 
obtained from a cross between C. villosum and C. 
barbatum, still further possessing the interest 
of being the first hybrid secured artificially, nearly 
thirty years ago. The always-useful C. Leeanum 
superbum, the beautiful C. Niobe, are also included. 
Of Dendrobiums thirty distinct forms are grown, the 
superb varieties D. nobile nobilius and Cooksoni 
being much valued ; and there are two uncommonly 
fine specimens of D. pulchellum in baskets, each 
1J foot in diameter. 

Concerning the latter charming little Orchid, with 
its Email, delicate pale rosy flowers, it may be said 
that the name commonly adopted as given above is 
not correct, as the plant originally described under 
that name is, I believe, not in cultivation ; and the 
correct title, as established by the authtrities of tfie 
present time, is D. Loddigesi. 

I shall not be able to enumerate even the best of 
the Orchids in this fine collection, but it may be added 
that Lsclias, Cattleyas, Angroecums, Aorides, Coelo- 
gyneB, Oncidiums, Vandas, Phalienopsis, and Odon- 
toglossums, are well represented ; but as specimens 
that are seldom seen now, the ten baskets of Stan- 
hopeas are remarkably grand plants, 1 foot in dia- 
meter, of S. tigrina and S. oculats, which produce 
their strangely-coloured wax-like flowers freely. 

While Bpeaking of the warm-house plants, a fine 
example of Nepenthes Ralllesiana must be men- 



January 6, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



11 



tioned, for it is bearing eighty pitchers, and such 
specimens are rare. 

In other hoases Azaleas are grown in excellent 
style, grand trained specimens that remind one of 
former days. The so-called greenhouse Rhododen- 
drons are grown in pots, but what is more interest- 
ing, is the border near a wall, where a collection is 
planted out-of-doors, and remain out safely, the 
only protection afforded being a piece of glass 
placed over the top, quite open at the sides, and 
they seem to like their position, for they are thriving 
satisfactorily. Of the three vineries one is occu- 
pied with Muscat of Alexandria, now bearing a 
superb crop of richly-coloured bunches, one of the 
best examples of successful cultivation I have 
seen for a long time. There are also capital crops 
of late Black Hamburghs, equally excellent in their 
way. Several other houses are occupied with healthy 
Ferns, Cucumbers, &c, besides the frames contain- 
ing a large collection of Auriculas, including all 
the best-named varieties. Carnations are also well- 
represented ; for while Sir John Llewelyn takes a 
keen interest in horticulture, generally he is wider 
known as an ardent florist, and has been for years 
a frequent visitor to the Royal Horticultural 
Society's meetings when special displays are pro- 
vided of the plants named. 

Much more could be written about Penllergare, 
but these brief notes must be closed with an expres- 
sion of thanks for the courteous attention accorded 
me on my visit, and by the opinion that an em- 
ployer's wishes could not be more carefully studied 
or carried into execution than they are by Mr. 
Warmington. T. H. Crasp, Clyne Valley Nurseries, 
Swansea. 



Florists' Flowers. 

♦ 

NEW CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 

Those of us who can remember the time when 
there were no Japanese Chrysanthemums grown in 
this country, and who can remember the small 
number of varieties saved from an importation sent 
by the late Mr. Robert Fortune to the late Mr. John 
Standish of Ascot, can but wonder at the immense 
progress that has been made, especially as they were 
received with anything but favour by the growers 
of thirty years ago. It was rather curious that a 
number of varieties lost in transit from Japan were 
reproduced as seedlings by the late Mr. John Salter 
from the few varieties saved, and which were quite 
distinct from those unfortunately lost. I well re- 
member that the editor of the Gardeners' Chronicle 
wrote strongly in favour of the new introductions. 
Mr. Salter set about raising new varieties, and his 
first attempt was successful beyond the most 
sanguine expectation. James Salter, Jane Salter, 
Dr. Masters, Sultan, &c , were varieties which took 
the popular fancy. 

Daring the intervening period of about thirty 
years, progress in the improvement of the Japanese 
section has been truly wonderful. I was strongly 
impressed with this while visiting the collection 
belonging to Mr. H. J. Jones, Ryecroft Nursery, 
Lewisham. Two large houses were rilled with 
new varieties mostly, in the greatest variety 
of form and colour. In fact, if I may be 
allowed to say so, we are quite over-done with new 
varieties sent into this country from various places 
abroad every year. New foreign Roses are numerous 
enough ; but they only come in dozens, whereas new 
Chrysanthemums may be numbered by hundreds, 
and there is no way to separate the good from the 
indifferent, except by growing them. In an English 
nursery the flowers are open to inspection, and we 
can go and see them, and discuss the properties of 
the different varieties before buying any of them. 
Amongst hundreds of new varieties in Mr. Jones' 
collection I noted the following : Mrs. Daunes, deep 
purple, a well-formed flower, the petals rather pointed 
and incurving ; Mr. J. Lyn<~, yellowish-bnff, the 
flowers of large siz°, incurving in the centra, and 
open towards the circumferenc, new last spring ; 



G. W. Newett, white, fine broad petals, those in the 
centre incurving, and the outer ones reflexing and 
drooping ; Primrose League, sent out last spring, has 
very pale primrose-coloured flowers, with the centre 
florets incurved, and the outer petals opening out- 
wards ; Dr. H. D. Hull, blush-white, the florets very 
broad and incurving ; Mr. Hellier, primrose, a fine 
full flower, with incurving petals ; Sir Edwin Smith, 
apparently one of the best, of a golden-yellow colour, 
with broad petals, and a well formed flower ; Golden 
Plume, another fine yellow-coloured variety ; G. W. 
Childs, a handsome flower of a rich shade of crimson, 
the petals well-formed, and bloom of the middle 
size. The well-known new varieties, Madame Th&ese 
Rey, white; Colonel W. B. Smitb, golden-bronze ; 
Chas. Blick, rich golden-yellow ; Robt. Owen, a grand 
incurved yellowish-coloured Japanese variety ; and 
Win, Seward, of deep crimson colour, and indis- 
pensable in every collection, were all in fine form. 
A few of the newer incurved varieties consisted of 
Baron Hirsch, an orange-buff variety, with broad 
well-incurved petals, and handsome bloom ; this and 
the later-introduced Madame Darrier, and M. R. 
B&huant, seem indispensable. 

The varieties with hairy florets are being greatly 
improved, many distinct forma having been intro- 
duced, and others are on their trial at Mr. Jones's. 
I noted, as the best of these, Mrs. Dr. Ward, of a 
bronzy-yellow, the flowers of ample dimensions ; 
White Plume, a lovely pure white flower, possessing 
a yellow centre ; Hairy Wonder is another buff- 
coloured bloom. The most rigid selection is very 
necessary in choosing varieties, and we look to the 
National Society to give Certificates only to snch as 
have some properties of form or shades of colour 
superior to those which we already have. Doubtless 
they do the best they can with the material placed 
before them, and a good allowance must always be 
made for difference of taste. I noted that the 
majority of new varieties were yellow or buff- 
coloured. Now, it is plain that we already possess 
many fine yellow varieties, and any new seedlings in 
this direction must be good indeed to surpass Sun- 
flower, W. H. Lincoln, Golden Wedding (new this 
year, a rich yellow, and quite distinct), Chas. Blick, 
Edwin Beckett, &c. — all good in their respective 
classes. Mere size is not worthy of consideration by 
itself; and one or two of the recently-introduced 
large varieties fall below the highest standards of 
excellence in form and in colour. I am well aware 
that all the new varieties will soon find their proper 
level, and send the few notes above as being my own 
impression of what I have seen. J. Douglas. 

Late Chrysanthemums. 
In the large collection of Chrysanthemums in the 
Chiswick gardens of the R^yal Horticultural Society, 
several varieties were in full beauty as late as 
December 13, and I made note of them, as they are 
uncommon. Many very beautiful kiads are prac- 
tically unknown, simply for the reason they are not 
of exhibition standard. Amongst the Japanese or 
decorative kinds, the more conspicuous were the 
following: — Sunlight, a free-flowering variety, the 
flowers white, suffused with rose-purple, and excel- 
lent for cutting ; Monarcdock, a curious name, is 
rich yellow, suffused with red — a graceful and free- 
flowering variety ; W. H. Sinclair, rich yellow, a clear 
colour, and a true Japanese Chrysanthemum ; and 
Frank Wilcox, which is a distinct and handsome 
flower, small, but of splendid colour, rich yellow, 
with the lower petals suffused with chestnut-red — 
the plant was a mass of bloom, giving plenty of 
flower- clusters for the house. Mrs. Goldring, yellow, 
with a reddish margin to the florets, the flowers 
borne on a long stem ; Mrs. RobinBon, very free, the 
majority of the flowers white, but some touched with 
rose-purple ; and W. W. Lunt, Boft yellow, a very 
delicate shade, were in perfect beauty. Amongst 
singles, those I noticed of value were Pyrethrum, 
white, suffused with rose, a free and distinct variety ; 
and Elegance, rich rose-purple, thread-like florets, 
long, and graceful, in the style of Jane. A charming 
Anemone-pompon in bloom waB Eugene Lanjaulet, 
the flowers very neat and pleasing in colour, the 



centre rich yellow, with paler guard-florets. All 
the above are worth growing for their distinctness 
and freedom so late in the season. They are not 
exhibition varieties, but one does not always require 
flowers merely for show. V. 

Anemone flowered Chrysanthemums. 

In addition to the varieties noted by " V.," p. 718, 
vol. xiv , I should like to add the following recent 
acquisition — John Bunyan, an introduction of 1893, 
shown by Mr. R. Owen. It is best described as 
having a Gliick-like centre, with guard-florets of the 
same colour as that variety, and these are long and 
narrow. Sir Walter Raleigh is another of Mr. 
Owen's introductions, belonging to the Japanese 
section of Anemones ; the disc, or centre, is full, 
and of rose-colour ; the bluBh-white guard-florets 
good: a very distinct-looking flower in every way. 
Queen Elizabeth has a deep blush centre and lilac- 
pink guard- florets; Celtic belongs to the old or 
show Anemone class, bronzy-lilac in colour, with a 
very full centre, and neat, evenly-rounded guard- 
florets. 

Of those a little older, but possessing much 
quality, Mrs. Judge Benedict is perhaps the best of 
recent introductions. In colour it is light-blush when 
opening, but changes to pure white with a lemon 
centre ; W. G. Drover, purple-carmine, tipped with 
yellow. Add to this short list, C. Leboscqz and 
Nelson, and we have a capital selection, including 
those named by " V." Toe former has rosy-carmine 
tubular florets tipped with yellow, and straw- 
coloured ray-florets. Nelson has a shade of 
rosy-crimson, and affords a pleasing variety in a 
collection of Anemones, which do not include many 
bright- coloured varieties. E. M. 



THE POTATO-ONION. 

The appearance of an advertisement from a 
Dublin seed-house, Berves to call to notice a variety 
of the Onion that has somewhat declined in culti- 
vation, though possessing qualities of undoubted 
value. By some supposed to be a variety of the 
common Onion, by others a distinct species : it is 
both curious and interesting, as it multiplies iteelf 
in an opposite direction to the tree or bulb-bearing 
Onion, producing, by the formation of young bulbs 
on the parent-root, an ample crop below the surface 
of the ground. Its origin is somewhat obscure, and 
being known as the Egyptian Onion, it was sup- 
posed to have been brought from Egypt by the 
British Army about 1805, though it is said to have 
been known in this country for some time prior to 
that. At one time it was much cultivated in the 
Isle of Wight, and on the coast in the vicinity of 
Portsmouth ; and coming into use, as it did, before 
any spring-sown types, the cultivators found a ready 
market for their produce through the purveyors to 
the East-Indiamen and other sailing-ships taking 
long voyages which, at that time, left Eagland at a 
season when no other variety of the Onion could be 
had in condition for storing. Like the bulb- 
bearing or tree Onion, which produces a cluster of 
bulblets (small bulbs) at the extremity of the stem, 
it does not seed as other Onions do, and thus is pro- 
pagated in much the same way as the Potato. Messrs. 
Vilmorin & Co., in their Vegetable Garden, state that 
planting the bulbs — fairly good-sized ones being 
selected — is done at the cloBe of the winter, and 
well-grown Onions may be gathered from them in 
the following June, but if the plants are allowed 
to attain full maturity, instead of a single bulb from 
each, seven or eight will be produced of various 
sizes. The strongest of these will also, in their turn, 
produce a number of bulbs, while the weaker ones 
generally grow into a single large bulb. The general 
rule appears to be to plant in the spring as soon as 
the weather will permit ; but some plant as early as 
December, or as soon as the bulbs begin to push into 
growth. In the West of England, the rule appears 
to be to plant on the shortest and lift the crop on 
the longest day. The method of culture adopted 
there is to plant in rows 1 foot apart, and the bulbs 
are placed 6 inches apart in the rows. It should be 
stated, that the winters in the west are generally 
mild, and planting can be done with safety earlier 



12 



THE GARDENERS 1 CHRONICLE. 



[Jasdaey G, 1894. 



there than in colder parts, where it is sometimes put 
off until the spring. Trie practice of earthing-up 
is generally adopted ; and one authority states that 
the produce depends a great deal upon the sizes of 
those planted, but a good produce almost always 
ensues. A method of rapid increase is as follows : — 
when the leaves have attained their full size and 
begin to turn brown at the tips, the soil is cleared 
away from the bulbs down to the point from which 
the roots issue, and so a basin is formed which 
catches the rain and serves to hold water. This, it 
is said, causes the old bulbs to form new ones, and, 
being kept moist, they soon grow into size, the 
clusters becoming large and numerous ; and it is 
asserted that bulbs so obtained, probably on account 
of their exposure to the atmosphere, are much 
sounder than those grown beneath the soil, and, in 
consequence, keep better. Messrs. Vilmorin & Co. 
inform us that the smaller bulbs keep a good deal 
better than the larger ones. if. D. 



The Week's Work, 



THE KITCHEN GAEDEN. 

By A. Coombes, Gardener, Himley Hall, Dudley. 
SEED ORDERS. — At the commencement of the 
year it is advisable to look over one's notes of de- 
sirable kinds of vegetables made during the past 
seasoD, and, when the seed lists are to hand, as soon 
as may be convenient to write for the seeds needed 
for the year. This can be better accomplished now 
than later, when so many other matters need atten- 
tion ; besides, the early sending of orders materially 
assists those engaged in the seed trade. Take care 
to have a sufficiency of those kinds most required, 
but do not order profusely, or what is not likely 
to be needed. In order to keep abreast of the 
times, a few novelties should be tried each season, 
preferably those that have been remarked in other 
gardens, or which are well spoken of, and these, if 
found satisfactory, or which are improvements on older 
varieties, should be afterwards grown in quantity. 

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.— Whenever the 
state of the weather permits, and the soil is 
sufficiently dry, no opportunity should be lost to 
push forward digging and trenching. In many 
gardens such work will be nearly completed ; still 
there are those where but little has been done in 
this direction, owing either to lack of men (now too 
prevalent) or pressure of other work. It is always 
the best practice to do this kind of work thoroughly, 
breaking up the lumps of soil, especially those that 
are below the surface, leaving the surface if rough 
to be dealt with later. I strongly advocate bastard 
trenching, and have as much done each season as 
possible ; in fact, if time allowed, I would treat the 
whole of the vegetable quarters in that way, and I 
would rather use the strong steel forks than spades 
for turning over and breaking up the subsoil. I should 
not lay so much stress upon this matter of digging 
did I not know how much success in the cultiva- 
tion of vegetables depends upon it; and provided 
always that the soil is in a proper condition for 
working, it cannot be stirred too deeply, nor broken 
up too much. The hot dry season of 1893 was a 
very trying one where the subsoil was not well 
broken up. 

SEAKALE will now force freely in any struclure, 
provided it can be kept in the dark, and have a 
temperature of from .50° to 60°. The rootB, in 
quantities according to the demand, mav be placed 
in pots in good soil, six or seven in a 10-inch pot, 
with an inverted pot placed over them, and sur- 
rounded and banked up with moist leaves ; the 
heads will then be very well blanched, and succu- 
lent. This method is advisable where the demand 
is uncertain, as when the heads are grown, the pots 
with the covers may be removed to a cellar or cool 
damp room, where they will keep fresh for a longer 
period than stalks cut and placed in water. Where 
the old method of forcing this vegetable in the 
open is followed by means of leaves and stable litter, 
care will be necessary to keep the heating materials 
at a proper temperature, adding to it if necessary, 
mixing fresh litter should the mass become cool, 
or, if too hot, opening it out here and there to let the 
heat escape, then closing the opening again. 

LETTUCE AND ENDIVE IN COLD FRAME8 — 

Affjrd these plants free ventilation in mild weather, 



removing decaying leaves, and stirring the soil 
around the plants. Do not afford water before the 
soil becomes dry, and if possible choose a bright 
morning for applying it. Have at hand a good 
supply of dry litter or bracken, for covering the 
frames, &c, in severe weather. 

MUSHROOM RIDGES. — If wall protected with 
litter and mats, or waterproof coverings over all, 
these beds will now be giving good crops ; but where 
no outer covering has been used, the rains will have 
saturated the litter, and but few Mushrooms will be 
found. In such a case the whole of the covering 
should be removed on a fine day, shaking it out, and 
drying it as much as possible. Should Mushroom 
spawn be found running on the outside of the ridges, 
which it probably will be doing, rub it off with the 
band, cover the ridges with clean dry litter, placing 
that previously in use on the outside. 

FRENCH BEANS. — Further sowings of these 
should be made, to maintain the supply, the pots 
being placed in any convenient part of the forcing- 
house till the seeds have germinated, when they 
must be removed to full sunlight near the glass. 
Dew them over with the syringe in the mornings and 
afternoons when the day is fine. Plants which are 
growing on and those in flower, on wet days will be 
afforded sufficient humidity by the general damping 
down of the house or pit. Plants with pods set may 
have a sharp syringing on the under-sides of the 
leaves, in order to keep down red-spider. 

POTATOS IN FRAMES. — Fermenting material 
may now be prepared for making up pits and frames 
for forcing Potatos. Tree-leaves should be freely use 
with the stable litter of which the beds are made 
up. If necessary, the Potato seta may in the mean- 
time be placed in the forcing- house, to induce 
sprouting. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Turn over heaps of garden 
refuse, and wheel the decomposed parts on to ground 
which has to be dug, reserving the remainder for 
further decomposition. Examine and clean out all 
drains and catch-pits in the walks. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By J. F. M'Leod, Gardener, Dover House, Roehampton. 

With the advent of the new year, work in the 
plant-houses becomes more lively ; the plans and 
arrangemeuts for the ensuing year are about to be 
commenced, subjects which have fallen into a 
quiescent state are about to grow again, and all 
round good resolutions will be made by the gar- 
dener with a view to advancement in practice, and 
an improvement in the cultivation and state of his 
plants. Disappointments are inevitable in gardening, 
and most of us will have some few to chronicle before 
the end of the year 1894, but these may be mitigated 
if we do the proper kind of work at the proper time. 
I am alive to the fact that there are numerous 
hindrances to constant success, but the endeavour to 
attain it should be made all the same. 

THE CONSERVATORY.— This structure will need 
daily attention in the matter of keeping up a fresh 
appearance, no decayed leaves and unsightly litter 
being left of any plant. There should be no over- 
crowding the inmates; indeed, it is rather better to 
have half the quantity, and have them good. Keep 
up the succession of flowering bulbs. Bouvar- 
dias now past their prime may be removed, with 
a view to their being ripened off; their places may 
be taken by Poinsettias, Calanthe Veitchii, and the 
other varieties of this useful species ot Orchid. 
These plants, if placed at the warmer end of the 
structure in conjunction with Ferns and forced bulbs, 
will afford a gay appearance, their flower-spikes 
standing well above the dwarfer subjects; while at 
the cooler end of the house Chinese Primulas, 
EricaB, Epacris, Cyclamens, and Carnations may be 
disposed. 

GLOXINIAS. — Where these lovely flowers are 
appreciated early in the seasoD, a batch of tubers may 
now be started, selecting on this occasion the 
strongest, as these afford the finest displav, and best 
repay the labour and cost of forcing. The tubers 
should be shaken out of their pots, and placed in a 
temperature of 55° to 60°. I usually place them in 
shallow seed-pans or boxes in a compost consisting 
of leaf-mould which has been sifted in an inch- 
sieve, coarse silver-sand, and a slight addition of 
loam ; and in about three weeks each has a nice ball 
of the soil, and I lift and pot them in large and 



small 48's, which are not too large for them. The 
potted tuber may go on to a shelf, and after afford- 
ing one good watering, they must have water sparingly 
applied for a considerable time afterwards. The 
potting soil consists of the following : — two parts 
loam, one part leaf-soil, one spent Mushroom-dung, 
and one of sand, the whole to be passed through an 
inch sieve. The plants should be kept in the same 
temperature as they were started in, 

CALADIUMS. — It is time some of the tubers were 
now being started, with a view to bringing them 
into leaf, for being handsome-leaved, they are always 
in demand where house-furnishing and table-deco- 
ration are in vogue. If any variety seems likely to 
become too plentiful, I would advise the making a 
few large specimen pots of them, by putting twelve 
to eighteen strong tubers in a large pot, such masses 
make nice additions to the inmates of stoves and 
warm conservatories. 

CROTONS. — If any variety is scarce, no time 
should be lost in taking cuttings from any plant 
which has outgrown the purpose for which it is 
used, and fresh young tops, if put into a brisk 
bottom-heat, in close case at this date, will soon 
take root and make useful plants by the end of the 
summer, if kept growing on steadily. Dracaenas may 
also have their tops cut off, and put into heat. A 
great many varieties of Dracaena grow freely from 
eyes, which are obtained by simply cutting the stem 
into pieces of from half-an-inch to an inch in length, 
and pressing them into the surface of well-drained 
pans or pots filled with sand, plunging these in a 
brisk bottom-heat, in a top temperature of 75°. 



THE HARDY PRUIT OARDEN. 

By T. Tubton, Gardener, Maiden Srlegh, Reading. 

MOSS AND LICHEN COVERED TREES. — Trees 
which have become grown over with moss and lichen, 
as is the case in most humid districts, may be 
scrubbed all over the stems and thicker branches, 
using for the purpose a stubby birch or heather- 
broom, or a housemaid's scrubbing-brush. Having 
done this, wash or rather paint the bark with a white- 
wash of fresh-slaked lime and fresh soot, the latter 
in quantity to give the wash a grey colour. For this 
purpose a white-wash brush is the best tool to use. 
Choose a dry day for performing this job. The same 
wash a little diluted and passed through a hair- sieve, 
will answer for syringing the twigs and small branches, 
which cannot, owing to their size and number, be 
readily operated upon. Trees thus treated will pro- 
duce finer fruit, and the buds will have a better 
chance of development. It is in orchards where the 
trees are planted very closely, or which are deprived 
of full sunshine and air by being surrounded by trees 
at too short a distance away, are much subject to be 
overgrown by moss and lichen, and it is most difficult 
to keep in check. 

DAM80NS. — Any pruning which these fruit trees 
may require may now be performed. This will 
chiefly consist of removing one of two branches that 
may cross each other ; and accordingly as the trees 
are fruitful or otherwise, so must the thinning-out of 
the branches be severe or the reverse. Trees of the 
precocious and free-bearing Farleigh Prolific variety 
should have the heads kept well thinned of spray 
from the time they begin to fruit, which is at the 
third and fourth year. On the other hand, the Prune 
and the Shropshire Damsons do not commence to 
bear well before they have attained a mature age. 
It is therefore desirable when planting Damsons to 
let a good number of the trees be of the Farleigh 
Prolific. 

PLUMS. — In the matter of pruning, standard 
Plum trees require similar treatment to Damsons ; 
the more prolific kinds and those of a compact habit 
of growth requiring the more severe pruning. A 
judicious thinning of the fruiting twigs in these free- 
bearing Plums, reduces the risk of the trees being 
crippled by over-cropping, when press of other work 
prevents thinning of the fruits being carried out as 
soon as it should be. Prune back any branches on 
trees of Denyer's Victoria which may have been 
unduly drawn down into a horizontal position with 
the weight of fruit. Judicious shortening- back and 
maintaining sturdy heads on trees of this sort are 
preventatives against loss of branches from wind 
when heavily cropped. In selecting the positions for 
planting Plum trees, where possible it is advisable to 
keep clear of tall trees and large evergreen bushes or 
other harbour for bullfinches, these birds doing quite 
as much damage to the fruit- buds as spring frosts, and 



January 6, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



13 



they are, in aome places, largely responsible for the 
lessening of the crop of Plums. In view of the de- 
predations of these birds, their numbers might fairly 
be lessened by the gardener trapping them in hard 
weather. Trapping is rather tedious work, and it 
is only really successful when a good " call-bird " 
can be obtained. The buds of Plums and Damsons 
may be somewhat protected from bullfinches by 
syringing the trees with the freshly-slaked lime and 
soot-washes. 



THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

By W. H. White, Orchid Groicer, Burford Lodge, Dorking. 
AIRING AND HEATING. — For some considerable 
time past the weather has been comparatively mild, 
and no difficulty has been experienced by the culti- 
vator in maintaining an evenly-balanced atmosphere 
in the Orchid-houses, with the moderate use of fire- 
heat ; and at the same time a splendid opportunity 
has been afforded us to allow a free circulation of 
air, an agent which is so very essential to the healthy 
development of the plants. Fresh air in moderation 
Orchids must hare, as without it they do not thrive, 
and without doubt insufficient ventilation is the 
principal cause of spot and other forms of leaf 
disease often found amongst the plants. That being 
so, air should be admitted judiciously on all favour- 
able occasions by both the top and the bottom venti- 
lators, if this be practicable. Of course this will 
oftentimes involve a question of management, as I 
have found by experience here, in one or two 
houses where air was always admitted above and 
below, the plants did not thrive quite satisfactorily, 
and it became necessary that an alteration of method 
should be made, and the following disposition of the 
ventilation was adopted. The lower ventilators were 
entirely closed by day, and opened about an inch by 
night, while the top lights were always open more 
or less as far as outside conditions would permit. 
Since this has been my practice, no difficulty has 
been experienced as regards the well doing of the 
plants. I mention this principally to show that 
much good may be accomplished by anyone who will 
try to find out and remedy the causes of failure. 
Should mild weather continue, much caution will 
be required in the regulation of the atmosphere in 
the various houses or divisions, as owing to the 
smaller amount of fire-heat required to keep up the 
desired temperatures, an over-abundance of moisture 
in the air is likely to exist ; to counteract which the 
hot-water pipes should be made a trifle warmer, and 
more air supplied, especially by means of the roof 
ventilators. 

LITTLE-GROWN SPECIES.— In the interesting and 
beautiful genera of garden Orchids, many species are 
much neglected, and among these, Cirrhopetalum, 
Bulbopbyllum, and Pleurothallis, and some others, 
many of which are beautiful, and nearly all of them 
carious. It is of the species that I intend to touch 
upon from time to time, and to endeavour to gain con- 
verts to their culture. An interesting and beautiful 
plant now flowering is Ccelia bella, its rose-purple 
tipped sepals, and lip of canary-yellow are very 
attractive; and, if possible, the plant should find a 
place in every representative collection. Plants of 
Coelia, as a rule, grow well in the ordinary Cattleya- 
house, but this variety succeeds better in a house a 
few degrees warmer, with a moist atmosphere, water 
being liberally afforded when the plant is growing, 
then the pseudobulbs attain their full size. After 
flowering, the new growths readily start away, hence 
it is advisable then to repot if the plant requires it. 
The pots should be half filled with clean crocks, and 
above these the peat and moss, in equal proportions, 
should be placed, for the plant to root into. 

TEMPERATURES FOR THE NEXT FEW WEEK8. 
— The night temperatures of the various houses 
during this month should be as^follows :— East India- 
house, 60° to 65° ; Cattleya or intermediate-house, 
55° to 60°; Mexican-house, about 55°; and the 
coolest division, 45° to 50° ; although during excep- 
tionally seeere weather a few degrees less will be 
beneficial by day, with sunheat it matters little how 
ranch the rise of temperature may be, provided there 
is sufficient air and moisture to balance it. 



FRUITS UNDER QLASB. 

By Bailey Wadds, Gardener, Birdsall Gardens, York, 
APRICOTS. — Where it is contemplated to com- 
mence the culture of this fruit under glass, no time 
should be lost in getting the trees planted. Hitherto 
the cultivation of the Apricot under glass has not 
been very extensively carried out, and not always 



successfully. This has been owing principally, I 
think, to the kind of house used, and the arrange- 
ment of trees in the house. In some places in 
the North, their culture has been a complete 
failure on outside walls, though the past sunny year 
improved matters to a t certain extent ; but a 
similar season we cannot expect for many years 
to come, and the better plan would be to adopt 
a sure means of obtaining good crops of fruits by 
growing them under glass. The best position for 
a house is against a wall facing east, in the form of 
roof hip, or half-span ; the wood-work of the hip 
should rest on the back wall, and the front on a 
dwarf wall of 4J- feet high. The height of the house 
may be 12 feet at the apex at this point, and a ven- 
tilator should run the entire length. There is no 
need of front-lights, although they improve the look 
of the house. The front should rest on pillars. The 
house should be trellised throughout with strong wires 
placed at 6 inches apart, and 6 inches from the glass. 
This should start from near the ground on the 
east side. A well-drained border, 12 feet in width, 
and consisting of good turfy loam and garden soil 
should be prepared inside of the house, as well as one 
12 feet wide on the outside, sloping to the east. 
Against the trellis and outside the house half-stan- 
dard trees should be planted, and the shoots trained 
under the roof. Eight permanent trees of the variety 
Moor Park, being sufficient to fill a house of about 
100 feet in length, if supernumerary dwarf trees were 
planted between these. These extra trees may con- 
sist of Plums and other subjects. Apricots being 
unadar-ted for forcing, and none is required in these 
glass sheds and the open front facing east, keep the 
trees from coming into bloom too early in the year. 
Trees on open walls are usually in flower as soon as 
those under glass, and in case of severe late frosts, a 
net or mat tied on the front, makes them safe. The 
hip-roof resting on the wall is essential for admitting 
the western sunlight. After the trees are estab- 
lished very little attention is required beyond afford- 
ing air abundantly. The trees having their roots 
in a border outside remain healthy. 

PEACHES AND NECTARINES. — Where new 
borders have to be made, or old ones renovated, no 
time may now be lost. See that the drainage of 
both is in good order, and for soil use the top spit 
pasture loam, if obtainable, with a good portion of 
lime rubbish, half-inch bones, and charcoal. Early 
forcing is best carried on in lean-to houses of 
moderate width, with a border of about 2 feet wide, 
and the front wall built up in arches or pillars. Two 
rows of trees may be planted, the front row of dwarf 
trees, the next with half-standards. When the 
border extends to the back wall, they may be planted 
with standard trees. Perpendicular wiring, 6 inches 
apart, is best for training fruit trees, and it was 
adopted here twenty years ago. The best varieties 
for the early house are — Peaches : A'bec, Hale's 
Early, Alexander, Royal George, Grosse Mignonne, 
and Dr. Hogg ; Nectarines : Lord Napier, Elruge, and 
Hardwick Seedling. For fruiting later in the season, 
a span-roofed house 25 to 30 feet wide is excellent. 
Plant a row of trees on each side, and train them on 
a trellis 16 inches from the glass. The best varieties 
for this house are : — Peaches : Noblesse, Barrington's 
Sea Eagle, Salway, Walburton Admirable, Violet 
Hative, and Lord Palmerston ; Nectarines : Pit- 
maston Orange, Pine-apple, and Humboldt. Young 
trees should not be pruned when planted, but when 
they start to grow. The cleaning, pruning, and 
training of established trees in late houses should 
be completed forthwith, carefully avoiding the 
crowding of fruiting wood or the cutting out of large 
branches. In pruning young shoots, see that the 
terminal is a wood-bud or two fruit-buds and a wood- 
bud. If brown scale or mealy-bug be found on the 
trees, syringe them once a week during the resting- 
time with Lemon-oil emulsion at the strength recom- 
mended, or petroleum, at the rate of two wine- 
glassfuls to 4 gallons of soap-suds. The chief thing 
to observe is to keep the stuff agitated, which is best 
done by two men, one of them syringing the trees, 
whilst the other with a syringe keeps the suds well 
mixed. I prefer this method, as being more effective 
and cleaner than the old mixture of clay, soot, and 
sulphur. Be sure that inside-borders and trees in 
pots do not become dry during the winter, or the 
buds will drop. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By JoH\ Lambert, Gardener, Poicis Castle, Welshpool. 
HERBACEOUS BORDERS. — The winter up till now 
having been mild, advantage should be taken to push 
on with all outside work. Herbace ous borders occupying 



an important part of the decoration in moat gardens, 
are often left for several years without being re- 
arranged because of the trouble involved. If the 
plants in an old border are to be transferred to a 
new one so much the better for them, a9 there is not 
so much to fear of their suffering from exposure of 
the roots. The soil should in either case be pre- 
pared by well manuring it, if light in its nature with 
rotten cow-dung or leaf-mould, and with stable-dung 
if heavy, and then bastard trenching it. It will im- 
prove the soil if during the digging, the dung, &c, 
thrown into the bottom of the trench be sprinkled 
with wood-ashes or charred garden refuse. After 
being trenched, spread lightly on the surface the 
latter manurial substances, forking them in, and 
thus afford about 20 inches of soil with the manure 
equally distributed through it. If old herbaceous 
borders are to be replanted, all the occupants should 
be carefully lifted and laid on a vacant plot, and the 
border treated as above described, butin this case, with 
the addition of some good garden soil or fresh loam. 
Charcoal-dust, obtainable in some places, is a good 
sort of material to add to a soil that is somewhat 
soured, as that of a herbaceous border is likely to be 
from lack of proper aeration. Some herbaceous 
plants thrust their roots deeply into the soil, and 
these will need to be carefully dug, and it is best 
not to disturb them too often. Care should be taken 
to select the healthiest corms, roots, and bulbs pre- 
paratory to replanting. Irises and other plants with 
creeping rhizomes which have been left undisturbed 
for a lengthened period, constantly spread from the 
centre outward, and these clumps may be reduced 
to required size by separating the outside growth for 
planting, which being the youngest, are the best for the 
purpose. Oa replanting do not repeat the old for- 
mation, but so far as is possible, give each plant a 
new place in the borders, care being taken in regard 
to the height, colour, and also time of flowering, to 
have the plants so arranged that the border will be 
interesting in every part all through the season when 
flowers may be expected. The warmest spots should 
be chosen for the tenderer subjects. The grouping 
of the same species of plants may be adopted, putting 
from three to five in a group, and the size of the 
group depending on the siza and stature of the plant. 
Labels being no ornament in any border, as few of 
these should be used as possible. After planting, 
around each plant a good mulching of rotten manure 
may be placed, tender bulbs and roots should have 
one of cocoa-nut fibre or the manure from an ex- 
hausted Mushroom or other hot-bed. This will 
exclude frost, and will do no harm if left on the 
border, but the amount of mulch should be removed 
a little at a time after the winter is over. 

CUT FLOWERS. — If cut flowers are much in de- 
mand, a piece of ground should, where practicable, 
be set apart for the cultivation of plants for cutting. 
The aspect should be southerly, apart from that por- 
tion of the garden generally used by the family and 
visitors. Here may be grown a variety of herba- 
ceous, annual, and biennial plants most suitable for 
furnishing flowers for cutting, thus preserving plants 
in the other borders from spoliation and from injury 
by trampling the soil. Here may be planted the 
stock of plants left over after planting, which may 
be planted in beds with sufficiently wide alleys 
between to allow of walking and carrying a large 
basket, often an unpleasant and disagreeable task in 
wet weather with narrow alleys. It will not matter 
how many labels are used, and in these beds ex- 
periments may be made with doubtful plants before 
planting any of them in the principal borders. 
The warmer parts of such cut flower grounds may 
be reserved for annuals, perennials, and bulbs reputed 
tender. 

GENERAL WORK.— This will consist, on wet days, 
of keeping all plants clean, removing dead leaves, 
keeping them cool and as near the glass as possible, so 
that when propagating commences there shall be 
strong cuttings to take. Look to stock of pots, pans, 
or boxes, or whatever is used, soil, &c, and have all in 
readiness, thus preventing unnecessary pressure later 
on when every hour saved will be of importance. 
Order seeds, if not yet done, and have all in readiness. 
For tender shrubs on walls and in the open border 
if not yet protected, mats and such coverings should 
be at hand, in case severe and prolonged frost may 
set in, and long sticks ready in case of snow, so that 
trees and shrubs may be relieved at once of this 
burden before being disfigured. [Our contributor, 
residing in a mild part of Wales, is somewhat in 
advance of the season in less genial districts, a fact 
which readers should duly note. Ed.] 



14 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[•ianuaby 6, 1894. 



EDITORIAL NOTICES. 



Letters for Publication. — All tommunications intended 
for publication, as well at specimens and plantt for 
naming, should be addressed to the Editor, 41, Welling- 
ton Street, Covent Garden, London, Communica- 
tions Should be WRITTEN ON ONE SIDE ONLY OF THE 
paper, sent as early in the week as possible, and duty 
signed by the writer. If desired, the signature will not be 
printed, but kept as a guarantee of good faith. The Editor 
does not undertake to pay for any contributions, or to return 
unused communications, or illustrations, unless by spicial 
arrangement. 

Plants, Fruits, &C, to be Named.— Correspondents send- 
ing plants or fruits to be named, or asking questions 
demanding time and research for their solution, must not 
expect to obtain an answer to their enquiries in the current 
week. Specimens should be good ones, carefully packed and 
numbered, and not more than tix should be sent at one 
time. Leaves only, or Florists' varieties cannot, as a rule, 
be named. 

UlUBt ration 8.— The Editor will thankfully receive and select 
photographs or drawings, suitable for reproluction in these 
pages, oj gardens, or of remarkable plants, flowers, trees, 
SfC.; but he cannot be responsible for loss or injury. 

Local News— Correspondents will greatly oblige by sending be 
the Editor early intelligence of local events likely to be of 
interest to our readers, or of any matters which it is 
desirable to bring under the notice of horticulturists. 

Newspapers.— Correspondents sending newspapers should to 
careful to mark the paragraphs they wish the Editor to see. 

Advertisements should be sent to the PUBLISHER. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 



WEDNESDAY, 
SATURDAY, 

MONDAY, 
TUESDAY, 



MEETINGS. 

.Scottish Horticultural Association, 
Jan 10< Edinburgh. 

) East Anglian Horticultural Club, 
v. Norwich. 

Jan. 13— Royal Botanic Society. 

SALES. 

Jan 8 5 Dutch Bulbs, at Protheroe & Morris' 
I Rooms 



Jan. 



WEDNESDAY, Jan. 10 

THURSDAY, 
FRIDAY, 



9 ( Dutch Bulb?, at Protheroe & Morrio' 
* I Rooms. 

15,155 Lilium auratum, Roses, Car- 
nations, Continental Plants, Be- 
gonias, Tree Ferns. 4c, at 
Piotheroe & Morns' Rooms. 

Jan 11 i Dutcn Bulbs, at Protheroe & Morris' 
t Rooms, 

Jan 12^ Orchids, at Protheroe & Morris' 
( Rooms. 



CORRECTED AVERAGE TEMPERATURE FOR THE ENSU- 
ING WEEK, DEDUCED FROM THE OBSERVATIONS 
OF FORTY-THREE YEARS, AT CHISWICK.-36' 6 



The Tree of N ° ° n6 interested in plants can 
Lif™° have visited those uncouth but 
wonderfully vivid examples of 
Assyrian life in the British Museum, without 
desiring to know something more about them. 
Of this something more, Dr. Bona via supplies 
an instalment. No one could hope or expect 
to unravel all the doubtful points connected 
with them. 

The would-be decipherer must, of course, be 
an Assyriologist, and all that that implies ; he 
must be a philologist, an ethnologist, and a 
botanist. If he be gifted with imagination, it 
must be strictly under control, or his deductions 
will run riot beyond the limits of his facts. 
'Every action," says Dr. Bonavia "whether of 
an artist, speaker, or writer, has a corresponding 
movement in the cerebral grey matter of that 
individual. This molecular action is the difficult 
part to make out, and to discover what was its 
genesis; for the genesis of an idea may be 
either traditional, or it may be evolved from 
social urroundings, or from physical surround- 

» flora of the Assyrian Monuments. Bf E. Bonavia, M.D. 
Westminster, Archibald Constable and Co.) 



ings, which again may depend on astronomical, 
meteorological, physiological, pathological, and 
other phenomena. In these investigations we 
have to try to put back our minds ten thousand 
years, and look at things, nature, and everything 
e'se with the brains of those times. This 
seems almost an impossibility ; but by studying 
the mental phenomena of to-day, we may, 
perhaps, hope to creep back to the mental phe- 
nomena of those days ; from the known to look 
baok to the unknown of past ages." 

This extract may suffice to show the spirit 
pervading this book. If any reader should take 
alarm at molecular movements of the grey 
matter (of which, by the way, we know nothing 
definite), and of the string of " ologies " above 
enumerated, we may at once re-assure him, and 
promise him much interest in the perusal of 
Dr. Bonavi a's book. Whether he will assent to 
all the author's deductions is another matter. 

The flora, as here detailed, is a very small 
one, including the Date Palm, the Vine, the 
Pomegranate, the Fig, the Banana, the Melon, 
the Pine tree, the Eeed, the Lily, a Composite of 
uncertain identity, and the Baobab (?). As to 
most of these there is no sort of doubt ; the 
figures that Dr. Bonavia gives, associated with 
what we know of the Assyrian flora as it now 
exists, carry conviction. The Date Palm, for 
instance, is quite unmistakable. Not less so is 
the Vine. The Pomegranate is almost equally 
free from doubt, and the Fig may pass muster. 
The suggested identification of the Banana is 
very ingenious, and may stand till some one 
makes a more plausible explanation. The Banana 
is not, and probably never was, a native of the 
Babylonian plain, but its fruits might readily 
have been imported— as they are among our- 
selves. This is consistent with the circumstance 
that, while the fruits are engraved on the monu- 
ments, no representation of the plant as a whole 
has been found. The Musa has too remarkable 
an appearance not to have attracted the attention 
of ihe artist had he seen it. The Melon, or 
some closely-allied fruits, might well be expected 
in Assyria, but it strikes us as a bold surmise to 
conjecture that the crescent-shaped article in 
fig. S really represents a slice of Melon — 
it might be the crescent moon. The Pine 
tree, represented on the bas-reliefs, is referred 
by Dr. Bonavia to Pinus Brutia. It may be 
so ; but we think Dr. Bonavia's fig. 11 might as 
well be taken for the representation of some form 
of Pinus Laricio. In any case, the upturned 
branches are very like what is seen in young 
Corsican Pines. Fig. 12 shows no true Pine (in 
the restricted sense), but rather a Spruce — a 
Picea — like P. Smithiana, an Affghan and 
Himalayan species. 

The Reeds on the margins of rivers (fig. 12) 
can surely not be fairly referred to Arundo Donax. 
But for the leaves on their stems (a pretty large 
exception), they might be taken to represent a 
Scirpus, with a terminal inflorescence. As to 
the Lily, there can be no doubt. The Com- 
posite and the Baobab are much more open to 
question, but as we are unable to furnish any 
better hypothesis, we must content ourselves 
with keeping our doubts to ourselves. 

Following this very brief account of the flora, 
as shown on the monuments, is a chapter on 
the sacred trees of Assyria. The veneration 
paid to certain trees had its source, in Dr. 
Bonavia'n opinion, in the utility of the trees. 
We love those who feed us. On this principle 
the Date would have a very high claim to re- 
verence as a Divine gift, and it furnished in all 
probability the idea for some of the highly con- 
ventionalised representations met with on these 



monuments. As to the Vine, the representa- 
tions are so extremely conventionalised that 
certain cone-like objects here figured, have been 
considered to be Fir cones, Lotus buds, the male 
catkins of the Date Palm, the female fruits of 
the same, or bunches of Grapes ! As the Date 
Palm furnished food, so the Vine yielded drink, 
and its claims to be a saored tree are thus ac- 
counted for. Similar reasoning applies to the 
Pomegranate. 

A separate section is devoted to the cone- 
like fruit whioh is so conspicuous in one of the 
hands of some of the winged figures. The other 
hand invariably holds a basket or bucket. Dr. 
Bonavia at one time assigned this cone-like fruit 
to the Citron, a very ingenious notion, but one 
which did not command assent. Dr. Tylob, con- 
sidered it to be the male inflorescence of the 
Date Palm, with which the bearer was about to 
effect the fecundation of the female tree. There 
seems to be no doubt that the difference in the 
sexes of the Date Palm was known in those early 
times, but we own we see even less resemblance 
between the cone-like object and the inflorescence 
of the Date Palm than between it and a Citron. 
Dr. Bonavia now considers the cone was a true 
Fir [Pine] cone used as an " aspergillum," the 
bucket serving to hold the holy water. A Pine cone 
would be an awkward thing to use as a 
sprinkler, and had it been so employed we 
should have expected to have seen some 
evidence of the fact. Negative testimony, how- 
ever, is here more than usually valueless. Bear- 
ing in mind the way in which resin was and still 
is mixed with wine, it is perhaps allowable to 
suggest that the bucket contained wine, oil, or 
even liquid resin, with which the king was 
anointed with the aid of the cone. Dr. Bonavia 
considers it most likely that the cone was a 
" cedar " cone, but from the representation it is 
at least equally probable it was the cone of 
Pinus pinea. But we quite agree with the 
author that " if we endeavour to discover some 
deep meaning in every outline those artists chose 
to make use of, we should soon be landed in a 
sort of chaos." 

Succeeding chapters deal with the represen- 
tations of the Lotus, the Pine tree, and the 
Pomegranate, all treated with the author's 
originality of conception and vivid imagination. 

The chapters dealing with " Horns " as an 
emblem of supreme power, or as a protection 
against the evil eye, are very interesting, but 
scarcely come within our limits, although it is 
curious to note that the Fleur-de-lys, usually 
considered to have been suggested by the flower 
of the Iris, is here, together with the Prince of 
Wales' Feathers, Britannia's trident, and other 
emblems, traced back to two pairs of horns bound 
by a ligature to a central shaft, and so connected 
with some forms of the sacred tree of the 
Assyrians ! If the readtr will take care to keep 
an open mind while reading this book, he will 
derive both pleasure and profit from its perusal. 



CHRY8ANTHEMUM JOHN NOBLE." — Thi» 

variety (see fig. ii, p. 15) is one of the many excel- 
lent English seedlings snown by Mr. Robert Owen, 
Maidenhead, at the meeting of the Royal Horticultural 
Society, held on December 12th. Jno. Noble 
belongs to the incurved .Japanese section, and 
the great breadth of its florets, its large Bize, and 
bold massive appearance, contribute to make it a 
distinct and desirable variety. la colour it is a dull 
chocolate crimson, and the reverse of the florets 
bronzy-gold. It is a good illustration of the "fancy" 
of the day and of the skill of the cultivator, but it 
is hardly to be commended from an artistic point 
of view. 



January 6, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS 1 CHRONICLE. 



15 



LlNNEAN SOCIETY.— On the occasion of the 
meeting of this Society on Thursday, December 21, 
Professor Stewaht, President, in the chair, G»n. 
Sir H. Collettand Mr. H. H. Johnson were admitted, 
and Messrs. G. E. Greene and A. G. Tansley were 
elected. Mr. P. L. Simmonds exhibited a collec- 
tion of New Zealand Mosses formed by Mr. G. W. 



Camponotns planatns with P;endomyrma Belti, the 
plant being Acacia Hindsii. Referring to a manu- 
script letter of Dr. Stephen Hales (the author of 
Vegetable Staticks, and a friend and neighbour of 
Gilbert White), which was exhibited by Mr. G. 
Murray, an excellent engraved portrait of him was 
exhibited by Mr. Harting, who made a few remarks 



Borneo. In the discussion which followed, Mr. 
C. B. Clarke made some interesting remarks on the 
distribution of these plants in the Indian and Indo- 
Malay regions, and on the way in which a knowledge 
of the species had been gradually acquired and 
extended. On behalf of Mr. R. Spruce, whose unex- 
pected death the Society haB had recently to deplore 




Fig. 2.— chbysanthemuh "john noble." (sse p. 14) 
(As " dressed " for exhibition ) 



SimmondB, while surveying in H.M.S. Pandora 
Mr. Murray offered some critical remarks on the 
nature and value of the collection, which the owner 
was understood to say would be presented to the 
Botanical Department of the British Museum. The 
President exhibited and described two curious 
examples of associated ants and plant?, namely, 
Iridomyrmea caudatus with MyrmecodiaBeccari.and 



upon his life and work. As this portrait was not 
to be found amongst the 600 engravings of " scien- 
tific worthies " lately presented to the library by 
the late Lord Arthur Russell, he offered it for the 
acceptance of the Society. On behalf of Mr. H. N. 
Ridley, Director of the Gardens and Forests De- 
partment, Singapore, the Secretary read a paper 
dealing with all the Orchideae hitherto recorded from 



Mr. A. Gepp read a paper on the Hepaticse collected 
by Mr. W. R. Elliott in the islands of St. Vincent 
and Dominica, and took occasion to describe in some 
detail the nature and extent of Mr. Spruce's work, 
which he characterised as a most careful and excel- 
lent contribution to botanical science. The paper 
was accompanied by a series of minute and beautiful 
drawings. 



16 



THE GA R DENER 8' C HR ONI CLE. 



[January 6, 1894. 



The Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Insti- 
tution. — The fifty-fifth annual general meeting of 
the members of this Institution will be held at 
''Simpson's," 101, Strand, London, W.C., on Wed- 
nesday, January 17, 1S94, at 3 p.m., for the purpose 
of receiving the Report of the Committee and the 
Accounts of the Iustitution for the present year 
electing officers for the ensuing year, and other 
affairs ; and also for the purpose of placing fifteen 
pensioners on the funds. The annual friendly 
supper will also be held at the same place, and on 
the lame date, at 6 p.m , tickets for which may be 
obtained on application to the Secretary, Geohge J. 
Ingram, at the office, 50, Parliament Street, 
London, S.W, 

National Chrysanthemum Society.— We 

are requested by the Hon. Secretary to state that, 
owing to severe illness, the Treasurer of the society 
is unable to sign the cheques for the payment of 
the prize-money awarded at the December show, 
and some delay in forwarding the same is there- 
fore unavoidable. 

Botanical Magazine.— The January number 
contains figures of the following plants:— 

Sobralia aantholeuca, t. 7332. Central American 
Orchid ; see Gardeners' Chronicle, 1S89 vol. i p 8 
f. 1. " F ' ' 

Kalanchoc marmorata, t. 7333. An Abyssinian 
Crassulad, with shortly stalked, broad, obovate leaves 
blotched with purple. The symes are stalked many 
flowered. Flowers 3 to 4 inches long, sepals lanceo- 
late, 1 to H inch, corolla tube, 3 inches long, creamy 
white, angular, expanding into a 4-lobed limb, lobes 
spreading ovate, acuminate, white; see Gardeners' 
Chronicle, 1892, vol. ii., p. 300. 

Erythroxylon coca, t. 7334. The plant yielding 
the now well-known stimulant tonic Coca. A full 
account is given in the Kew Bulletin, 1889, p. 5. 

Primus humilis, t. 7335. A dwarf shrub, native 
of Northern China. The flowers are shortly stalked, 
A inch in diameter, white, and succeeded by drupes! 
each about h inch long, ovoid, globose, red, with an 
acidulated sweet taste after the first frost. 

JEschynanthus obconica, t. 7336. A Malayan Ges- 
nerad, with pendulous hairy branches, shortly stalked, 
ovate leaves, and short two-flowered peduncles. The 
brightly-coloured red calyx is broadly campanulate, 
1 inch in diameter, with an angular tube, and very 
narrow recurved rim around the open throat. The 
corolla protrudes beyond the calyx, has a narrow 
tube, and a four-parted limb, the lobes red, streaked 
with yellow. It is a beautiful stove shrub, introduced 
by Messrs. Veitch. 

The Royal Gardeners' Orphan Fund.— a 
meeting of the committee, the last in 1893, took 
place at the Horticultural Club, Hotel Windsor, on 
December 29, Mr. William Marshall in the chair, 
the committee being fully represented. The fol- 
lowing special contributions were announced :— 
Altrincham Gardeners' Mutual Improvement So- 
ciety, proceeds of concert, per Mr. W. Plant, Secre- 
tary, £35 15s.; Reigate Chrysanthemum Society, 
per Mr. J. Brown, Secretary, £20; Rugby Chrys- 
anthemum Society, per Mr. W. Bryant, Secretary, 
£6 17.. 8d.; Bristol Chrysanthemum Society, per 
Mr. J. H. Vallance, Secretary, £0 lis. id. ; and 
Leighton Buzzard Chrysanthemum Society, per Mr. 
•I. Smith, Mentmore, £6 lis. Donations :— Mr! 
R. Greenfield, nurseryman, Leamington ; Mr. William 
Jiobinson, proprietor of The Garden; Mr. F. W. 
Burbidge, M.A.. Dublin; Mr. Thos. Wilkins, The 
Gardens, Hensridge, Wilts; Mr. Geo. Lemmon', Col- 
chester; Mr. G. Harvey, Bakewell ; and Mr. G. 
Mason, Malvern. Boxes :— Mr. R. Scott, Moorfield! 
Bradford, 15s. ; Mr. H. J. Jones, Ryecroft Nursery,' 
Lewisham, opening of Chrysanthemum-house to the 
public, £7 4s. od. ; Mr. Newbould, Rawdon, Leeds, 
£2 ; Mr. H. Herbsr, Stanmore, Kew Road, £3 10s. 9d.; 
Mr. George Fry, Lewisham, £1 14s. 9d. ; Mr. C. 
Gibson, Morden Park Gardens, Mitcham, 15s. 6d. ; 
Mr. J. Cranford, Coddington, 10s. ; Mr. F. Dodds, 
Herringswell, 7s.; Mr. A. Reid, Grittleton, 7s. 6d. ■ 
The Isle of Thanet Chrysanthemum Society, per 



Mr. F. Miller, Secretary, 8s. 3d. ; and Miss Barron, 
Chiswick, 8s., making a total of £110 14s. 3d. The 
chairman reported that since the last meeting 
£500 worth of Consols had been purchased, thus 
increasing the sum invested by that amount, leaving 
an ample balance to meet current expenses. Eleven 
applications were received on behalf of orphan 
children candidates for election on the Fund in 
February next, nine of which were accepted, and 
two referred back for fuller particulars. In addition, 
there are seven candidates at the last election who 
proved unsuccessful. It was resolved that the 
annual general meeting and election of children 
should take place on Friday, February 9, at the 
Cannon Street Hotel. It was also resolved that, 
subject to the convenience of the Lord Mayor, who 
has promised to preside, the annual dinner should 
be held on May 10, at the Hotel Me;ropole. Cheques 
were drawn for various amounts, including one for 
this quarter's allowances to children on the Fund 
amounting to £1S2. On the conclusion of the 
business, the chairman congratulated the committee 
upon their good attendance, and thanked them for 
the year's work, and heartily wished them a hapj y 
and prosperous New Year, which kindly feeling was 
warmly reciprocated. 

Some Fungus Diseases.— Dr. P. Foolino has 
commenced a series of illustrations of the parasitic 
fungi which are injurious to cultivated plants. With 
each illustration is a description of the fungus and 
of the nature of the injury inflicted, with recom- 
mendations as to the best remedy. The parts are 
published under the title " I Ftmghi pici damnosi alle 
piantc coltivate," and so far relate to the following: — 
Ustilago Maydis, the smut of Indian Corn ; Monilia 
fructigina, the mould of fruits; Ustilago segetum, the 
smut of corn; Exoascus deformans, causing the 
" bladder " on Peach and Plum leaves ; Puccinia 
graminis, the rust of corn ; Phytophthora infestans, 
the Potato blight ; Phyllosticta prunicola, the rust 
of Peach and Plum leaves ; Gloesporium Linde- 
muthianum, the anthracnose of the Bean. 

Preservation of Commons.— The Board of 

Agriculture call attention to the recent Act of 
Parliament amending the law relating to common?, 
with a view to their better preservation, and in 
connection with previous enactments. By the Law 
of Commons Amendment Act, 1893, lately passed, 
it is enacted that an inclosure or approvement of 
any part of a common purporting to be made under 
the Statute of Merton and the Statute of West- 
minster the 'second, or either of such statutes, shall 
not be valid unless it is made with the consent of 
the Board of Agriculture, who in giving or with- 
holding their consent are to have regard to the 
same considerations, and are, if necessary, to hold 
the same inquiries, as are directed by the Commons 
Act, 1876, to be taken into consideration and held 
by the Board before forming an opinion whether an 
application under the Inclosure Acts shall be 
acceded to or not. By the sixth section of the 
Copyhold Act, 1887, the lords of manors were 
forbidden to make grants of land not previously of 
copyhold tenure, to any person to hold by copy of 
court roll, or by any tenure of a customary nature 
without the previous consent of the Land Com- 
missioners (now the Board of Agriculture), who in 
giving or withholding their consent were to have 
regard to the same considerations as are to be 
taken jinto account by them on giving or with- 
holding their consent to any inclosure of common 
lands. By the thirty-first section of the Commons 
Act, 1876, it is provided that any person intending 
to inclose or approve a common, or part of a 
common, otherwise than under the provisions of the 
Act, shall give notice to all persons claiming any 
legal right in such common or part of a common, 
by publishing at least three months beforehand a 
statement of his intention to make Buch inclosure, 
for three successive times, and in two or more of 
the principal local newspapers in the county, town, 
or district in which the common or part of a 
common proposed to be inclosed, is situate. It follows 
from the above enactments that an inclosure of 



part of a common, whether purporting to be made 
under the Statutes of Merton and Westminster the 
second, or either of them, by way of approvement, 
on the ground of sufficient pasture being left for 
the commoners, or under copyhold grant founded 
on a custom of the manor, cannot now be legally 
made without the consent ef the Board of Agri- 
culture, who in giving or withholding their consent 
are to have regard as well to the benefit of the 
neighbourhood as to private interests ; and that 
any person intending to make such an inclosure 
should publish notice of his intention in the local 
newspapers. 4, Whitehall Place, London, S.W., 
December, 1893. 

Agricultural Banks.— The association which 

is seeking to establish these banks in England has 
for one of its guiding spirits Mr. Bolton King. It 
says:— "Agricultural banks should be small, nume- 
rous, easily approachable, ready to receive small 
deposits, and to grant small credits." It does not 
claim novelty for its scheme, stating that the prin- 
ciples on which it will work have already ensured a 
successful career for similar banks in Scotland, 
France, and Germany. Should the banks be estab- 
lished in this country, it is to be hoped that their 
promoters will instruct the proprietors of small 
holdings in some more business-like way of dis- 
posing of their produce than was revealed to us 
when, some time since, we stood by a labourer 
selling the Wheat on his allotment. He sold it first 
of all to an enterprising carrier, who in his turn 
disposed of it to a publican, the latter transferring it 
to a farmer, from whose hands the miller received it. 
Thus quite a small host of middlemen stood between 
Hodge and the miller. At the same time as he dis- 
posed of his Wheat, he also, but not without calling 
into being the same number of middlemen, sold 
100 head of poultry. 

A Prosperous Society.— The Oswestry and 

Border Counties Advertiser informs us that " the 
first annual meeting of the Welshpool Horticul- 
tural Society was held in the Town Hall recently. 
The balance-sheet of the last show was taken as 
read, and showed a balance of £111 lis. 3d. It was 
decided to hold the next on August 9 and 10, in 
Powis Castle Park, by permission of the Right Hon. 
the Earl Powis. Mrs. Naylor, of Leighton Hall, 
was elected President; Mrs. W. F. Addie being 
re-elected Hon. Secretary ; Mr. F. D. Ward, Secre- 
tary, and Mr. Matthew Poole Hon. Treasurer. The 
general committee of last year was also re-elected." 
Tae hearty manner with which Lord Powis and the 
resident gentry enter into the affairs of the Welsh- 
pool district seems one factor in the encouraging 
success of its horticultural society. 

Public Libraries and Horticultural 

WORKS. — A friend who has been visiting the read- 
ing-rooms and inspecting the catalogues of a number 
of public libraries in the suburbs, says : — " Con- 
sidering the interest taken in horticulture by sub- 
urban residents, and the opportunities they have 
for gardening, the number of horticultural journals 
in the news-rooms, and of books in the reference 
libraries, seems to be not so goodly of proportion as 
it might be." The remedy is in the hands of the 
residents rated for the support of the libraries under 
notice. When such works on horticulture as they 
desire to consult are not to be found in the cata- 
logues of the various libraries, residents should 
memorialise the Commissioners in a letter with a 
representative number of signatures attached to it. 

German Arboricultural Society.— The re- 
port of the second annual meeting of the Deutsche 
Dendrologische Gesellschaft held at Leipsig in 
August last has now been issutcl In addition to 
business details, it contains notes on the trees and 
shrubs of Japan available for cultivation in Germany; 
a full and appreciative review of the List of Conifers 
by Dr. Masters in the Journal of the lioyal Horticul- 
tural Society by Inspector Beissner, who also con- 
tributes a shorter notice of Professor Hansen's 
Pinetum Danicum and of some other papers read 



January 6, 1894] 



THE GABDENEBS' GHBONIGLE. 



17 



before the Conifer Congress. A similar review of 
Ivohnes' Deutsche Dendrologia is presented. Garten- 
meister Zabel contributes a note on the genus 
Abelia, and there is much other matter of interest 
to the lover of trees and shrubs. 

Reine Claude Plum— Reine Claude, com- 
memorated by a race of delicious Plums, was the 
queen of Francis I. of France. It is narrated of her 
(says the Bulletin d' Arboriculture), that she caused a 
man to be hung for stealing her Plums. Shortly 
after another candidate for the gallows passed by, 
and on inquiry being made as to the reason for this 
second execution, the answer given was, "Not for 
stealing Plums, this time." 

Shropshire Horticultural Society.— The 

annual meeting of this Society was held on Monday, 
December 18, at Shrewsbury, and was presided over 
by the Mayor, W. L. Browne, Esq. The report 
stated that continued success had attended the exhi- 
bitions of the Society during the year, and there was 
little that called for special remark. A slight decrease 
in the number of visitors during the second day of 
the summer show was attributed to the coal strike. 
The accounts showed a profit for the year of about 
£850. The committee recorded their regret that the 
balloon descent on the first day of the show was 
attended by an accident which resulted in the death 
of Mr. Whelan, the aeronaut, who had conducted a 
balloon ascent in connection with many of their 
exhibitions. The Treasurers reported that the state- 
ment for 1S93 included the receipts of interest on 
invested capital £110 9s. ; subscriptions receiver!, 
£404 18s. ; cash taken at spring show, £15 13s. 9d. ; 
received for rents, £57 19s. 6d. ; caBh for refresh- 
ments, contracts, summer shows, £354 18s. 9d. ; 
takings at gate, first day, £504 15s. Sd. ; second day, 
£1459 6s. 2d. ; cheap tickets sold by Messrs. Adnit 
and Naunton, £496 16s. lOd. ; total receipts for the 
year, £3631 12s. 5d. The expenses included spring 
show, £85 lis. lOd. ; summer show, prize-money, 
£645 lis. 6tZ. ; sports and fireworks, £455 5s. ; horse- 
leaping, £101 5s. 3d. ; bands, £286 18s. 9d. ; hire of 
tents, gas. enclosing ground, &c, £321 19s. id. ; 
printing, £143 lis. Id. ; advertising, £156 16s. dd. ; 
and the balance to be carried forward is £694 3s. 8d. 
The reports were unanimously adopted. On the 
motion of Mr. D. H. Owen, it was resolved that Sir 
Thomas Metrics:, Bart., of Apley, Wellington, be 
the President during the year 1894. It was stated 
that since the Society was inaugurated in 1875, it 
had contributed towards the wealth of the Borough 
of Shrewsbury to the extent of £5000, and it was 
likely that another £4000 would be handed over in 
the near future, though such has not at present been 
decided upon. 

MANNA. — Mr. J. Sunger Ward in the November 
number of the Pharmaceutical Journal, p. 381, has 
the following note on the collection of Manna in 
Sicily: — "The plantation visited is situated at Villa 
Grazia, a village on a pleasant slope near the foot 
of Monte Grifone, about 6 miles to the south of 
Palermo. It occupies nearly 2 acres, the trees 
planted without regard to regularity, but closely 
enough to form sufficient shade. The Manna Ash 
under cultivation has the appearance of a pollard 
Willow, the parent stem being scarcely above the 
ground. At the time of my visit the trees were in 
flower, and proved to be the Fraxinus rotundifolia. 
The proprietor informed me that the stems when 
10 years old are ready to yield Manna. One incision 
covering one-third of the circumference of the stem 
is made daily, cutting through the bark from the 
right to the left transversely, commencing at the 
base of the stem ; the right extremity of the cut is 
slightly higher up the tree than the left. The 
season, which is ruled by the weather, usually com- 
mences in July and ends in September; during the 
collection about forty-five incisions are made. By 
the incisions following each other with regularity, 
like the steps in a ladder, the exudation runs and 
hardens in a channel, thus the familiar strip of 
Manna is produced ; this in that particular locality 
is termed ' Manna Cannolo.' The system of inserting 



straws or sticks into the incision is not adopted 
there. In wet seasons, when the exudation is very 
fluid, a Cactus leaf is placed on the ground to receive 
it as it drips ; this and the small and broken pieces 
are known as ' Manna Bottame.' The following 
year fresh incisions are made adjoining the previous 
season's, each of which occupies one-third of the 
circumference ; the third year the unincised portion 
of the bark is cut, and the period for yielding 
Manna is at an end. The stems are then cut down 
near the root; new stems spring up. When suf- 
ficiently mature the collection commences. Each 
root has attached both stems yielding Manna and 
younger ones to replace those exhausted. The 
average number of stems in use in each tree was 
four. Each stem yields about half a kilo, of Manna 
in a good season." 

The Mildness of the Season in Perth- 
shire.— We have received from Mr. Faihgrieve, 
of Dunkeld Gardens, a number of bunches of Straw- 
berries gathered on New Year's Day in Mr. Athole 
Macgregor's garden, Eastwood, Dunkeld. Several 
times during the month of December last, ripe 
fruits of the Strawberry, also many flowers of 
Rhododendrons and other shrubs were gathered in 
the open air. The conditions of weather that favour 
the untimely flowering of these plants are of 
extremely rare occurrence. 

THE SEASON.— The Morning Post states, "As 
a proof of the exceptionally mild weather preceding 
Christmas, that a quantity of Primroses and Violets 
were gathered on Christmas-day from the sheltered 
nooks adjoining the Alexandra Park, Muswell Hill." 
We may add to this intelligence, that we received a 
bunch of Wallflowers that were gathered on De- 
cember 22, near Abergavenny, in Monmouthshire. 

Mr. W. Gardiner's Retirement from 

SERVICE. — Mr. Gardiner, head gardener for a 
period of nearly twenty years to Mr. F. Scholes, 
Brooklyn, New York, has, owing to failing health, 
come to reside in England, his native land. Mr. 
Gardiner was a very successful Orchid cultivator, 
especially of the Pbaltenopsids, and specimens of 
P. Schilleriana, grown by him, were described and 
figured respectively in the Gardeners' Chronicle for 
January 28 and April 28, 1888. 

TuRNFORD NURSERIES. — Mr. Thomas Ecch- 
ford's employes had their annual dinner at the 
Globe Hotel, Wormley, on the 30sh ult. One 
hundred and sixteen persons were present, and a 
most enjoyable evening was spent. 

Eridge Castle Gardens. — Oar old and 

valued correspondent, Mr. Rust, who for many years 
has had charge of these gardens, having resigned 
through ill-health, has been succeeded by Mr. Arthur 
Wilson, untilnow Foreman at the establishment. We 
are pleased to hear that Mr. Rust has been granted a 
handsome pension by the Marquess of Abergavenny. 

Peebles8hire Horticultural Association. 

— The usual fortnightly meeting of the members of 
this Association was held in the lesser Good 
Templars' Hall on Tuesday evening, December 26. 
After the ordinary business, Mr. James Greive, of 
Messrs. Dicksons & Co., Edinburgh, read an inter- 
esting and instructive paper on winter-flowering 
plants. 

The Late Mr. W. C. Drummond, of Bath. 
— " The recent death of this veteran," writes 
" R.D.," " removes from our midst one of the 
florists of a past generation. For several years 
past I had met him at the Trowbridge and Bath 
shows, which he made a point of attending, and 
up to within the last few years he was an ex- 
hibitor at these exhibitions. Some time ago he 
relinquished business, and I fear he was not in 
prosperous circumstances at the time of his death. 
He was known as a Dahlia grower and exhibitor 
nearly half a century ago, and sent out several varieties 
that made a considerable reputation. He did not 
raise them, but put them into commerce, and they 
bore his name. Beeswing was his earliest flower, as 



far as I know (sent out about 1845), and it was grown 
for several years. About 184S, Felix, Meion, Sarah, 
Minn, and Duke of Wellington appeared ; and in 
1851, Bob, a scarlet flower of excellent shape, that 
became very popular. In 1852, two of his flowers — 
Sir Richard Whittington, ruby-crimBon, and Alice, 
fawn and bronze — were figured in the March number 
of the Florist. Sir R. Peel (scarlet-lake), Utilis, 
Robert Bruce, British Queer, and Qieen of Whites 
appeared in 1853 ; and several others in 1854. 
Mr. Drummond was one of the original supporters 
of the old National Floricultural Society, and at that 
period he frequently exhibited Dahlias about the 
country. His death appears like the snapping 
asunder of another link in the chain which binds 
present-day floriculture with that which is past." 

Differences in Varieties in Timber 

Trees. — Mention should be made of the difference 
in varieties of many species of timber trees, and of 
the capital importance of attention to these differ- 
ences in selections for practical arboriculture. The 
White Elm (Ulmus americana) varies so much that 
woodsmen have several special names for the kinds, 
of which some are very valuable for certain uses, 
while others are worthless. The same may be said 
of Box Elder, Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron tulipi- 
fera), and Cottonwood. Some differences are due to 
soil and situation, but the seed of certain trees gives 
very different stock from that of certain other trees 
of the same species ; sometimes the varieties grow 
mixed together in the same region of country, some- 
times the distinctions are seen only in trees geogra- 
phically separated. The so-called yellow Cotton- 
wood of the Mississippi Valley, the wood of which 
is readily split and worked, is specifically identical 
with the almost worthless common Cottonwood 
(Populus monilifera) of Illinois. Agricultural Expe- 
riment Station, Illinois Bulletin, n. 26. 

Juniper Berries. — According to a note of 
Mr. Jack in the Botanical Gazette, there is some 
diversity as to the length of time required for the 
maturation of the berries of different species of 
Juniper. Botanists who only have the opportunity 
of studying herbarium specimens are equally diverse 
in their opinions. Mr. Jack, in the course of his 
work in the Arnold Arboretum, has had the oppor- 
tunity of watching certain species under cultivation. 
Juniperus virginiana, the red Cedar, is described as 
strictly annual-fruited ; J. Sabina is biennial-fruited : 
whilst J. communis does not mature its fruit until 
the autumn of the third year after blossoming. 

Clematis Disease.— In Insect Life, vol. vi., 
No. 2, M. Ritzema Bos describes a disease in 
Clematis. A spot appears on the stem, and shortly 
after the stem above the spot dries up, and the 
plant dies. The culprit is a minute fly ( Phytomyza 
affinis) like the Holly- fly. The affected shoot should 
be cut off and burned as soon as the diseaBe makes 
its appearance (early summer). 

New Edition of Brown's Forestry. — 

Mr. J. Nisbet, J 5, Drummond Place, Edinburgh, 
under date of December 26, writes : — " With 
a view to making as complete as possible the 
new and amplified (sixth) edition of Brown's The 
Forester, which I am now preparing for Messrs. Wm. 
Blackwood & Sons, I would ask leave to request, 
through your columns, infoimation from foresters as 
to the following points : — 

I. Current average prices of wood of the dif- 
ferent kinds and of the different dimensions 
in any given locality. 

(a) When sold in situ within the woods. 
(J) When transported to the nearest large 
timber-mart. 
II. The chief insect enemies to woodlands in any 

given locality. 
III. The chief fungoid diseases prevalent in woods 
in any given locality. 
If sufficient data be sent in response to this appeal 
for assistance, I hope to be in a position to give a 
sketch of the different conditions of each tract of 
Britain, viz. :— S.W., S.E., Centre, and North of 
England S., Centre, N.E. and N.W. of Scotland— 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January G, 1894. 



with regard to current average rates for forest pro- 
duce, and at the same time to give detailed descrip- 
tions of the chief insect enemies and fungoid diseases, 
with the best practical means of combating them. 
If any correspondent would at the same time kindly 
inform me if the railway companies of EDgland still 
grant to foreign (imported) timber the preferential 
rates so justly pointed out as an iniquity in evidence 
given before the House of Commons' Select Com- 
mittee on Forestry in 1885, 18S6, and 1887, I should 
also feel much obliged." [We trust the botanical 
details will receive attention in the new edition. Ed ] 
The Suryeyors' Institution.— The next 

ordinary general meeting will be held on Monday, 
January 8, 1894, when a paper will be read by Mr. 
E. J. Harper (Professional Associate), entitled 
•' Trade Claims." The chair to be taken at 8 o'clock. 



PLANT PORTRAITS. 

Anthurium Leon Radziwill and A. Princess 
Lise Radziwill, Revue Horticole, January 1. 

Co3logyne cuprea, Wendland & Kulnzlin, Kianz- 
Hn, Xenia Orchidacea, t. 263. 

Cypripedioti Rcebelini, Xenia, t. 265. 

Dendrobiusi sphegidiglossum, Xenia, t. 270. 

Eulophia Wabbubgiana, Xenia, t. 266, ii. 

Edlophiella Elisabeth.e, Keubert's Garten- 
Magazin, January. 

Listostbachys Metteni;e, KtJinzlin, Xenia, 
t. 270, ii. 

Luisia Gbiffithii, Xenia. t. 269. 

Maxillabia longipes, Krdnzlin's Xenia, t. 262. 

Moscabi botbyoides, Beoue de I' Horticulture Beige, 
January. 

Pholidota sesquitobta, Xenia, t. 266. 

Pleubothallis gelida, Lindl, Xenia, t. 267, ii. 

Pleubothallis polylieia, Xenia, t. 268. 

Pleubothallis Kiefebsteiniana, Xenia, t. 268. 

Rodbiguezia Lehmanni, Xenia, t. 267. 

Saccolabitoi Wendladianum, Xenia, t. 269, ii. 

Tbichopilia Kienastiana, Xenia (Kianzlin) 
t. 261. '' 



PASSIFLORA ALATA. 

We are induced to figure the fruit of this plant, 
as it does not seem to be much known by gardeners. 
At this season, when well ripened, it forms 
an agreeable dessert fruit, but is better em- 
ployed as a conserve. P. quadrangularia may also 
be used for similar purposes, and likewise the 
gigantic P. macrocarpa. This latter was exploited 
to good or evil purpose some years ago by a 
swindler. His statements with respect to this fruit 
had, however, a basis of truth, for the fruit is really 
very large, and by no means to be despised. By 
some it is considered to be only a form of quadran- 
gularis; but though quadrangularis often produces 
large fruits, it never yields such extra large ones as 
does P. macrocarpa. Moreover, the construction of 
the flower in the two species is widely different. 
Those who maintain the identity of the two species 
can hardly have examined the flower of macrocarpa. 
Better known is the fruit of the Brazilian P. edulis, 
but this is an egg-shaped fruit, with a violet rind,' 
enclosing scanty but moat highly-perfumed pulp, 
with little or no flesh. The culture of these plants 
is easy, though they are apt to be infested with 
mealy-bug. That they do not produce fruit more 
readily is due to the very singular circumstance 
that they are more readily fertilised by the pollen of 
some other species than by their own, or even by the 
pollen of other individuals of the same species. 
When this happens, it is no wonder it becomes im- 
possible, especially in Tacsonias, to define the limits 
of species, for the good reason that there are none. 
The fruit figured on p. 9 was one grown by Mr. W. 
Swan, the gardener at Bystock, Exmouth. 



KEW NOTES. 

Plants in Flovteb.— Leptactinia Manui. This 
plant was discovered on the Ivongui River in West 
Tropical Africa, by Mr. Gustav Mann, when collect- 



ing in that region for Kew thirty years ago. For its 
introduction we are indebted to the Jardin des 
Plantes, Paris, from whence a plant was obtained lor 
Kew four years ago, which is now in flower in a 
stove. It has large opposite leaves, 10 inches long 
by 5 inches in width, and in habit is not unlike 
Coffea liberica, to which genus Leptactinia is related. 
The flowers are borne in terminal fascicles on the 
lateral branches, and each flower consists of a green 
five-lobed calyx, and an erect corolla-tube 3k inches 
long, with five lanceolate spreading recurved lobes 
2j inches long, pure white and fragrant. In Africa 
this species forms a shrub 12 feet high. There are 
three other species of Leptactinia, all natives of 
West Tropical Africa. The genus is closely affined 
to Randia. 

Derhatoboteys Saundebsii. 
This is a new genus of Scrophulariacetu, which was 
discovered in Zululand, and afterwards in Natal, a 
few years ago, when it was named by Mr. Bolus, and 
figured in Hooker's Icones Plantarum, t. 1940. In a 
wild state it is an epiphyte, its stout roots clinging 
to and growing in the crevices of the bark of trees. 
At Kew, where it was raised from seeds received 
from Mrs. K. Saunders of Natal, nearly two years 
ago, it forms a straggling branched shrub 1.J foot 
high, with oblong, ovate, toothed, fleshy green leaves, 
which fall off in autumn. The flowers, which are 
developed at the apex of the shoots, along with the 
new leaves, are in whorls of five or six ; they are 
tubular, fleshy, H inch long, curved, with a short 
five-lobed spreading limb, and coloured dull scarlet 
with a yellowish tinge inside ; they last several 
weeks. A figure of this plant has been prepared for 
the Botanical Magazine. 

Stangeria pabadoxa, vab. schizodon. 
There is a very fine specimen of this Cycad in the 
Victoria-house, which has been an attraction for some 
time by reason of its numerous large healthy leaves, 
and it is now especially attractive, as it has just 
developed five very fine male cones, varying in length 
from 6 to 10 inches. The spread of the leaves is 
over 6 feet, and the tuber-like stem is 18 inches 
across. This variety differs from the type only 
in having the pinnae broadened and lacerated towards 
the apex. Stangeria is a monotypic genus, and is a 
native of South Africa, from Natal southwards. It 
is remarkable for its Fern-like foliage, which puzzled 
botanists considerably until the cones were dis- 
covered. 

ASARDM MACRANTHUM 

is the moat attractive of the several species of 
this genus represented in gardens. There is a 
specimen of it in the T range at Kew, which 
for several weeks has been a compact cushion-like 
mass a foot across of flowers resting on the soil, 
and shaded by numerous cordate marbled leaves 
like the leaves of Cyclamen, but larger, some of them 
being 6 inches across, with stalks 9 inches long. 
The flowers are curiously-inflated tubes with three 
spreading lobes, and each flower is 2 inches across, 
dark brown, with a yellow, crinkled margin. A strong 
aromatic odour is exhaled by the plant. It is a 
native of Formosa, whence it was introduced to 
Kew some years ago. It is figured in the Botanical 
Magazine, t. 7022. The genus is related to Aristo- 
lochia. For an account of all the Asaiums, see 
Gardeners' Chronicle, 1890, p. 420. 

Tecojia Smithii. 

Several plants of this beautifal little green- 
house shrub are now bearing large heads of 
bright yellow orange-tinted flowers in the Ti-m- 
perate-house. They developed on December 23, and 
so far they have not been affected by the heavy fogs 
experienced during the last few days. This is cer- 
tainly a shrub of exceptional value, as it is easily 
grown, and so far as K»w experience goes, it flowers 
with much greater freedom than any other Tecoma. 
For figure, see Gardeners' Chronicle, p. 619, 1893. 

Ainsli-HA Walkebi. 

There is a good plant of this most interesting 
Composite in flower in the Begonia - house. 



It is 18 inches high, with about a dozen stem?, 
clothed to the base with dark green, linear, 
recurved leaves, and each one terminated by an 
erect spike of flowers, very different in appearance 
from those of the great majority of Compositse. The 
flowers con8iat of five spreading recurved white 
petal8 half an inch long, surrounding a club-like 
clnater of red anthers, through which the bilobed 
stigma protrudes. There are only from two to Hire" 
flowers in each head, and these heads are arranged 
horizontally on the spike. A. Walkeri was dis- 
covered by Captain Walker in Hong-Kong twenty 
years ago, aud flowered in the garden of Mrs. Walker, 
at Enfield, in December, 1875. 

Bahbusa nana. 

There are two distinct plants under this name 
in gardena, one a dwarf semi - prostrate hardy 
plant, with short green leaves, usually grown 
in rockeries; this is the spurious B. nana. The 
true plant of this name ia a native of India, China, 
and Japan, ia not hardy at Kew, and scarcely 
thrives in the temperate-house, whereas in the Palm- 
house it is a handsome shrub 10 feet high. In the 
timber muaeum (No. 3) there is a cane of B. nana 
over 20 feet high. The plant in the Temperate- 
house ia in flower, the infloreacence being aimilar to 
that of Arundinaria macrosperma of the United 
States. A figure of it has been prepared for the 
Botanical Magazine, There ia a variegated form of 
thia species in cultivation. W. W. 



Home Correspondence. 



VITIS COIGNETI/E.— The note upon this Vine 
(p. 781 of the last volume) wil', I think, give a cine 
to the identification of that beautiful autumn-tinted 
Vine, which for years has been a nameless species in 
the Knap Hill Nursery, and has puzzled so many as 
regards ite identity. In my own mind, I had 
alwaya considered it to be a form of the North 
American V. Labrusca, and yet it differs from that 
apecieB in the splendid tint8 the foliage has in the 
autumn. I have a leaf before me gathered at Knap 
Hill at the end of September, which still retains its 
rich crimson tint, and is as perfect as when gathered. 
The underside of the leaf is covered with a russety- 
brown tomentum, as in V. Labrusca, and the form 
of the leaf is similar, but larger. Thia deacription 
agree8 with that given of Vitia Coignetiffi, and I 
think that the Knap Hill plant must be the same, 
and I am more persuaded that such is the case, since 
Mr. Anthony Waterer tells me that his Vine was 
originally received through Mesars. Jardine & 
Matheson, the well-known East-India merchants, 
whose ramifications of trade extend all over the 
Eas', so that probably this Vine came through them 
from the forests of Yezo. When in Japan in 
May last I thought I had found the Knap Hill Vine 
wild on the Nikko Mountains, bnt upon comparing 
my specimens with those in the Tokyo Herbarium, I 
found to my diaappointment that it wa8 V. Labrusca. 
It waa rather plentiful about the hills, and I little 
thought at the time that the North American 
species had reached so far west. Vitis Coignetice is 
not recorded among the six indigenous species of 
Vine of Japan in the Tokyo Herbarium Catalogue ; 
but perhaps it is a new species. There can be no 
two opinions about the ornamental character of 
the Knap Hill Vine (which I shall hereafter call 
V. Coignetiaj until it is proved otherwise), but the 
drawback to it is, that it is so difficult to propagate. 
I believe that they have tried at Knap Hill all 
conceivable methods to work up a atock of it, but 
have never succeeded, and only a few plants yearly 
(I think from layers) are obtained from it. The 
beautiful way in which that Vine runa over a tall 
Pinus ponderosa and other big treep, entwined with 
Wistaria, affords one of the moat striking garden 
spectacles I have seen. In autumn, when its decaying 
foliage is in full crimson glow, it is alone worth a 
long journey to aee. W. Goldring, Kew. 

AMERICAN BLIGHT.— Under the above heading 
in your last issue, you described a method of dealing 
with thia evil. Ab I succeBafully fought the peat 
last year (1893), I will describe the course I followed. 
This waa the use of common methylated spirits 
twice repeated, and it aeems to have been perfectly 
successful. I had in past years lost several trees, 



Januaby (3, 1894] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



19 



and there was none in my garden that was free from 
the pest. A man was employed for a part of two 
days, with a small paint-brush, and about two quarts 
of the spirit ; the worst sprays and small branches 
were removed, and the rest had the spirit well rubbed 
into the infested parts. After a month the blight 
reappeared to a very much less degree, when the 
process was repeated, since which time I have seen 
no sign whatever of it. C. K. B., Old Charlton, Kent. 

WOOD MANAGEMENT. — Sir C. W. Strickland 
may rest assured that it has been long proved, to 



and for a plain reason : it seems certain, at all events, 
that our over-thinned British woods, grown on the 
" light-and-air" principle, beat the record for damage 
done. As to hedge-row Oak and ABh, I not long 
since valued the whole of the plantation and hedge- 
row timber on an estate to be sold not far from 
Hildenly, and my formerly expressed opinion held 
true of it all, as it has done elsewhere. In North 
and North-East Yorkshire they seem to favour hedge- 
row Oak and Ash extensively, and I never saw more 
big and bad trees of that kind anywhere else. We 
had much dispute about gttting anything at all frr 




Fig. 3. — fbuit of passifloba alata (yellow), (see p. IS.) 



those open to conviction, that such British forest 
trees as the Oak, Ash, Beech, Elm, Sycamore, Lime, 
Chestnut, &c, will grow well in a great variety of 
soils and sitnations ; in the same soils, either by 
themselves or mixed, and they will produce clean, 
straight, saleable trunks under exactly the same 
cultural treatment — their habits beiDg similar for all 
practical purposes. The girth will depend on their 
age ; but the time to dispose of them depends upon the 
purposes for which the timber is used, and its value 
per acre at the time. As regards damage from wind, 
evidence goes to show that thin woods suffer worst, 



the top-wood (hedge-row), and finally an umpire 
declared it to be not worth leading away. S., The 
Woods. 

BULB, SEED, AND PLANT TRADE.— Since my 
letter appeared in your issue of last week, I have 
received various letters of approval. In reply to 
these correspondents, ana for the benefit of others 
who may have any doubts as to my identity, I give 
a few details which will doubtless set their fears at 
rest. Employed in the seed department and office 
in my father's business (James Smith, nurseryman 



and seed merchant, Birkenhead), I run no riek of 
" instant dismissal " for the part I am taking, but I 
shall doubtless come in for severe criticism at the 
hands of the proprietors of the large city houses in 
the trade, with most of whom I have frequent 
dealings ; but this is quite immaterial, for it gives 
me pleasure to help those who dare not help them- 
selves, and their thanks are my ample reward. To 
a great many in the retail seed trade in the Midlard 
and North of England, also in Scotland and Ireland, 
I shall be known as the late representative of Messrs. 
Sly, Dibble & Co., of London. I now give the pre- 
mise asked for by my correspondents, and wish it to 
be clearly understood that any communications ss nt 
to me on this subject will be treated as strictly con- 
fidential, that no names or addresses will under any 
circumstances be divulged to anyone. Thos, I), 
Smith, 5, Dingle Boad, Birkenhead, 

CUCUMBER GROWING.— In reply to " J. J. W." 
p. 772, of the last vol. of Gardeners' Chronicle on this 
interesting subject, I may state at the outset that 
total failure has not occurred with me, like that 
alluded to by others. Market growers and others 
know there are several diseases to which the Cu- 
cumber plant is subject, and I am inclined to the 
belief that many failures accrue more from having the 
plants in too great a depth of soil, especially in the 
winter, than to any other cause. Tbis is not of 
such great importance in the summer when the 
plants naturally make much more growth. It then 
follows that if they are planted in shallow soil 
much more water will be required, and if the state of 
the soil is not carefully attended to, the plants might 
Buffer through lack of water. It ia also a great 
mistake to afford the plants cold water, or to make the 
soil too rich, more especially for winter Cucumbers. 
The plan we adopt for winter cultivation (for if they 
can be well-grown then, they ought to be equally 
so in the summer, when all the conditions are more 
natural), is, in my opinion, as good as can be 
desired (as is seen by the results). The plants were 
struck from cuttings, put in at the end of the month 
of August, and some plants were raised from seed. 
These were potted into 4-inch pots, and when large 
enough planted into slate boxes— wooden ones will 
answer the same purpose — 2 feet apart, in no 
greater depth of soil than 6 inches, the soil resting 
on about 1 foot of broken bricks and clinkers 
for drainage. The plants at this season rarely need 
water more than once in a week. The variety 
mostly grown here is Sion House, with one or two 
Telegraph Improved. Under this treatment, if a 
proper temperature can be maintained, the plants not 
over-cropped, and neither a too moist nor too dry an 
atmosphere maintained, there is no cause to fear 
a failure of the plants. Bed - spider is the Cu- 
cumber's greatest enemy, but it can easily be ar- 
rested by syringing the plants with flowers-of- 
sulphur mixed with water. I have noticed the 
great difference in plants properly cared for, grow- 
ing in deep or shallow soil. It would have been 
well had the style of house these failures occurred 
in been given by " J. J. W." I would advise those 
who have failed to grow satisfactory crops to 
try this plan of having less soil for the 
roots to work in both summer and winter. I fail to 
see, if a first crop can be secured, why not a 
third, or even a twentieth ; or that a properly-con- 
structed house can be blamed if the usual cultural 
details are attended to. J. S. G, 

I have no doubt but that your corre- 
spondent on p. 772 of the last volume of the 
Gardeners' Chronicle, in speaking of the failure of 
his Cucumber crops through disease, alludes to that 
much-dreaded eelworm disease of the root. I remem- 
ber the disease first coming under my notice four 
years ago, when I was foreman in one of the London 
nurseries where Cucumbers were extensivelv grown. 
We used to plant about 2500 plants in February, 
and the same number in June, after we had cleared 
out those which were planted in February. It was 
in the June planting that the disease first made its 
appearance, and as work was somewhat in arrears, 
we did not clear out the soil in which the early crop 
had grown, but laid some fresh manure on the soil, 
and then forked it over. The plants seemed to grow 
very well for a short time, but soon I noticed that 
some of them were not making lateral growths, and 
some flagged. I pulled up one. and the cause was 
plainly visible on the root. When the plants that 
were put out in February were pulled up, they were 
as healthy at the roots as when first planted, and 
the failure of the next crop was, in my opinion, not 
through the Boil being exhausted, but through 
planting in too great a quantity of soil for such 



20 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 6, 1834. 



small plants. The soil was always wet and sour, 
and soil in this state seems to favour the disease. 
We had some old Cucumber soil in another house, 
which was levelled, and plants in pots stood upon it, 
and after the other houses were planted, there were 
enough plants left for this one, so the soil was 
thrown into a ridge and planted. In that house not 
one-third of the plants reached fruiting stage before 
the disease crippled them. The soil was really 
sodden, and not fit to plant in, and it showed me 
that in a wet and sour soil the disease makes the 
most headway. In our other houses we managed to 
get a rather poor crop by top-dressiDg them with 
good loam. Although the roots which first took 
hold of the fresh loam were free, as I could see, from 
the disease, they did not long remain so. In the 
following year the houses were planted again, in good 
turly loam this time, and they carried a good crop. 
I planted a small house in old soil the same year, 
with the result that every plant was diseased. J. 
Jermay, Carlton Colville, Lowestoft, 

MAQNE8IUM LIGHT AND PLANTS — M. G. Tolo- 
mei, a French horticulturist, has lately been studying 
the influence of the artificial light of magnesium, as 
compared with solar light, on the development of 
plants. The experiments conducted by M. Tolomei 
were as follow. He made use of nine flower- pots 
which, for convenience, we will name A x , A„, A 3 ; 
B,, B 2 , B 3 ; G v C„, C 3 . These he filled with mould 
of the same quality. In three of the pots, A L , A 2 , 
A 3 , were placed four Kidney Beans of equal size. In 
three more pots, B lt B„ B 3 , Indian Corn was sown ; 
the seeds here again being exactly identical. In the 
remaining three pots, C v C, C,, were placed Maize 
seeds of varying sizes; one pot of each series, i.e., 
A j, Bj, Cj, was exposed each night for eight hours to 
the influence of the magnesium light, and was kept 
in darkness during the daytime. Three more pots 
(A„, B„, C„), were exposed during the night to the 
magnesium light, bnt were exposed during the day- 
time to the solar rays. The remaining three pots 
A v B 3 , C 3 , were exposed during the daytime to 
natural light and left in darkness during nighttime. 
The experiments began on September 4, 1892, and 
lasted for twelve days. The pots were watered each 
day at the same time with the same quantity of the 
same water. To make matters quite clear, we will 
give a table of the results : — 

Pots. During Daytime. During Nighttime, 

A t . Bj, C, Darkness. Magnesium light. 

A„. B„. C„ Solar rays. Magnesium light. 

A 3 . B 3 , C 3 Solar rays. Darkness. 

These were the results : — 

A., came up in seven days. 
A, came up in eight days. 
A j came np in ten days. 
Twelve days after the commencement of the experi- 
ments all the plants in the pots had come up. The 
Beans in pot A 2 were the finest, and contained the 
largest proportion of dry matter. Then came those 
of pot A.,; the smallest and meanest-looking of the 
lot were those of pot A r The Maize plants of pot 
Bj were also, without exception, the tallest and 
largest of all the Maize plants, and contained the 
smallest quantity of water as well as the largest 
absolute quantity and the highest percentage of dry 
matter. Then came those in pot B 3 , the smallest 
and the poorest in solid matter were those of pot B x . 
From these experiments the following conclusions 
may be drawn : (l),That magnesium light is favour- 
able in some degree to the development of the plants, 
and (2), That it is even superior to the electric light. 
S. C. Fyfe. 

EXHIBITING CUT CHRYSANTHEMUMS.— It is 
hoped that what was seen so admirably displayed at 
the recent show of the National Chrysanthemum 
Society, will determine the committee of that Society 
to take the lead at all its exhibitions in the provision 
of classes for bunches of flowers artistically displayed. 
Some of the exhibits of thia nature at the Aquarium 
were very beautiful, and must have met with enthu- 
siastic admiration. But there is one element about 
cut flower exhibits of this class, apart from their 
novelty and attractiveness, that makes them specially 
pleasing to spectators or visitors at shows. It is 
that even when there is a crowd about the tables 
every one can see the blooms, because they are 
brought up to the eye-line. In the case of the ordi- 
nary show-boxes, because so low down, and bo flatly 
arranged, only those fortunate enough to get into 
the front row of spectators can Bee them, and from 
large crowded shows hundreds of people go away 
having seen nothing. No doubt, so long as the mere 
prize-winning element dominates, the arrangement 



of schedules, the old and now objectionable style of 
showing flowers will rule. Some day, when com- 
mittees regard the furnishing of a beautiful exhibi- 
tion as of more importance than a formal, stereo- 
typed one, we shall see a reform. Still, I do not see 
why small or local bodies should wait for the great 
ones to lead in this movement. They can, at least, 
Btart with small classes, and so afford their patrons 
opportunity to compare the low flat-box style of 
showing blooms with the newer and elevated form 
of bunches in vases Bet in Ferns or foliage plants. 
Some members of a gardeners' association with which 
I am connected wished to offer from their funds 
prizes for cut Chrysanthemums in small quantities, 
for competition amongst the members only. I have 
advised that the box method of exhibiting should be 
put aside altogether, and that one class be for six 
bunches of Chrysanthemums, distinct varieties, 
bunches to be not less than three, and not more than 
five flowers, to be set up in vases, and to be dressed 
with Ferns and foliage. The awards to be made 
according to taste in setting up and excellence of 
flowers. A similar class for three bunches, from 
which previous competitors would be excluded, and 
finally an open class for a single bunch from six to 
nine flowers, divers varieties. These classes would 
give the competitors an admirable opportunity to 
display their decorative abilities, the flowers would 
be exhibited but for a few hours, and could be set 
on the employer's tables still fresh and good the next 
morning. The prizes would not be large, and there 
would be no encouragement given to those who seem 
to think the chief mission of the Chrysanthemum 
is to win prizes. Happily, the Chrysanthemum, 
under ordinary treatment, gives long stems, and stout 
ones, too, to its flowers, so that they can be displayed 
in vases, as desired, in the moat admirable way. 
That fact was so conclusively proved at the Royal 
Aquarium show, that it will be a surprise indeed if 
some effort be not made at all shows to give effect 
to the demand for more natural grouping or staging 
of the flowers. I have yet to learn that the pr'nury 
reason for growing Chrysanthemum flowers is to 
obtain the biggest, although that is the chief object 
of the present system of exhibiting flowers, as with 
them taste, grace, effect go for nothing. We have 
but to alter the conditions of showing — if not abso- 
lutely, at least in a large degree — to change the aims 
of growers, and it is certain that shows and visitors 
to shows would be greatly the gainers. The rapid 
increase in varieties of all sections now seen enables 
growers to exhibit blooms much more freely than 
formerly, but it is a special recommendation to the 
vase style that the flowers should be cut on long 
w* ■•Mir, and thus would be so valuable later for 
decorative uses. A. D. 

SHANKING OF GRAPES.— Thia season has brought 
my first experience of Grape-shankiDg. It occurred 
in two divisions, but not in the same range, and 
each has been attended to by different men. One of 
the divisions is a lean-to, and the other a span. The 
Vines are planted inside, and the borders are inside 
and outside in each case. The depth of the borders 
is from 2 to 3 feet ; the bottom is clay, with plenty 
of drain-pipes, and from 9 inches to a foot of broken 
bricks. The soil of the borders is old sod. ballast, 
brick-rnbbish, half-inch bones, and some of Thom- 
son's Vine and Plant Manure. The Vines are 
vigorous and strong, and this season showed enor- 
mous bunches. All went well until the beginning 
of the last swelling. The sorts were Muscats, 
Alicante, Lady Downes, Barbarossa, Gros Colmar, 
and Madresfield Court, including some rods of Black 
Hamburgh. In the next division, adjoining the 
span-roof vinery, were Black Hamburgh, Frontig- 
nan, and one rod of Buckland's Sweetwater, which 
did not suffer so much as its neighbour with the late 
sorts. When I noticed the shrivelling or shanking, 
I had the outside borders at once covered with boards 
and mulching, to throw off any rain that might be 
expected after Buch a dry season. After covering 
the borders, the Grapes did not seem to get much 
worse; at all events the ripest Grapes are keeping 
best. In a short time I shall have the whole of them 
in bottles. Now as to the cause. I am sceptical on 
this matter, although I have never had shanked 
Grapes before ; but during this abnormally dry 
season, perhaps I may have given them — notwith- 
standing their good drainage — more water than they 
required. But strange to say, the vinery adjoining 
the lean-to being an early vinery finished off fairly 
well. In another bouse, 70 feet long with the border 
entirely outBide, and attended to by a third man, we 
had not the semblance of a shanked berry in the 
whole house. The Grapes were quite a picture 



when finished, and the sorts were Alicante and 
Black Hamburgh. At other places where I have 
been, and knew nothing about the making of the 
borders, where some of the divisions had outside and 
others inside borders, I have never seen a shanked 
berry. Probably in my case this season, had I been 
at the end of the hose when watering the borders the 
Grapes might have been all right. As to tem- 
peratures, when I was serving with Mr. Sheils, 
gardener at Erskin House, over fifty years ago, he 
encouraged high temperatures, securing every ray of 
sun during winter to save coal in all the divisions of 
early forcing. This was in the days of flues. In the 
spring on frosty nights between the walls and the 
Louses, I have made up twenty-four fires in a night. 
With Mr. Sheils' practice I remember nothing of 
shanked Grapes. Calling at Erskin the previous 
autumn before going to live there, I was quite taken 
with his Vine wall covered with well- coloured Black 
Hamburgh. Evennowthe first sight isquite fresh upon 
my memory. They had strong healthy foliage with 
well- coloured clusters of Grapes from the ground to 
the coping, and if my memory serves me well, I think 
the wall is 16 feet high. When I went to Erskin I 
attempted the slow and low temperature forcing 
of previous practitioners, but I soon found that such 
was not to be. To have Peaches and Grapes early 
during the spring and early forcing months, those on 
duty had every cloud to watch and every burst of 
sun, that no scalding or chill took place. Pro- 
bably this close attention had something to do 
with the absence of shanking ; and in another case 
there was no dropping of Peach buds, through the 
borders having due attention as to watering during 
the dormant season. I may state that working upon 
the high temperature system in June, 1853, I took 
my first Silver Medal at the Royal Botanic Societv's 
Exhibition for Dot-grown Grapes. J, Miller, or,, 
Buxley Lodge, Esher, 

After reading the disussion on the shank- 
ing of Grapes in jour valuable paper, I ven- 
ture to give my experience of this common 
evil. I quite agree with your correspondent in 
the issue of Dec. 2, p. 691, that too much water 
is one very fruitful cause of the evil. We have a 
large vinery here planted with Muscat of Alexandria 
in an outside border, and as a rule it shanks more or 
less every year. During the entire spell of dry 
weather this year, not a drop of water was afforded 
the Vine border, and the only covering was some 
long strawy litter. The results were a good crop of 
very finely coloured bunches, and not a shanked 
berry was anywhere to be found. Also, what I firmly 
believe is another incentive to the evil, namely, a 
too high night temperature at the period when the 
Vines are in flower. I am only alluding to one 
variety, Muscat of Alexandria, as it is a well-known 
fact that this Grape is more subject to shankiog 
than any other — at least, that is my experience. 
While living in the south of England, at a large 
private place, I had charge of the vineries, and one 
lot of Muscats, as a rule, used to set ve>v 
indifferent, so a temperatsre of 75° at night to 85° 
and 90° by day was maintained. I will admit that 
the bunches set fairly well, but came to grief at 
the finish, scarcely a bunch escaped shrivelling more 
or less. As a preventative to these evils, I would 
advocate shallow inside borders, good drainage, and 
to be sparing with the water-can. I do not thereby 
mean the border should be allowed to get too dry, as 
that would be equally as bad as being too wet, if not 
worse; and when the Vines are in flower a temperature 
afforded of 65° by night and 70° by day, or 5° more 
with sunheat, a slight amount of air should be let in 
by opening the front ventilators on bright days, as 
well as the usual ventilator at the top. The bunches, 
when in flower, should have some pollen of the Black 
Hamburgh applied with acamel's-hair brush. I should 
like to see a discussion on the cracking of that excel- 
lent Grape, Madresfield Court, by some experienced 
Grape* grower. Foreman, 

APPLE EMPEROR ALEXANDER.— With me this 
is certainly the worst sort to give a crop of fruit, 
and the number of varieties grown here is over 
one hundred. Evidently this variety does not like 
a retentive soil, it being liable to canker, and 
it is, moreover, sparse of fruit-buds. Our tree has 
been planted fifteen years. I would caution others 
about to plant this Apple to firBt consider the natnre 
of the soil in which it will have to grow. Apart 
from the difficulty of getting a crop of fruit, the fruit 
itself is not of really first-rate quality. It may be 
good-looking, but apart from that there is but little 
to recommend it in point of utility. K. 



[Supplement to the "Gardeners' Chronicle," January 6, 1894. 



WHEELER STREET FACTORY. 





155, COMMERCIAL STREET. 




RUSSIA MATS. FLOWER STICKS & LABELS. SEED BAGS. 



Per Bundle of 10. 
BEST NEW ARCHANGEL MATS ... (9 ft. by 4 ft. 6) 103. 

„ TAGANROG MATS (7 ft. by 4 ft ) 8s. 

„ HEftV?PETIRShURGMATS(7ft. bv3ft. 10) 7s. 
NEW LIGHT PE 'ERSBi RG MATS (7 ft. by 3 ft 6) 6s. 
FURNITURE MATS ... (about 6 ft ) 25s. & 30s. per 100. 

BEST PLAITED RAFFIA 6a!. per lb. 

„ CUBA BaST Is. „ 

TANNED GARDEN NETTING 



Fur Protecting Fruit Trees. 



2 yards wide 
4 .. 



83. per 100 yards. 
163 ., 



WOOD LABELS. 

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 inch. 

1/7 2/- 2/3 3/3 4/3 5/3 6/6 7/6 per 1000. 
FLOWER STICKS. 

1 1$ 2 2A 3 3J 4 41 5'.feet. 

2/9 4/6 6/9 8/9 11/- 15/- 19/6 24/6 30/- per 1000. 

CANES. 

BAMBOO, ThlcV, abont 4 feet . 
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. 2/3 .. 
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Per 1000. 
25/- 

20/- 



SHEETING. 
2 bushel . . ..Id. 



1 



4 \d. 
Sid. 
2U. 
lid. 



HESSIAN. 
2 bushel . . . Ud. 

Sid. 
2\d. 
Ud. 
1JA 



4 lb. 4-bushel Corn Sacks, 9 



(/. each. 



SHADING CANVAS, &c. 

FOR PROTECTING FRUIT TREES AND SHADING GREENHOUSES. 



SCRIM CANVAS. 

No. Width. 

1 35 inches 

4 72 .. 

6 72 ., 

8 72 ., 

10 72 ., Fine Flax 









TIFFANY. 




HESSIAN. 




Per Yd. 


No. 


Ins. 


Yds. 


Piece. 


No. 


Per Yard 


. . 2id. 


1 


38 


by 20 .. 


.. 3s. 


16 72 inches wide 


. Os. Ud 


. . 6d. 


2 


38 


„ 20 . . 


. . 4s. 


17 72 ,. 


. Os. 5d. 


.. Id. 
. . 8d. 


3 


36 


„ 18 .. 


.. 5s. 


20 72 , 
24 72 „ 


. Os. 6d. 
. Os. Id. 


. . Is. 2d. 


4 


3ti 


„ 18 .. 


. . 6s. 6i. 


26 Fine Flax Sheeting, 72 inches 


. Is. 2d. 



IMPROVED ORCHID SHADING. 

54 inches, lOd. 72 inches, Is. 2d. 100 inches wide, Is. 6d. per yard. 

GREENHOUSE BLINDS made up to any size from Fine Flax Scrim, Flax Sheeting, or Orchid Shading, bound all round with strong webbing, 
and down the centre for strength, at Is. per square yard. Other qualities cheaper. 

A complete set nf samples of above sent post-free on application. 



TOBACCO PAPER and RAG. 
MUSHROOM SPAWN. 
GARDEN MANURES. 
PEAT and SAND. 



GARDEN HOSE and FITTINGS. 
VIRGIN CORK. 
ROPES, LINES and TWINES. 
SYRINGES and WATER CANS. 



EVERY DESCRIPTION OF HORTICULTURAL SUNDRIES. 



ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIVE JDATALOGUE POST FREE ON APPLICATION. 

JAMES T. ANDERSON, 

135 & 137, COMMERCIAL STREET, LONDON, E. 



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Supplement to the "Gardeners Chronicle," January 6, 1S94.] 



THE 



GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 

(•' THE TIMES OF HORTICULTURE") 

M W&tthly ElluStrateU journal 

(ESTABLISHED 1841) 
Among the Correspondents <& Contributors to recent Volumes the following., out of many Hundreds, may be named:— 



ALPINE PLANTS ;- 

BALL, J., F.E S., the late. 
CHURCHILL, G. C, Clifton, Bristol. 
CORREVON, H„ Geneva. 
DEWAR. D., Glasgow. 
DOD. Rev. C. W.. Malpas. 
JENKINS. E.. Hampton. 

AMATEUR GARDENING :- 
BADGER, E. W. 
BOYLE. Hon. Mrs., "E. V. B."("Days 

ai d Hours in a Garden '). 
BRIGHT, the late H. A. ("Notes 

from a Lancashire Garden"). 
CLARKE. Col. Trevor. 
ELLACOMBE, Rev. Canon. 
EWBANK, Rev. H.. Ryde. 
GUMBLErON', W E., Belgrove, Cork. 
SALTER. J.. F.R.S. 
WILSON'. G.. F R.S.. Weybridge. 
WILKS. Bev. W., Shirley. 

ARBORETUM, &C. ■■— 

ANNESLEY, the Earl of. 

ACLAND, Sir T., Bart. 

ACTON, T.. Kilmaeurragh. 

ARGYLL, the Duke of. 

BAKER. W. R.. Bayfordbury. 

BARRON, W., the late. 

COURTOWN, the Earl of. 

DIECK. Dr., Mersebnrg. 

DUCIE. the Earl of. 

EGERTON, Sir P., Bart., the late. 

ENMSKILLEN, the Earl, the late. 

GROSVUNOK, Lord R. 

HENRY. MITCHELL. 

H UNTLEY, the H irquis of. 

LONDESBOROUUH, the Earl of. 

MACLEAY, the late Sir G. 

MEATH, The Earl of. 

NICHOLSON, G., Curator, Royal Gar- 
dens, Kew. 

POWELL, T. H.. the late. 

POWERSCOI RT, Viscount. 

RASHLE1GH. J. 

RUTLAND, the Cuke of. 

SARGENT, Prof., Arnold Arboretum 
Cambridge, U.S.A. 

SHANNON, the Earl of. the late. 

SMITH, T. A. Dorrien, Esq. 

STAIR, the Earl of. 

TREVELYAN, Sir W , Bart., the late. 

VAN VOLXEM. J., the late, Brussels. 

CHEMISTRY :— 

CHURCH, Prof., FR.S. 
DEHERAIN, Prof., Paris. 
DYER. Bernard. 

GILBERT, Sir J. H., F.R.S.. Roth- 
amsted. 
LAWES, Sir J. B., Rothamsted. 
MITCHELL. W. S. 
MULLKK. Dr Hugo, F.R.S. 
WARINGTON, R.. F.R S. 
WILLIS. J. J.. Rothamsted. 

DISEASES OF PLANTS:— 

ARTHUR. Prof., New York. 
BOS. Dr. Rit/.ema, Wageningen. 
COOKE, Dr. M. C. 
KLEI1AHN. Dr., Bremen. 
MAGNUS. Prof . Berlin. 
MA-SUB. G . Kew. 
MURRAY, G.. British Museum. 
PAGET, .Sir James, F.R.S. 
piulipps, w. 

PLOWRIGHT, Dr. C. B., King's Lynn. 
PI'.M.I.IF.I X. Prof., Paris. 
BMH II. W. G. 
SORAUEB, I'rof., Proskau. 
WARD. I'rof. Marshall. 

FERNS :— 

BAKER, J. G.. Royal Gardens, Kew. 
DRUEEY, C. T. 

HKMSLKY. A. 

LOWE, E. J., Chepstow. 

FLORISTS' FLOWERS, &0. :— 
DEAN, R., Ealing. 
DODWELL, E. S., Oxford, the late. 
D'OMBRAIN, Rev. 11. 11., Weslwell. 
DOUGLAS, J.. Ilford. 
DOWNIE, J., Edinburgh, the late. 
HORNER, Rev, K. D. 
LLEWELYN, Sir J. D., Bart. 
MOLYNEUX, E., Swanmore Gardens. 
PAUL. G., Paisley. 
I i i:NF.R. (.'.. the late. 

FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE :- 
ADLAM, B. W.. Johannesberg. 
Al.miH'', Dr.. Odewa. 



FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE :- 

ANDERRsEv, J., Sweden. 

ANDRE. E., Paris. 

BENNET, H., the late, M.D., Mentone 

EH DUE J. H., Utrecht. 

BUNYARD, H., Short Hills, New York 

CARRIERS. E.. Paris. 

CARUEL, Prof., Florence. 

COSTERUS. Dr., Amsterdam. 

OLOS, Prof., Toulouse. [Brussels. 

CREPIN, Director, Botanic Garden, 

DAMMAR, Dr. Udo, Berlin. 

DE BOSSCHERE. C . Lierre, Belgium. 

D» CAND'>LLE. Casimir, ueneva. 

DEVANSAY'E, A. de la. Angers. 

DRUDE, Prof., Dresden. 

DUCHARTRE, Prof.. Paris. 

ENGLER, Prof., Berlin. 

ERNST. Dr., Caraccas. 

FENZI, Cav. E., Florence. 

FORSTER. O., Scheihbs. Upper Austria. 

GLAZIOU, Dr., Rio Janeiro. 

GooDvLE. Prof., Harvard University. 

GOEZE. Dr., Griefswald 

HANBURY. T., Esq., Mentone. 

HANSEN. G., California College of 

Agriculture. 
HANvEN, Prof. Carl. Copenhagen. 
HENRIQUES, Prof., Coimbra. 
JOLY, C, Paris. 
KANIIZ, Prof.. Klausenburg. 
KERCHOVE. Comte de, Gaud. 
KOLB, Max, Munich. 
KKELAGE, E. H., Haarlem. 
LANGE, Prof., Copenhagen. 
LKHMANN, H., Popayan. 
LEMMON, J. G., Oakland, California. 
MAOFARLANE. Prof., Philadelphia. 
MEEHAN, T.. Philadelphia. 
MICHELr. M.. Geneva. 
MONTEIRO, Chev., Lisbon. 
NAUDIN, C, Antibes. 
NELSON, W.. Johannesberg. 
OLIVEIRA, J. D'., Oporto. 
ORTGIES, E.. Zurich. 
OUDEMANS, Prof., Amsterdam. 
PIROTTA. Prof., Rome. 
PYNAERT, E.. Ghent. 
REGEL. E.. the late. 
RODIGAS, E., Ghent. 
ROVELLr, sig . Pallanza. 
KoYLF, Mrs. Taulin, Chicago. 
SOLMS. Prof.. Count. Strasburg. 
SURINGAR, Prof., Leyden. 
TRELEASE. Prof., St. Louis. 
TROUBETZKOI, Prince (Eucalyptus). 
VILMORIN, H. de, Paris. 
WIGM *N, Bot. Garden, Buitenzorg. 
WII LKOM.M, Prof., Prague. 
WITTMACK, Dr., Berlin. 
WOLKENSTEIN, P., St. Petersburg. 

FORESTRY :- 

BRACE. C. J., Orleans. 

H'KISES. A. C, B wood, Wilts. 

FRANCE, C. S., Aberdeen. 

MAYR, Dr., Munich. 

MICHIE, C. Y., Cullen, Aberdeen. 

SCHLICH, Dr., Superintendent, Forest 

Departmenr, Cooper's Hill. 
WEBSTER. A. D.. Bromley. 
WEBSTER. J. B., Gordon Castle. 

FRUIT CULTURE :- 

BARRON, A. F., Chiswick. 
BLACKMORE. R. D., Teddingten. 
BUNYARD, G., Maidstone. Kent. 
CHEAL, J., Crawley, Sussex. 
MAKKHAM, H., Mereworth. 
RIVERS, T. F., Sawbridgeworth. 
TUK ON. T . Maiden Erlegh. 
WILDSMITH. W., the late. 

GARDEN BOTANY :— 

BAKER. J. G., F.R.S., Kew. 
BALFOUR, Prof.. Edinburgh. 
Htb HEY, W., Lausanne. 
BROWN. N. E„ Herbarium, Kew. 
HUKHIDGK. F. W., Botanic Gardens, 
CLARKE, Col. Trevor. [Dublin. 

CLARKE, C. B.. F.R.S. 
CORNU, 'Prof. Mux, Director of the 

Jartlin des Plantes, Paris, 
DE CANDOLLE, A., Geneva. 
DYER, W. T. T., Director. Royal 

Gardens, Kew. 
ELWES, II. J., Cirencester. 
FRANCHET. M., Pans. 
HAMU'HV. i mum. 'I'. La Mortola. 
III'.MSLKY, W. 1!.. F.R.S.. Kew. 
HOOKER, Sir J. D., K.C.S.I., late 

Director, Royal Gardens. Kew. 



GARDEN BOTANY :— 

JACKSON, . I. R., Museum, Royal Gardens. 

Kew (Economic Botany). 
LEICHTLIN, Max. Baden-Baden. 
LINDSAY, R., Royal Botanic Gardens, 

Edinburgh. 
MAXIMOWICZ,Dr.,late,St.Petersburg. 
MOORE. F.. Royal Gardens, Glasnevin. 
MORRIS. D., Assistant Director, Kew. 
NAUDIN, C, Antibes. 
OLTVER, Prof., F.R.S., Kew. 
STRICKLAND, Sir C.Bart. 
TODARO, Baron. Palermo, the late. 
WATSON, Sereno, Boston, U.S.A., the 

late. 

GARDEN INSECTS i- 
BLANDFORD, F. 

McLACHLAN, R., F.R.S., Pres. Ent.Soc. 
MICHAEL, A. E., F.R.S. 
WESTWOOD, Prof.. F.R.S , the late. 

HERBACEOUS PLANTS :— 
BARR, P., Covent Garden. 
CLARK. W. A., York. 
CREWE, Rev. H. Harpur, the late. 
DOD, Rev. C. W., Malpas. 
ELLACOMBE. Rev. Canon. 
ELWES, H. J., Cirencester. 
EWBANK. Rev. H.. Ryde. 
FOSTER, Prof., Cambridge. 
HARTLAND, Baylor, Cork. 
POTTER, W., York. 
WILSON. G. F.. F.R.S.. Weybridge. 

INDIA AND THE COLONIES ■.- 

BANCROFT, G.. M.D., Queensland. 
BENNETT, G., M.D., Sydney. Ihe late. 
BOLUS. H.. Capetown. 
BROADWAY, W. E., Royal Botanical 

Gardens, Trinidad. 
CRADWI 'K, W. Hope, Botanic Ga- 

den. Kingston, W.I. 
DUTHIE, J. F., Saharunpore. 
FAWCETT,W.,8uperintendentBotaui- 

cal Department, Jumaica 
FORD, C. Hong Kong. 
HART, J. H., Superintendent. Botanical 

Department, Trinidad. 
EM THURN, Everard, British Guiana. 
JENMAN, J. S., British Guiana. 
KING, Dr., FRS., Director, Royal 

Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 
KIRK. J , Wellington, N.Z. 
LAWSON. Prof., Halifax. Nova Scotia. 
MACOWAN, Prof., Cape Town 
MACOUN, Prof., Ottawa. 
MOORE. 0.. Sidney. 
MUELLER, Baron Sir Ferd. von 
MURTON, H. J., Siam. [Melbourne. 
RIDLEY, H. N., SuperintendentBotani- 

cal Department, Singapore. 
SAUNDERS, Prof., Ottawa. 
SMITH. T., Timaru, New Zealand. 
STOREY, H. Oodeypore. 
TRIMEN, H., F.R S., Director Royal 

Gardens Ceylon. 
WOOD, Medley, Botanic Garden, Dur- I 

ban. And many others. 

LANDSCAPE GARDENING :- 

ANDRE, E., Paris. 

BAINES, T., Southgate. 

BARRON. W., Elvaston. the late. 

BoSl'AW I N, Hi i, and I:, i .1 r the 

BURVENICH, F., Ghent. [late. 

CHEAL. J., Crawley. 

GOLDRING, F., Kew. 

JACKMAN, J., Woking. 

JULIAN. G. R. 

MAWSON. Windermere. 

ORCHIDS :- 

ANDFRSON. J. 

BULL, W., Chelsea. [Glasgow. 

BIILLEN, R., Botanic Gardens, 
BUYSSON, M. lo Comte. 
COOKSON, N., Wylam-on-Tyne. 
11(11, MUM. W , Timiierley. 
KRANZLIN. Dr., Berlin. 
LAWRENCE, Sir Trevor. Bart., M.I'., 
President, Royal Horticultural Soc. 

LINDEN, Lucien. Brussels. 
LOI'IIIAN, the Marquis of. 
O'BRIEN, James. 
PFITZER, Prof., Heidelberg. 
REIC1IENBACH, Prof., (he late. 
BRNDLE, a. B., Brit, Mus. 
ROLFE, R. A., Kew. 
ROSS, Comm.. Florence. 



ORCHIDS :- 

SANDER, F., St. Albans. 
SMEE, A. H., Wallington. 
SWAN, W. 

VEITCH. H. J., F.L.S.. Chelsea. 
WHITE, R. B., Arddarroch. 

PRACTICAL GARDENING :- 

ATKINS, J. 

BAILLIE, W. M., Luton Hoo Gardens 
BAINES, T., Southgate. 
BENNETT, W., Rangemore Gardens. 
BLAIR, T., Shrubland Gardens. 
CARMICHAEL. C. A. M. 
COLEMAN, W., Eastnor Casth 

Gardens. 
COOMBER. J., TheHendre. Monmouth 
COOMBER, W., Regent's Park. 
CRASP. T H., Swansea. 
CROSSLING, R., St. Fagan's Casth 

Gardens. 
CULVERWELL, W., Thorpe Perrow. 
DEAN, A. 

DEWAR, D., Royal Gardens, Kew. 
DIVERS. W. H., Kettou Hall. 
DOUGLAS, J., Great Gearies, Hford. 
DUNN, M., Dalkeith. 
EARLEY, W., Ilford. 
FINDLAY, B., Manchester. 
FISH, D.T., late of Hardwicke Gardens 
GRIEVE, P., Bury St. Edmunds. 
HARROW. W., Sheffield Botanical 

Gardens. 
HEMSLEY, A. 
HERRIN, C, Dropmore. 
HUDSON, J., Gunnersbury House. 
INGRAM, W., Belvoir Gardens. 
LYNCH, R. J., Botanic Gardens 

Cambridge. 
MELVILLE, D., Dunrobin Gardens. 
MILES, G. T., Wycombe Abbe; 

Gardens. (Fruit.) 
MILLER, W., Coombe Abbey. (Fruit. | 
MILNER. R.. Penrice Castle 
MOORE, F. W., Royal Botanic Garden 

Glasnevin. 
POWELL, D. C, Powderham Castle. 
PRINSEH, H. C. Uckfield. 
RIDDELL, J., Castle Homni. 
ROSS, F., late of Pendell Court 

Bletchingley. 
RUST, J.. Eridge Castle. 
SAUL, M., York, the late. 
SHEPPARD, J., the late. 
SMITH, J., Mentmore Gardens. 
SMYTHE, W., Basing Park. 
TEMPLE, M„ Carron House, N.B. 
THOMAS, O., Frogmore. 
THOMSON, W., Clovenfords (Vines) 
WADDs, B., Bird-all, Yurk. 
WALLIS. J., Kei'le Gardens. 
WARD, H. W., Longford Castl. 

Gardens. 
WATSON, W., Royal Gardens, Kew. 
WEBSTER, J., Gordon Castle Gardens 
WILDSMITH, the late W. 
WILSON, D. 
WYTHES, G., Sion House Gardens. 

And many others. 

ROSES :— 

BENNETT, H., the late. Shepperton. 
D'OMBRAIN, Rev. H. H. Westwell, 

Kent. 
FISH, D. T.. late of Hardwicke, Bury St. 

Edmunds. 
FISHER, Rev. O. 

GIRDLESTON, T. W.. Sunningdale. 
MAWLEY, E., Berkhamsted. 
PAUL, G., Cheshunt. 
PAUL. W., Waltham Cross. 
VIVIAN-MOREL, Lyons. 

VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY, &c. :- 

BENNETT, A. W. 

BONAVIA, Dr. E. 

BOULGER, Prof. 

DARWIN, the late Charles. 

DE VRIES, Hugo. 

FOSTER, Prof. Michael. Cambridge. 

GARDINER, W., Cambridge. 

GLAISHER, James (Meteorology). 

GOEBEL, Prof., Munich. 

GOODALE, Dr., Boston, U.S.A. 

GRAVIS. Prof., Liege. 

HF.NSLOW. Rev. G. Ealing. 

MACLEOD. Prof., Ghent. 

OLIVER, Prof. F. W. 

WALLACE. Alfred. 

SOI MS, Count, strnsburg. 



Jantjaby 6, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



21 



THE INTERNATIONAL HORTICULTURAL EXHI- 
BITION OF 1866. — The evidently hurried notice of 
the death of Brofessor Bentley in yonr last issue 
allowed no mention to be made of his haying been a 
member of the committee which so successfully 
conducted the great international exhibition of 
1866, undoubtedly the finest international horticul- 
tural display ever held in this country. That is some 
twenty-eight years aeo, or nearly so. and myriads of 
readers of the Gardeners' Chronicle of to-day only 
know of that gathering by tradition. I hare before 
me now an admirably preserved photograph of the 
committee of that exhibition, taken after the con- 
clusion of the Bhow ; it contains twenty-one por- 
traits, and the death of Professor Bentley serves 
to recall the melancholy interest that attaches to 
this picture, because it tells of yet another of that 
eminent group of horticulturists who have gone over 
to the great majority. Of the twenty-one persons 
in the photograph, no fewer than thirteen have 
parsed away, and but eight remain. Sir Charles 
Dilke, Messrs. Jas. Veitch, C. Lee, C. Turner, 
Thomas Moore, J. Gibson, Bobert Fortune, T. 
Edmunds, Thos. Osborne. John Standish, B. S. 
Williams, and, finally, Professor Bentley, make 
up the list of those who can never again respond 
to their names. The living include the veteran 
John Lee, also Messrs. W. Paul, W. Bull, H. J. 
Veitch, and R. Dean, Sir Daniel Cooper, Dr. 
Masters, and Dr. Hogg. Could such another grand 
international exhibition be organised, there are 
still a few who could assist in its promotion by 
giving of their 1866 experience. It may be that, 
as the old adage runs, there is as good fish in the 
sea as ever came out of it, but still it is evident 
that the 1866 committee comprised a body of 
horticulturists that may be equalled, but hardly could 
be excelled. A. D. 

THE SEA80N IN SWITZERLAND.— I cannot 
believe Christmas is here, the weather has been so 
mild and fine, without either snow or much frost, 
that it has been more like a long autumn than a 
winter. I read in the papers of unheard of things ; 
ripe Raspberries, and several dozens of them, were 
gathered near Lausanne, and this a third crop on 
the plants this year. Also in a vineyard above 
Lutry, new Bhoots which had grown on a Vine 
having perfectly-formed bunches in full blossom 
could be seen this week, and is proof of the wonderful 
weather we have had this year; for such a thing 
has never been heard of in the memory of man. 
Lausanne, December 21, 1893. 

MEMORIAL TREES AT 08BORNE.— Respecting 
the Memorial Tree planted at Oiborne by the late 
D an Stanley, it is not a Janiperus as your corre- 
spondent supposed, but Tbujopsis dolabra'-i. The 
account given in the Catalogue of Memorial Trees 
planted at Osborne is the following: — "Planted 
(Woodman's Drive) by Dean of Westminster to the 
memory of Lady Augusta Stanley, April 13, 1877." 
The following is a list of species of Juniperus grow- 
ing at Osborne : — J. bermudiana, a small plant sent 
from Kew three years ago ; J. venusta, J. japonica 
variegata, J. Schotti, J. religiosa, J. rigida, J. 
drupacea. Many tender plants grow out-of-doors 
at Oiborne, and Camellias are now in flower 
out-of-doors A Pear tree was in full flower on 
December 23. 8. N. Cooling, 

ODONTOGL08SUM ROSSI MAJU8.— I have the 
pleasure to enclose a spray of two blooms of Odon- 
toglossum Rossi msjus, the sizs of flower and 
markings being so unusually large and distinct, and 
calling forth expressions of admiration and surprise 
from several Orchid-growing visitors who have seen 
it, leading me to believe it worthy of notice. The 
diameter measures 4 inches. The bright yellow on 
the crest of the lip, with a distinct purplish blotch 
on either side, is a marked feature of these flowers, 
and the flower-stalk 9 inches and over in length. 
The leaves are larger than any other specimen in 
my collection. Henry Billinghurst. [A remarkably 
fine specimen, clear white, with richly-coloured 
spots. Ed.] 

PINUS IN8IGNIS— When in the year 1878 I lived 
as gardener at Mount Shannon, the Limerick resi- 
dence of Lady Louisa Pitzgibbon, there existed, and 
I daresay still exists, the finest specimen of the 
above tree that I ever beheld. The height of the tree 
was at that date 98 feet, and circumference of the 
lowest tier of branches which were resting on the 
ground was 97 feet; the dimensions of the bole I 
did not measure, but suffice it to say, it was in pro- 
portion to the height and width of the tree. The 



branches from the base to summit were well balanced, 
and were of a vivid green. The surface-soil was a 
yellow loam, with a clayey subsoil resting on a lime- 
stone bottom. I may mention that this tree stood 
in the pinetum, which contains one of the best col- 
lections and finest specimens of Conifers in these 
islands. Among the most remarkable specimens 
therein may be named Abies pinsapo and A. Doug- 
lasii. also A. nobilis. If I remember rightly, Mr. 
H. J. Veitc h, of the Chelsea nurseries, paid a visit 
to Mount Shannon in 1876, and expressed himself 
much pleased with the pinetum. In another part 
of the park, about half a mile from the pinetum, 
were then to be found about a dozen of Araucaria 
imbricata standing in one group, and growing in 
about 9 inches of soil, which rested on the solid 
limestone rock. These trees alone were well worth 
a visit from any distance, for they were feathered 
from the base to the summit with healthy branches. 
I believe Mount Shannon is at the present time un- 
inhabited — more is the pity, for besides the splendid 
pinetum, there is one of the finest and best modelled 
kitchen gardens extant. Hugh Lynch. 



Richard Spruce. — The death took place 
recently at Castle Howard, Malton, of Mr. Richard 
Spruce, P.L.S., the well-known botanist and 
traveller, aged sixty- six years. The deceased had 
laboured assiduously in the interest of botanical 
and other sciences. He was the son of a school- 
master on Earl Carlisle's estate. His early botanical 
researches led Sir William Hooker, Humboldt, and 
other leading scientists of the day to take an inte- 
rest in him. In 1849 he was sent to South America 
in the interest of the Royal Gardens at Kew. 
Previous to this he had visited the Pyrenees, and 
his work. The Muscology of the Pyrenees, has drawn 
much attention. His mission for the Kew authorities 
developed into an important scientific and com- 
mercial investigation, extending over fifteen years. 
Mr. Spruce thoroughly explored the River Amazon, 
and crossed the continent from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, penetrating regions not before visited by 
man. He was one of the pioneers who introduced 
the quinine-yielding tree into India, and the culti- 
vation of Peruvian bark to our Eastern possessions. 
Other results of his long course of travel were the 
collection and description of 7000 species of plants, 
Ferns, and trees, many of them new, and some of 
which have since proved of great commercial value. 
On his return to England the Government gave him 
a pension for the valuable services he had rendered 
to botanical science. Since then, owing to failing 
health, he had lived a retired life in his native 
place, occasionally writing on Mosses and Liver- 
worts. Times. [Mr. Spruce in former years was an 
occasional correspondent of this journal. Ed.] 



Trade Notice. 



Mb. Abthub Robinson, seed merchant, &c, for- 
merly of 8, Leadenhall Street, has taken larger 
premises, at 1a, Bishopsgate Street Without, E.C., 
where he intends to add to his present business that 
of a florist. 

Shebwood Hall Nubseby Company. — We are 
informed that the Sherwood Hall Nursery Co., of 
427—9, Sansome Street, San Francisco, have adopted 
the title of the Sunset Seed and Plant Co. This is 
merely a change of name, the personnel, affairs, and 
location of the business remaining as formerly. 



Enquiry. 



" He that quettioneth much shall learn much."— Bacon. 

A cobbespondent, " W. C," would be glad if any 
of our correspondents could tell him why Rhubarb- 
stalks go off in a young state. He forces a quantity 
in the greenhouses, where they are exposed to all 
the light possible, have a fair amount of water, and 



a genial temperature of about 65°. The roots he 
forces are from four to six years old, well grown 
out in the open, but they do not produce half the 
quantity they ought. In pits he can do them well, 
but in the houses they are often a failure. When 
the roots are taken up from the open ground, they 
are laid in trenches, with soil well shaken in amongst 
them. 




[By the term " aocumulated temperature" 1b meant the 
aggregate amount, as well as the duration, of degrees of 
temperature above or below 42° Fahr. for the period 
named; and this combined result is expressed in Day- 
degrees — a " Day-degree " signifying 1° continued for 
twenty-four hours, or any other number of degrees for 
an inversely proportional number of hours.J 



Temperature. 



o 
^« 

o z n 
« S fc 

a. ®"2 

o-b S 



Accumulated. 



o © 

CM « 

> 

s 

■4 






ill 





Day- 

deg. 


Day- 
deg. 


5 + 


£2 


9 


6 + 


21 


11 


4 + 


10 


19 


1 + 


4 


35 


3 + 


8 


30 


1 + 


9 


25 


6 + 


25 





4 + 


22 


6 


2 + 


21 


7 


5 + 


24 


4 


5 + 


31 





1 + 


25 






Day- 
deg. 

+ 518 

+ 313 

+ 441 

+ 517 

+ 657 

+ 577 

+ 502 

+ 779 

+ 707 

+ 551 

+ 602 

+ 835 



:.SS 
i .- 

IS- 



Rainfall. 






CO 














X! . 


2 


*+ 




















Ik 






£ * 


PS 


•-1 


s-B 




8 

a 




As 


• 


+ 9 

3 °* 


o 




ss 


6 


_ 


i 


Z 


1 

o 
H 



Bright 

Sun. 



«.9 
3g 



Day 
deg. 


lOths 
Inch. 




Ins. 


— 49 


3 — 


252 


58 5 


— 23 


1 — 


199 


274 


— 68 


4 — 


173 


21 


— 33 


4 — 


171 


21-1 


— 39 


4 — 


164 


207 


— 52 


5- 


162 23-6 


— 65 


2 + 


205 42 8 


— 131 


2 — 


191 


31-5 


— 81 


7 — 


173 


33 8 


— 97 


1 + 


217 


340 


— 106 


1 + 


189 


328 


— 70 


8 — 


185 


28-7 



a a 

5 2 
£J3 



The districts indicated by number in the first column are 
the following : — 

0, Scotland, N. Principal Wheat-producing Districts — 
1, Scotland, E-; 2, England, N.E. : 3. England, E. ; 
4, Midland Counties; 6, England, including London, S. 
Principal Grazing, lie Districts— i, Scotland, W. ; 7, 
England, N.W. ; 8, England, S.W. ; 9, Ireland, K. 
10. Ireland. S. ; * Channel Islands. 



Markets, 



CO VENT GARDEN, January 4. 

[We cannot accept any editorial responsibility for the sub- 
joined reports. They are furnished to us regularly every 
Thursday, by the kindness of several of the principal 
salesmen, who revise the list, and who are responsible 
for the quotations. It must be remembered that these 
Quotations do not represent the prices on any particular 
day, but only the general averages for the week preceding 
the date of our report. The prices depend upon the 
quality of the samples, the supply in the market, and the 
demand; and they fluctuate, not only from day to day, 
but often several times in one day. Ed. 1 



Out Flowers.— Average Wholesale Prices. 



Arum, per doz. bl. ... 
Azalea, p. 12 sprays 
Bouvardias, per bun. 
Camellias, doz. blms. 
Carnations, 12 blms. 
Chrysanthemums, 12 
bunches ... 

— doz. blooms ... 
Eucharia, per dozen 
Gardenia, per dozen 
Hyacinth, Roman, 

12 sprays 

Lilac (Fr.), per bun. 
Lilium Harrisii, doz. 
Lily of the Valley, 

per dozen sprays... 
Maiden Hair Fern, 

12 bunches 
Marguerite, 12 bun. 
Mignonette, 12 ban. 
Primula, dble. p. bun. 



t.d. s.d. 

3 0-60 
9-10 
6-10 
10-26 
16-26 

2 0-60 
6-30 

4 0-60 

3 0-60 

6-09 

4 0-60 
6 0-12 

10-20 

4 0-60 
16-30 
2 0-40 
6-10 



i. d. I. d. 



Narciss, French, white, 
12 bunches ... 2 
— yellow, 12 bun. , 1 
Orchids : — 

Cattleya, 12 blms. 6 
OdontoglOBsum 
orispum,12blms. 2 
Pelargoniums, scar- 
let, p. 12 bun. 4 

— 12 sprays ... 
Poinsettia, 12 blooms 4 
Roses, French, p. doz. 

— — p. boxof 100 3 

— Tea, per dozen 

— coloured, dozen 2 

— yellow (Mare- 

ohalB),per doz. 3 

— red, perdozen... 1 
Tuberose, 12 blms. 
Violets,Parme,p.bn. 3 

Czar, per bun, 2 
English, per doz. 1 



0-3 
6-2 6 



0-6 

0-9 
6-10 
0-6 
9-16 
0-6 
6-2 
0-4 

0-6 
0-16 
4-0 6 
0-5 
0-3 
6-2 



Orohlu-BLOOM in variety. 



.).> 



THE GARDENER S' GHR ONI CLE. 



[January 0, 1894. 



Plants ur Pots.— average Wholesale; Prices. 

t.d. 



t. 

Adiantum, per dor, 6 
Aspidistra, per doz. 15 

— specimen, each 7 
Azalea, per doz. ...24 
Chrysanthemums, doz 6 
Cyperus, per dozen 4 
Draceena, each ... 1 
Erica, various, p.dz. 9 
Evergreen Shrubs, in 

var., per dozen ... 6 
Ferns, various, doz. 4 

— small, per 100 4 
Ficos elastica, each I 



d. i. d. 


0-12 


0-30 


ft-21 


0-3S 


0-9 


0-10 


0- R 


0-24 


0-21 


0-9 


0-6 


6-7 6 



t.d. 

Foliage plants, doz.12 0-42 
Hyacinths, p. doz.... 6 0-90 
Lily of the Valley, p. 

doz. pots 15 0-24 

Marguerites, perdoz. 6 0-12 
Mignonette, doz. pots 6 0-9 
Palms, various, each 2 0-10 

— specimens, eachlO 6-84 
Poinsettias, per doz.12 0-15 
Primulas, per dozen 4 0-60 
Solanums, perdoz.... 9 0-12 
Tulips, p. doz. pots .60-80 



Apples, per bush. 
Cobs, per 100 lb. 
&rapes, per lb. 



Fruit.— Average Wholesale Pricks. 
$.a. t.d. 



... 16-70 
...45 0- ... 
...10-3 



Pine-apples, St. Mi- 
ohael, each ... 2 6- 



Vegetables. 



Average Eetaxl Prices. 



t.d. g. d. 
Beans, Frenoh, lb..„ 1 6- ... 
Beet, red, per dozen 10-20 
Carrots, per bunch... 4-06 
Cauliflowers, eaoh ... 2-04 
Celery, bundle ... 10-13 
Cucumbers, each ,„ 10-16 
Endive, per dozen ... 1 3- 1 6 
Herbs, per bunoh ... 3-10 



I 



t.d. 

Lettuoes, per doz. ... 1 3 
Mushrooms, pnnnet 1 3 
Mustard and Cress, 

punnet 3 

Parsley, per bunch... 2 
Shallots, per lb. ... 3 
Tomatos, per lb. ... 1 
Turnips, per bunoh, ,. 4 



t.d, 

- 2 

- 2 



3 

0*6 



Leeks, per bunch ... 3- 

P0TA.T0S. 

The holidays (since last report) have put a stop to trade, 
Stocks held over being heavy. J. B. Thomas, 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

Eorough; Jan. 2.— Quotations . Savoys, 4s. to 8s.; Cauli- 
flowers, 8s. to 9s. per tally ; Turnip3, Is, Qd. to Is, 9<2. ; Carrots, 
2s. to os. ; Pars'ey, Is. to Is. 9d. per dozen bundles ; Onions, 
5s. &d, to 6s. 8d. per bag ; English do., 6s. 6d. to 7s. per cwt. ; 
Apples, Is. ijd. to Ss. per bushel. 

Stratford: Jan. 3. — There has been an excellent supply 
of all kinds of produce at this market during the past week, 
and a good trade was dooe at the undermentioned prices : 
—Cabbages, Is. 6d. to 4s. per tally; Savoys, 3s. to 5s. do.; 
Greens, Is. to Is. 3d. per Bieve; do. Is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. per 
dozen bunches; Cauliflowers, 9(2. to Is. Qd. per dozen; do., 
3s. to 7s. per tally ; Brussels Sprouts, Is. Gd. to Is. 9d. per 
half-sieve; do. 2s. 6rf. to 3s. per sieve; Celery, 8d. to Is. 
per roll ; Horseradish, Is. Sd. to Is. Qd. per bundle. 
Turnips, Is. 3d. to Is. Qd. per dozen bunches; do,, 20s. to 40s. 
per ton ; Carrots, household, 40s. to 50s. per ton ; do., 
cattle- fee ding, 26s. to 35s. per too ; Parsnips, Sd. to Is. per 
score; Mangels, 22s. to 25s. per ton ; Swedes, 20s. to '23s. per 
ton; Onions, English, 160s. to 183s. per ton; do., Dutch, 6s. 
to 6s. 64. per bag ; do. Valencia, 7s. to 7s. &d. per case ; Apples, 
Eoglish, 3s. to 7s. Qd. per bushel. 

Farringdon: Jan. 4.— Quotations : Sprouts, Is. 3d. to 
1*. 6d. per bushel ; Celery, 9s. to 10s. per dozen bundles ; 
Carrots, 50s. per ton; Parsnips, 60s, do.; Onions, English, 
£8 to £d do.; Apples, English, 3s. Gd. to 7s. per bushel; 
Grapes, lis. 6d. to 12s. 6d. per barrel. 




Mr 

rrejpondcntr. 




Address : P. McLeod. The address of the firm is 
Chad Valley, Birmingham. 

Apples, Fears, Plums, and Raspberries for a 
London Garden : G. Elder. Trench the soil down 
to the clay, but do not bring up the lower spit if 
very clayev ; but dig it over all the same. Plant 
Summer Golden, Scarlet Golden, Cox's Orange, 
: Kerry, and Downton Pippins, Lady Sudeley, 
Worcester Pearman, Red Juneating, QuarrendeD, 
Duke of Devonshire, and Mother. If you care 
for kitchen varieties, choose Lord Suflield, Manx 
Codling. Cellini, Hawthornden, Yorkshire Beauty, 
Betty Geeson, Bramtey's Seedling, Lane's Prince 
Albert, and Northern Greening. For Plums choose 
the following :— Early Fivers', The Czar, Sultan, 
Victoria, Pond's Seedling, Monarch (Rivers), 
Grand Duke, Magnum Bonuro, Green Gage, 
Jefferson, Coe's Golden Drop, and Kirke's ; the 
last four good dessert varieties. Raspberries — 
Red and Yellow Antwerp, Baumforth's Seedling, 
Hornet — a fine French kind. Before planting, be 
careful to drain your heavy soil with pipes laid 
in, at the least, 3 feet deep and 20 feet apart, 
conducting the water to a dry-well or a house- 
drain. Have some fruit bushes all over the 
ground to keep it warm and moist; the trees will 
grow faster and better. 

A New kind of Writing for Wood Labels : 
T. II. D. The writing on the label, written with 
one of Abbott Bros.' pencils, which appears to 
have burnt into the surface of the wood, is of a 



good durable kind; and if hard wood be used, and 
it is coated with varnish, would last ten or twelve 
years. 

Books : 8. Market fruits do not differ from 
garden fruits, except perhaps in their consisting 
mostly of such varieties as are heavy croppers of 
poor flavour. But this should be altered, and a 
few fine-looking well-flavoured early or late varie- 
ties grown instead. As regards the Pear, Apple, 
Peach, Plum, Cherry, and Apricot, the best 
manual is Du Breuil, Ike Culture of Fruit Trees 
(English edition), published by Lockwood & Co., 
Stationers' Hall Court, EC. Another useful book 
containing directions for wholesale culture, 
marketing, and packing of fruit, is Fruit Farming 
for Profit, by G. Bunyard, published by F. Bun- 
yard, 29, Week Street, Maidstone. A useful hand- 
book on market vegetables is Kitchen and 
Market Garden, published by Macmillan & Co., 
Bedford Street, Covent Garden, W.C Your 
second question is included in your first, and Du 
Breuil's book affords the desired information. — 
Gardeners' Assistant and Practical Gardener : A, L. 
You are likely to sell them at a fair price at a 
good second-hand book-shop ; or you might adver- 
tise them. We are not in position to afford you 
employment. 

Correction. — In answering C L.'s book query in 
our issue of last week, we should have stated that 
The Carnation and Picotec Manual (2nd edition) 
was published in 1892 by Mr. W. Bacon, of Derby, 
and Mr. B. Wynne, 1, Clement's Inn, Strand, 
London. — Gartcnjlora. Prof. Wittmack, editor of 
the Gartenflora, desires to state that this publica- 
tion will give coloured plates, and all will remain 
as before, only the number of Bheets will be reduc;d 
from 48 to 42. 

Extra Subjects, Natural Science Classes : Quiz" 
Plant physiology, agricultural chemistry, and 
freehand drawing. 

Fungus on Cattleya Mossi;e: H. B. Unfortu- 
nately old, and all the spores are dispersed, but 
from the appearance, there is little doubt of its 
Glaosporum affinity, which attacks Orchids. From 
the absence of spores, it is impossible to be certain 
of the species. There is plenty of mycelium at 
each of the spots. M. C. Cooke. 

Lawn Weedy and Coarse: C. 1. Extirpate by 
spudding the worst of the weeds and coarse 
species of grasses; and, having done that, fill up 
the holes made with loam, treacling it down firmly, 
and dress the lawn with sifted soil, one-third heavy 
loam is best; burnt-earth one-third, also sifted, 
and wood-ashes one-third. This dressing should 
be so laid on that the grass is just visible and no 
more. When this dressing has disappeared, as it 
will be in a month afterwards, another equally 
heavy one may be afforded. These aids to growth 
will cause the rapid development of the finer 
grasses, which will in a year or two smother the 
coarser kinds out of existence. Mow and roll 
frequently, giving the lawn two or three spud- 
dings in a year. You must be aye doing some- 
thing. If the lawn-grasses are thin, sow seeds 
of some lawn-mixture in March. 

Lily of the Valley : W. H. The crowns sent were 
very weak ones, what in the trade are called 
seconds, and they were not fit for forcing, at 
least at this early part of the season. We do not 
notice that the leaves have come before the 
blooms ; they seem rather to have come up 
together, a circumstance that may be due to the 
hot summer and autumn, 

Measuring Timber, Square and Round: T. H. S. 
Excellent rules for the use of foresters and timber 
merchants will be found in Horton's Complete 
Measurer, published by Lockwood & Co., 7, 
Stationer's Hall Court, E.C. 

Mushroom Bed Mould ; H. T. We cannot detect the 
spawn of any fungus in the sample of soil sent. It 
does not appear to be a suitable kind of soil for 
the purpose it is used for. 

Names of Fruits : Geo. Wall. Your Apples are 
probably small Golden Nobles, somewhat out 
of character. — W. B. That the Apple is Cox's 
Orange Pippin, there can be no doubt. 

Names of Plants : B. Wallace. Diplopappus chry- 
Bophyllus. — H. O. 1, Aphelandra aurantiaca ; 2, 
Tbunbergia Harrieii ; 3. Panicum plicatum varie- 
gatum. — F. Lonicera Standishii. figured in Gar- 
deners' Chronicle, February 23, 1889, p. 245.— S. £., 
Henley. 1, Oncidium excavatum, not Odonto- 



glossum. Andersonianum ; 2, Epidendrum virens. 
It would be better to get the name of the Chry- 
santhemum from some grower who makes them a 
specialty.— J. B,, Clapham. 1, 4, and probably 2 
(which has been rendered colourless, and prevented 
from coming to maturity by the fogs), PaalEenopsis 
Schilleriana; 3, P. amabilis gloriosa; 5, Cattleya 
Walkeriana; 6, Brassia brachiata. 

Plants and Cut Flowers for Marketing : Cereus 
Better than seeking our advice in this matter 
would be to ascertain the state of the trade ia 
plants and cut flowers, the prices obtained, and 
the profits to be obtained by selling the various 
plants and flowers that find favour with the 
public. Showy things of decided tints, easily pro- 
pagated and grown, and which are fairly enduring 
either as plants or cut blooms, are what the public 
demands. Then there is a good trade to be done 
in Palms of small size, Ferns, Crotons, Dracaenas 
Ficus elastica, Aspidistra, and Cordylines, which 
sell well at certain times. Fine-leaved Begonias 
as small furnishing stuff, meet with a ready 
demand during the season ; and less so Cala- 
diums, unless it be C. bicolor, C. argyrites, 
C. minus erubesceus, and other small-leaved 
red varieties. Sonerilas are not much grown, 
but they are very pretty, not more tender than 
Caladiums ; and very useful for table decora- 
tions and vases. Amongst the plants that 
are not much grown at present for sale are 
Cliveia miniata, in variety ; Vriesiapsittacina, and 
other Bromeliads ; small-growing Acacias, Camel- 
lias, Moutan Peonies, Cactus, Schizostilis coc- 
cinea, flowering well in the autumn ; Helleborus 
niger, Calochortus, Kalmias, Sweetbriar, and the 
hybrid Briars raised by Lord Penzance ; well- 
bloomed Salvia splendens and S. gesnerifolia. 
The blue and the white varieties of Campanula 
pyramidalis are again coming into favour. The 
pretty C. fragilis is much sought after for vase and 
basket culture ; and there is a host of other 
plants. 

Secretary of the Royal Horticultural Society : 
Quiz. The Rev. W. Wilks, 117, Victoria Street, 
Westminster, S.W. 

Status of Gardeners, and Notice to Quit Ser- 
vice: Quiz. Domestics according to the law. In 
the absence of any agreement to the contrary, the 
head-gardener is considered to be a yearly servant, 
and entitled to one-quarter's notice, or money in 
lieu thereof ; under-gardeners, to one month; of 
course, in the absence of gross misconduct. 

Stinging by Primula obconica : A Constant Bcadcr, 
If you are a constant reader you should be cog- 
nisant of that which has been published in our 
pages from time to time in recent years. The 
stinging is caused by the hairs on the leaves, 
and some persons suffer considerable discomfort 
from the itching, irritating nature of the infliction. 
It soon passes off. 

The Young Gardener who has Paid a Premium, 
and One who has Not so Done : Quiz. One 
has as much right to be called a gardener as the 
other, but which is the best man remains to be 
proved. There are many good practitioners who 
have not had the smallest premium paid for them 
by their friends. 

Tomatos on the Single Stem Method of Train- 
ing : J. B. The plauts, if the house is span- 
roofed, may be planted at a distance of 2.^ feet by 
3 feet apart. 

Vine Roots : A. S, The roots have been dead for a 
number of years. The soil of the border must be 
in a very bad state, and we would advise its 
removal, and the making of a new border. There 
are no traces of Phylloxera. 

Communications Received. - G. J. J.— Profes6orOudemanns,. 
Amsterdam.— H. Martinet, Paris.— D. Boia. Paria.— L. R. & 
Co.— A. H. K.— A. F. B — C. W. H. G.— W. G. S.— A. P. 
Dixon.— Wild Rene.— C. L.— C. P. Lucas.— Viator.— J. B.— 
C. W. B.— A.-J. A.— J. D— J. B.— J. S.— F. Q. O.— A. D. 
—South Hams— W. H.— ,T. R._ E. Mawley.— W. H. W.— 
B W.-H. A. B. 



CONTINUED mCREASE in the CIRCULATION of the 

" GARDEN KHS' CHRONICLE." 
Important to Advertisers.- The Publisher has the satis- 
/action ot inmounziiuj that the circulation of the " Gar- 
deners' Chronicle " has, since the reduction in the price of 
the paper, 

Increased to the extent of 75 per cent. 
Advertisers arc reminded that the ^Chronicle" circulates 
among country gentlemen, and all classes of 

GARDENERS AND GARDEN-LOVERS at home, that it has a 

specially large foreign and colonial circulation, and 
that it is preserved for reference in all the principal 
Libraries. 



January (5, 1*94 ] 



THE GABDENEBS' CHRONICLE 



23 




!•_> » 12-. £ate^ S w 20 » 16 
'2(J»li ISp'^L st«t6 

18 
20 







Jlox.wdl'vo; FOREIGN, of afccvfe afce* i 

tZe/t-vereJ free- ^jsuntt in 1S^ country-, -in quanti'ty. 



-... . n botes of 100 Pert s, WO feet supeij 
ENGLISH Glwa, cut to Imyers 1 sties , &.T lowest prices 






GEORGE FAKJMILOE&59N5 

i/ty^D . G-lags. Oil-, ajid Colour. Merchant^. ' 
5^* S + eJOHN ©treet\tffe&T£MlTHF!ELD.Ti)NDQM. *C 
6tocs^ii0T3 and prices on application. Please quote CArontck. 

w. h. LASOELLES & go., 

HORTICULTURAL BUILDERS, 

121, BUNHILL ROW, 

LONDON, E.C. 




CONSERVATORIES, 

GREENHOUSES, 
ORCHID HOUSES, 

VINERIES, 
PEACH HOUSES, &c. 

Plans and Estimates Free. 



HOS. W. ROBINSON, 

Dennis Park Ironworks, Stourbridge. 




EXPANSION JU1NT HOT-WATER PIPES, 

SOCKET HOT-WATER PIPES. 

Illustrated revised Price List on application, free. 

CARSON'S PAINT 

Patronised by 20.000 of the Nobility. Gentry, 
and Clergy, for all kinds of 

OUTDOOR WORK, CONSERVATORIES, 

Greenhouses, Frames, &c. 
1 Cwt.. and Oil Mixture, Free to all Stations. 

Liquid Non-Poisonous Paint for Inside of Conservatories, &e. 
Prices, Patterns, and Testimonials, Post-free. 

Grove Works, Lombard Road, Battersea, 
London, S,W. ; 

and BACHELOR'S WALK, DUBLIN, 



EGOKQMICAL-SAFE-LASTING 

CLAY'S 




o vAv ^ 



Are used by the - 

Leading Growers v v 'Vji »■■. ' ./■. 

Royal Botanic J G C^Kcv 

Society, "S^b' '■- ^ : ^ - 

Y- *f Royal Horticul- Isgc , \ .- 

-n LONDONrfV turalSociety, HjgM'©®J^ W§R 

~\ *** Royal Parks, =? * \ " 

Vj* ^5/ London County ^§? • - 

^r "t*. 4^> Council, \ > 

/ J U> throuRhout the '"<; ,..,,., 

United Kingdom * ' i 

TRADE MARK. and in 'lilADE MARK. 
EVERY QUARTER OF THE GLOBE, FOR 

ALL HORTICULTURAL PURPOSES. 



SOLD by SEEDSMEN, FLORISTS, and NURSERYMEN, 
In 6d. and Is. Jackets, and SEALED BAGS : - 
7 lb. 14 lb. 28 lb. 56 lb. 112 lb. 

2s. 6d. 4s. 6d. 7s. 6d. 12s. 6d. 20s. 

Or direct from the Works, Carriage Paid in the United 
Kingdom for Cash with order (except id. Packets). 

Tne respective Trade Mark is printed on 

every Packet and Bag. and also impressed 

on the lead Seal attached to the mouth 

of each Bag, which is 

THE OSLY GUARANTEE OF GENUINENESS. 



Prices of CRUSHED BONES in Various 
Sizes on Application. 



LAY & SO 

Manure Manufacturers, Bone Crushers, &c, 
TEMPLE MILL LANE, STRATFORD, LONDON, E. 



IANURE 



(Established SO years). 

The fertilising properties of this Manure are 
acknowledged to be unsurpassed by any in the 
market. If used carefully, in smill quantities, 
most satisfactory and lasting results will follow. 

Analysis produced to purchasers of any quan- 
tity on application. 

Sold in new and enlarged Tins, 1?,, 2s. 6d., and 
5s. 6d. each ; and in Wooden Kegs, 28 lb., 10s. 6d. 
56 lb,, 18s. ; 112 lb., 32s. each. 

TO BE HAD OF ANY SEEDSMAN. 



Makehs : — 

CORRY & CO., Lmtd., 

13, 15, and 16, FINSBURY STREET, LONDON, E C. 

CBEESON'S MANURE. — Composed of 
« Blood and Bone. The Best Fertiliser for all purpose?. 
Sold in tins, Is., 2s. 6d., and 5s. 6d. ; also in air-tight bags, 
£ cwt., 6s. ; 1 cwt., 10s. Full directions for use sent with each 
tin and bag. 1 cwt. and above sent carriage paid, cash with 
order. C. BEESON, Bone Mills, St. Neot's, Hunts. 

" 12, Kaowle Road, Brixton, London, 
"I have tried this fertiliser on various garden crops, and I 
am able to say that it is an excellent Manure for Vegetables, 
Flowers, Vines, and Fruit Trees. 

"A. B. GRIFFITHS, Ph.D.. F.R.S.E..F.C.S." 

ORCHID PEAT. 

PREPARED, ready for use, all fibre, 10s. persack ; 5for47s. id. 
SELECTED, in blocks, very fibrous, 8s. per sack; 5 for 
37s. id. SECOND QUALI IX, Ss. per sack ; 5 for 22s. id. 

BROWN FIBROUS PEAT, for Azaleas, Rhododendrons, and 
Ferns, 4s. per sack, 5 for 18s. ; and 3s. per sack, 5 for 12s. id. 

PEAT-MOULD, LEAF-MOULD, a D d FIBROUS LOAM, each 
2s. id. per sack ; 5 for Vis. PREPARED POTTING COM- 
POST, 4s. per sack ; 5 for 18s. All sacks included. 
Send Postal Order for Sample Sack. 
Special terms to the Trade. For Price List apply to 
THE FORESTER, Joyden Wood, near Bexloy, Kent. 



"DONES! BONES!! BONES !!!— Any size 

-D from dust to 1 inch, at 10s. per cwt. Carriage Paid ou 
1 cwt. Special quotations to large buyers. 
Terms, Cash with Order. 
E. S. WILES and LEWIS, Bone Crushers, St. Albans. 

AGENTS WAN TED for the SALE of NATIVE 

ii. GUANO. The Best and Cheapest Manure for all Farm 
and Garden Crops. — The NATIVE GUANO COMPANY, 
LIMITED, 29, New Bridge Street, Blackfriars, London, E.C. 

GISHURST COMPOUND, used since 1859 
for Red Spider, Mildew, Thrips, Greenfly, and other 
blight ; a ounces to the gallon of soft water, 4 to 18 ounces a9 
a winter dressing for Vines and Orchard-house trees, in lather 
from cake, for American blight, and as an emulsion when 
paraffin is used. Has outlived many preparations intended to 
supersede it. Boxes, Is., 3s., and 10s. id. 

rj_ISHURSTINE keeps Boots dry and soft on 

VX wet ground. Boxes, Qd. and Is., from the Trade. 
Wholesale from PRICE'S PATENT CANDLE COMPANY 
(Limited), London. 

THE "PERFECT" FUMIGATOR. — Quite 
Safe, no Scorching, Smoke COOL, Effectual and Most 
Economical. Testimonials. 

Mr. Leach, Gr. to the Duke of Northumberland, Albury 
Park, says, Dec. 15, 1893 :— After nearly 40 years' experience, 
this is the best Fumigator I have ever seen, in fact all that 
can be desired. The Al Tobacco C:oth I like very much. Send 
on 15 lb. more. 

From Mr. F. Cornish, Gr. to Dowager Lady Bowman, 
Joldwynds, near Dorking. Dec. 9, 1893 :— I consider it the best 
Fumigator I have ever used. Also your Al Cloth requires very 
little attention : most economical, no injurious effects upon the 
foliage, certain death to green and bbck-fly. 

Fumigatora, 10s. 6d. each. Al Tobacco Cloth, specially 
prepared. Is. $d, per lb. Full particulars, with copy of other 
testimonials, on application to JAS. IVERY AND SON, 
Nurserymen, &c, Dorking and Reigate, Surrey. 

RICHARDS' NOTED PEAT. 

(Trade supplied on best terms). 

VERY CHOICE SELECTED FOR ORCHIDS. 
For Stove and Greenhouse Plants. Ferns, Rhododendrons, &c. 
By the sack, cubic yard, ton or truck load, A large stock at 
London Wharf. Immediate despatch by any Bail or Steamer. 
Prompt and Special Quotations for delivery to any Station. 

G. H. RICHARDS, Old Shot Tower Wharf, Lambeth, 
London, S.E. ; Peat Grounds and Depots, Ringtvood and Ware- 
ham. Address all letters to London Wharf. 

GARDEN REQUISITES. 

COCOA-NUT FIBRE REFUSE, 

id. per bushel ; 100 for 30s. ; truck, loose (about 2 tons), 80s. 
Bags, 4a*. each. 

SPECIALLY SELECTED ORCHID PEAT. 

LIGHT BROWN FIBROUS PEAT, 5s. id. per sace ; 5 sacks, 
25s. ; sacks, id. each. 

BLACK FIBROUS PEAT, 5s. per sack; 5 sacta, 22s. ; sacks, 
id. each. 

COARSE SILVER SAND. Is. id. per bushel; 15s. per half 
ton ; 26s. per ton, in 2-bushel bags, id. each. 

YELLOW FIBROUS LOAM, PEAT-MOULD, and LEAF- 
MOULD, Is. per bushel. 

SPHAGNUM MOSS, 8s. id. per sack. 

MANURES, GARDEN STICKS, VIRGIN CORK, TOBACCO 
CLOTH, RUSSIA MATS, &c. Write for Price LIST.— 
H. G. SMYTH, 21, Goldsmith Street. Drury Lane, W.C. 

GLASS! CHEAP GLASS I 

In Stock Sizes. 

18X12,18X14,24X14 
, 20X12, 1SXI6, 24X16 
. ,16x14,20X16, 24X18, *0. 
If X 3 Prepared Sash Bar at 5s. per 100 feet. 
Paints and Varnishes at Low Prices. Flooring, 5/9 per square ; 
Matching, 4/9 ; 2x4, at id. per foot run ; 2x7 at Id. 
Horticultural Work of all descriptions. Ironmongery, &c. 
CATALOGUES Free. THE CHEAP WOOD COMPANY, 
73, Bishopsqate Street Within, Lontjon, E.C. 



I5-oz., per 100 ft., 8s. 6i. 
21-oz., „ Us. 9d. 



(12X10,1 
1 14x12, i 
( 16X12,1 




ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FREE. 

W. Jones' Treatise, "Heating by Hot-water,'' 

Second Edition, 216 pages and 96 EDgravings, 
2s. id. nett, per post, 2s. 9d. 



JONEf attWOOD 



IfiURBRIDCE 



24 



TEE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



fjANCAET 6, 1894. 



Telegrams— " CONSERVATORIES, LONDON." Telephone, No. 4652. 

NOTICE to Builders, Nurserymen, Market Gardeners, Timber Merchants, 

AND THE TRADE GENERALLY. 



RELIABLE 
BARGAINS. 



NOT SECOND-HAND 
GOODS. 




WM. COOPER'S 

SEVENTH ANNDAL CLEARANCE 

Office: 755. OLD KENT EOAD, LONDON, S.E. 
Works ( tt9l TA s laW t,,Bl ): 747 to 755, OLD KENT ROAD, LONDON, S.E. 

Show Ground : DEVONSHIRE GROVE (adjoining). 

Being the end of the Season, I am again induced to offer my Stock on hand at ridiculously Low Prices, to make room for my 
SPRING STOCK, for SIX WEEKS ONLY, COMMENCING DEC. 4. LAST DAY of SALE, SATURDAY, JAN. 13, 1894. 



CONDITIONS OF SALE. 

Goods are offered subject to being on hand on receipt of reply. Cash to accompany 
all orders, and prices to be strictly nctt. All orders will be executed in rotation, 
and carefully packed arjd put on rail, except those otherwise stated. 

P. 0.0. payable at 794, Old Kent Road; Cheques crossed " L. and S. W. Bank." 

GREENHOUSE DEPARTMENT. 

THE AMATEUR FORCING HOUSE, TENANT'S FIXTURE (Span-roof). 

These houses are offered at an 
exceedingly low rate, and should 
be readily approved by both ama- 
teur and professional gardeners, as 
brickwork, which is very expensive 
to a small house, is entirely dis- 
pensed with. 

The utility of such a house for 
forcing or cultivati, g Cucumbers, 
Tomatos, Melons, &c , wi'l be per- 
ceived at a glance, it being a struc- 
ture constantly in request but 
almost hitherto unknown. 
Specification — Framework substantially constructed of red deal; the whole of sides, and 
2 ft. 6 in of ends, boarded with well-seasoned tongued and grcoved matchboards. Half-gla-s 
door, complete with rim lock and brass fittings, in one end ; glass 16 oz. throughout, English 
cut. Ventilator-* supplied according to size of houte, and stays necessary for opening same; 
stapes for plants each fide of house, all woodwork painted one coat of good oil paint, and the 
whole structure securely packed and placed on rail. 




Lot. 
1 to 7 
8 to 10 
11 to 12 
13 to 22 
23 to 19 
30 to 41 
42 to 48 
49 to 51 
52 to 54 
55 to 56 



Ltrglh. 

7 It. 

8 ft. 

9 ft. 
10 f-. 
12 ft. 
15 ft. 
20 ft. 
i5ft. 
50 ft. 

100 ft. 



Width. 
5 ft. 

5 ft. 

6 ft. 

7 ft. 

8 ft. 
10 ft. 
10 ft. 
10 ft. 
10 ft. 
10 ft. 



Height. 

. 7 ft. 

. 7 ft. 

. 7 ft. 3 in. 

. 7 ft. 6 in. 

.. 8 ft. 

,. 8 ft. 6 in. 

,. 9 ft. 

,. 9 ft. 

,. 9 ft. 

. 9 ft. 



Usual Price. 
Packed on rail. 



£2 10 
3 

3 10 

4 10 

5 10 
7 15 

10 15 
15 5 
27 
45 



Sale Price. 
Packed on rail. 



£2 
2 5 

2 10 

3 10 
3 15 
5 10 
7 10 

10 
20 
25 



SPAN-ROOF VILLA CONSERVATORIES. 

Adaptable for the lawn of a villa residence, being well and substantially-built, constructed 

of the beat materials, and artisti- 
cally finished, with diagonal panels 
uod barge-boards. The framework is 
composed of 2 in. by 'dj in. red deal, 
the lower part doubly-lined with 
tongut-d and grooved matchboards, 
and t he roof properly fitted wi th 
sabhea, which facilitates fixing or re- 
moving of same without disturbing 
glass. 

The houses are fitted with a half- 
glass door, complete with rim lock, 
t rasa fittings and hey, and is supplied 
with lattice Btaging for each side, 
footpath the entire length ; gutters, 
ft down pipes, suitable ventilators, and 
' necessary ironwork for opening same. 
All woodwork painted two coats of 
good oil paint, glass cut to sizes, and all parts securely packed on rail. Prices : — 

Usual Price. Sale Price. 

Packed Packed 

Lot, Long. Wide. High. To Eaves. on rail. on rail. 

343 to 351 9 ft. 6 ft. 7 ft. 4 ft. 6 in. ... £7 10 £5 10 

352 to 358 12 ft. 8 ft. 8 ft. 5 ft 6 in. ... 10 7 

359 to 3*3 15 ft. 8 ft. 8 ft. 6 in. 5 ft, 6 in. ... 12 8 10 

364 to 371 20 ft. 9 ft. 9 ft. 6 ft. ... 16 16 12 

372 to 374 25 ft. fi ft. 9 ft. 6 ft. ... 21 15 

21 oz. for Roof 5 per cent, extra. 




"AMATEUR" SPAN-ROOF AND LEAN-TO GREENHOUSES. Tenant's Fixtures. 

Made especially for Amateurs 
at a nominal figure, thereby coming 
within reach of those who require 
a strong but inexpensive structure, 
and being constructed in complete 
sections, are erectable by any 
handy-man or gardener in a few 
hours. Framework is substantially 
constructed of red deal, the lower 
p=»rt being filled in with well- 
seasoned tongued and grooved 
matchboards. The house is fitted 
with r'oor complete, with rim lock 
and brass furniture, painted one coat 
of good oil colour, supplied with all 
necessary ironwork and stages for 
each side, and good 16oz. glass throughout, 




All parts securely packed, and put on rail. 




■'"' .-■"- : , V:;,fi 













Usual Price. 


Sale Price. 


Lot 




Long, 


Wide. 


High. To Eaves. 


Packed on rail 


Packed on rail 


57 to 71 


Span-roof 


7ft. 


5!t. 


7 ft. 4ft. 


£2 16 


. 


.£350 


72 to 76 




8ft. 


5ft. 


7ft. 4ft. 


3 10 


. 


. 2 15 


77 to 108 




9ft. 


6ft. 


7ft. 3 in. 4ft. 


4 


. 


. 3 


109 to 121 




10ft. 


7ft. 


7ft. 6 in. 4ft. 6 in. 


5 


. 


. 4 


122 to 149 




12ft. 


8ft. 


8ft. 5ft. ... 


6 


. 


4 10 


160 to 170 




15ft. 


10ft. 


8ft. 6 in. 6ft. ... 


8 10 


. 


. 6 10 


171 to 176 




20ft. 


10ft. 


9ft. 5ft. 6 in. 


12 


. 


. 9 


177 to 184 




25ft. 


10ft. 


9ft. 5ft. 6 in. 


17 


. 


. 12 


185 to 189 




50ft. 


10ft. 


9ft. 5ft. 6 in. 


30 


. 


. 23 


190 to 197 




100ft. 


10ft. 


9ft. 6ft. 6 in. 


50 


. 


. 3J 


198 to 201 




30ft. 


10ft. 


8ft. 6 in. 5ft. ... 


20 


. 


. 14 


202 to 211 


Lean-to 


7ft. 


5ft. 


7ft. 4ft. ... 


2 8 


. 


. 2 


212 to 221 




9ft. 


6ft. 


7ft. 3 in. 4ft. ... 


3 10 


. 


. 2 15 


222 to 225 




12ft. 


8ft. 


8ft. 6ft. ... 


5 10 


. 


. 4 


226 to 228 




15ft. 


10ft. 


8ft. 6 in. 5tt. ... 


8 (l 


. 


. 5 15 



SPAN-ROOF FORCING HOUSE. 

The illustration 6hown will convince 
all practical minds of the importance 
and utility of this class of house for 
Gentlemen, Nurserymen, Market Gar- 
deners, and all those who require a cheap 
strong House for Forcing, or growing 
Cucumbers, Tomatos, Melons, &c. 
Specification. — Built for brickwork, 3 feet high, of thoroughly well-seasoned red deal ; roof 
ventilation according to size ; door at one end ; all 21-oz. glass ; painted one coat. 




Carefully Packed on Rail. 

Lot 229 to 235 2) by 9 

236 to 242 20 by 12 

243 to 246 20 by 14 

247 to 250 40 by 9 

251 to 255 40 by 12 

256 to 257 40 by 14 

258 to 260 100 by 9 

261 to 267 100 by 12 

288 to 281 100 by 14 



Usual Price. Sale Price. 



£9 
11 
14 10 



17 
21 

26 
40 
48 
55 



282 to 342 Ventilating boxes for Side Walls 



£6 
8 
11 
12 
16 
20 
25 
33 
40 



For full Specification of Sale, see three-page advertisement in the Gardeners' Chronicle of December 2. 
SALE CATALOGUE POST-FREE. 

WILLIAM COOPER, 747 to 755, OLD KENT ROAD LONDON, S.E. 



January 6, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS 1 CHRONICLE. 



25 



NOW READY. 



THE GARDEN ANNUAL 

ALMANACK AND ADDRESS BOOK FOR 1894. 

Containing the most Authentio Lists of Nurserymen, Seedsmen, and Florists in the United 
Kingdom ; Foreign Nurserymen, Seedsmen, and Florists ; Horticultural Builders, Engineers, and 
Sundriesmen in the United Kingdom; the Prinoipal Gardens of the United Kingdom, in the 
order of the Counties, with names of Owners or Ocoupiers, and Gardeners ; the Prinoipal Gardens 
and Country Seats in the United Kingdom, arranged alphabetically; the Gardeners in the United 
Kingdom and their Addresses; Staffs of Botanical Departments and Establishments in 
correspondence with Kew ; New Plants of the Past Year, and other Information. 

The most complete and accurate Reference Booh for the use of all interested in Gardens. 

PRICE Is. POST FBEE, Is. 3d. 

Of all Booksellers, Newsagents, or from the Publishing Office — 

37, SOUTHAMPTON STREET, STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

THE ABERC RAVE COLLIERIES CO. , SWANSEA. 

BEST BIG VEIN ANTHRACITE COALS, 

As used at the General Post Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand ; the Victualling Yard, Deptford ; H.M. 

Small Arms Faotory, Birmingham, &o. 

FOR STEAM MAL TING, HOP DRY ING, AN D HORTICULT URAL PURPOSES. 

REPRESENTATIVE FOR LONDON AND DISTRICT— 

JNO. BOWDEN, 24, LAMBOURN ROAD, CLAPHAM, S.W. 



SANKEYS'famous GARDEN POl 

■&- Bulwell Potteries, Nottingham, <* 



Messrs. DIcksons, Limited, Chester, write :— " The Flower Pots you have so largely supplied us with are light, strong, 
and well made, and iu every respect highly satisfactory." 

Messrs. Richard Smith & Co., Worcester, write:— "We beg to say that we are highly satisfied with your 'Garden 
Pots ;' I hey are well made, light, yet strong, and we like them better than any other we have ever used." 

Mr. William Bull, 536, King's Road, Chelsea. London, writes : — " For nearly thirty years I have been using your 
Garden Pots,' and still find them the best and cheapest." 

Largest Manufacturers in the World. No Waiting. Millions in Stock. Carriage and Breakage Free on £10 
Orders. Half Carriage on £5 Ord'-rs. Samples Free. 




R. HALLIDAY & CO., 

HOTHOUSE BUILDERS and HOT-WATER ENGINEERS, 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL WORKS, MIDDLETON, MANCHESTER. 

Vineries, Stoves, Greenhouses, Peach Houses, Forcing Houses, &c„ constructed on our improved plan, are the 

perfection of growing houses, and for practical utility, economy, and durability cannot be equalled. We only do one class of 
work, and that the vert best. 

Conservatories and Winter Gardens designed architecturally correct without the assistance of anyone out of our firm, 
from the smallest to the largest. Hot-water Heating Apparatus, with really reliable Boilers, erected, and success guaranteed 
in all cases. Melon Frames, Sashes, Hot Bed Boxes, &c, always in stock. 

Plans, Estimates, and Catalogues Free. Customers waited on in any part of the Kingdom. 

Our Maxim is and always has been— 

MODERATE CHARGES. FIRST-CLASS WORK. THE BEST MATERIALS. 




the IMPROVED GARDEN GULLY 

(VINCE'S PATENT). 

This useful invention is a great improvement on the ordi- 
nary Garden Grating, and is especially suitable for hilly walks 
and drives. As they never get stopped by rubbish or sand 
they effectually prevent the washing away of the gravel in 
heavy storms, and they save half the labour in cleaning out 
the cesspools. The prices are : — 

8-in., 2s. ; 10-in., Zs. ; 12-in., 6s. 6<*. 

(The larger sizes are very strong for carriage drives.) 
Full Particulars and Testimonials on application. 

YINCE & VINE, 

58, Chester Road, Upper Holloway, London, N. 



HILL & SMITH, 

BRIER LEY HILL, NEAR DUDLEY, 
AHD AT 118, QUEEN VICTORIA ST., LONDON, E.G. 



IRON FENCING, HURDLES, GATES, &c. 




:_ ssk4 ess ^^m mik) sa i*m fe? *; ■•- 



fpsp^ 



IRON ROOFING AND HAY BARNS. 




Special Estimates given for Large Contracts in Fencing, 
Roofing, &c. Personal SurveyB of Estates made, and prac- 
tical advice given as to the best and most economical Fences 
to put down. Tilustra&ed Catalogues Free by Post. 



CREAT REDUCTION in FRAMES 

0TJR WELL-KNOWN MAKE. 




PORTABLE PLANT FRAMES. 

These Frames are made of the Best Materials, and can be put 
together and taken apart in a few minutes by any one. 
Sizes and Prices, Glazed and Painted. £ ». 

6 feet long, 3 feet wide\ „ A ott (% 



6 feet 
12 feet 

6 feet 
12 feet 
12 feet 



4 feet 

4 feet 

5 feet 

5 feet 

6 feet 



CASH 

PRICES, 

CARRIAGE 

PAID. 



d. 











Larger tizes at proportionate prices. 



R. HALLIDAY & CO., 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL WORKS, 

MIDDLETON, MANCHESTER. 

London Agent,'. Mr. H.SKELTON, Seedsman, &c, 2. Holloway Rd.,N. 



26 



THE GABDENEBS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 6, 1894. 



Railway Passengers' Assurance 

COMPANY insures against 

RAILWAY ACCIDENTS, 

PERSONAL ACCIDENTS, 
EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY. 

Capital £1,000,000. Established 1849. 



64, COENHILL, LONDON. 

W. I). MASSY, ) „ , . 
A. VIAN, [ tomtaru*. 



PICTtrRESaxrE NATTJBAXISTIC 
FORMATION , ^ 




WINTER GARDENS AND 

FERNERIES; 
WATERFALLS 
STREAMS, 



LAKES, 



VASES, 

FOUNTAINS, 

KKRBISQ. 

RALUSTRADES, 

TERRACES, *0., 

DT STONE-IIKE AND RED 

TERRA COTTA. 

Durability Guaranteed. 



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Pamphlets, Drawings, and authenticated Testimonials sent. 

See in use at Patentee's, 

THOMAS ROBERTS, 34. Victoria St., Westminster. 

L. REEVE & CO.'S 

NEW WORKS. 



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BOILING WATER OR MILK. 



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Established 1851. 

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Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lank, W.C. 

TWO- AND- A -HALF per Cent. INTEREST allowed on 
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TWO per Cent, on CURRENT ACCOUNTS, on the minimum 
monthly balances, when not drawn below £100. 

STOCKS and SHARES purchased and sold. 

SAVINGS DEPARTMENT. 

For the encouragement of Thrift the Bank receives small 
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The BIRKBECK ALMANACK, with full particulars, poft- 
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HPHE FRUIT GARDEN of the UNIVERSE. 

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R>R PRICE ll ST ft. PARTICULARS ADDRESS' 



SDuke ST Li London P.r/dgb 



WANTED, a PARTNERSHIP in NUR- 
SERY BUSINESS by practical man thoroughly ex- 
perienced in Glass Work. Business must be already estab- 
lished and bear strictest investigation. Only principals dealt 
with. No agents.— Apply, FRANK MATHEWS, 12, South 
Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 

WANTED, Normandy, France, a thorough 
Outdoor WORKING HEAD GARDENER, where 
another is kept. Must be trustworthy, married, but no en- 
cumbrance. None without good reference and character need 
apply. — Write, statingage, wages required, and full particulars, 
to REID, Oaklands, Beckenham, Kent. 

WANTED, a practical WORKING GAR- 
DENER (Single-handed).— Must be well-up in 
Propagating, and a first-class Grower of Grapes, Tomatos, 
Cucumbers, Mushrooms, and ordinary Flowers ; Vinery and 
Tomato-houses, each 40 feet; Garden, 1 acre. Wages, 25s. 
Nothing found.— Apply, GILBERT DEAR, Thornton, near 
Liverpool. 

WANTED, a good SECOND GARDENER. 
— One who is well up to his work in all hranches. 
iDside and Out. Married, with no family preferred. Wages 
185. per week, with cottage.— C. J. REEVE, The Gardens, 
Ware Park, Ware, Herts. 

WANTED, in a Market Garden, a young 
MAN, capable of Managing about \ acre of Glass 
and Frame Ground,— Requirements, must be capable of Grow- 
ing Cucumbers, Tomatos, Mushrooms, Strawberries, Forced 
Vegetables, and Salads. Only a steady man with good cha- 
racter need apply.— H. HAYWARD, The Gardens, Shirley, 
Southampton. 

WANTED, soft-wooded GROWER and 
PROPAGATOR.'— Apply to WILLIAM COOPER, 
Horticultural Provider, Felt hum 

WANTED, a smart energetic young MAN, 
for Outside Nursery, Must thoroughly understand 
the general routine work, be a good Spadesman, and be able 
to Bud and Graft well, and understand Rose Growing. — ,T. W. 
SILVER, Streatham and Norbury Nurseries, London, S.W. 

rpilOMAS ROCHFORD, Turnford Hall Nur- 

JL series, near Broxbourne, Herts, has SEVERAL VACAN- 
CIES for MEN used io Fruit and Flower-growing under Glass. 
— Apply, stating experience and wages required, to the 
FOREMAN, as above. 

WANTED, AT ONCE, a good strong aotive 
youDg MAN. as UNDER GARDENER, InsideandOut. 
—Apply, C. F. WILSON, Alkincoats, Colne, Lancashire. 



WANTED, a young MAN, in the Houses, 
who has made speciality of Tree Carnations.— State 
particulars of experience, age, and salary required, to S. 
Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41 , Wellington Street, Strand,W.<\ 

XKT ANTED, an energetio single young MAN, 

' T for Outdoor and Houses.— State age, experience, and 
full particulars, with reference. Wages, 7s. per week, with 
board and lodgings found, with commission to a smart person. 
— LONGSTER BROS., Nurserymen, Southampton. 



WANTED, a Married MAN as FOREMAN, 
to attend to the Houses. Must have a practical know- 
ledge of Stove and Gmnhouse Plants, Orchids, Vines. So. 
Wages, one guinea per week, with Cottage free.— Apply to 
Mr. CARTER, The Nurseiies, Keighley, Yorkshire. 

WANTED, a young MAN, for Scotland. 
One thoroughly well up in Grafting and Growing 
Roses and Clematis, &c, in pots.— Apply, with certificates 
stating age, wages expected, &c, to A. R., Gardeners' 
Chronicle Office, 41, Wellin gton St., Strand, W.C. 

WANTED, a JOURNEYMAN, in the 
Houses.— Must have a good knowledge of Orchids, and 
general experience under Glass. Wages 18s. per week.— Full 
particulars to J. PARSONS, The Gardens, Codicote Lodge 
Welwyn. 

Florists. 

WANTED AT ONCE, a smart, active young 
MAN, of good address, to take charge of a Small 
Branch Business. Must be able to Make-up well and attend 
to customers. One preferred who has held a similar situation 
near London. — J. W. SILVER, Streatham and Norbury 
Nurseries, S.W. 

WANTED, MAN and WIFE, for a small 
family in the Country ; Man as Groom-Gardener, and 
to make himself generally useful ; Wife as good plain Cook.— 
Write to A. B. E., 28, Holborn Viaduct, E.C. 

WANTED, at once, a young MAN, under a 
Foreman, with a thorough knowledge of Growing 
Palms, Ferns, and Cut Flowers; must be a good Propagator 
Wages 21s— A. HART & SONS, Flor ists, Guildford. 

WANTED, a young MAN, for the Plant 
Houses.— One with previous experience. Wages 17s 
per week. No bothy.— Apply to F. C. JENNINGS, The 
Gardens, Roselands, Woolston, nsar Southampton. 

WANTED, a young MAN, in the Garden.— 
A good all rouud hand, where three are kept. Wages 
14s. per week, and bothy.— G. HfLLMAN, Woolton House 
Newbury. 

WANTED, an ASSISTANT, one with a 
knowledge of Stocks preferred.— State experience and 
wages required to ERNEST KING & CO., Seedsmen, 
Coggeshall, Essex. 

WANTED, a YOUTH, about 18, for General 
Seed and Nursery Business —Wages and full par- 
ticulars to LAXTON BROTHERS, Seedsmen, Bedford. 

WANTED, a good GENERAL bERVANT, 
byJanuary27. Age25to35. Earlyriser. Plaincoot: 
Good references essential. Good wages, no beer. Comfort- 
ablequieohome. Family two. Washingpart putout. — Address 
stating experience or qualifications, and wages required' 
Mrs. JONES, 182, Stockwell Park Road, London, S.W*. 
Applicants from a distance might inclose recent photo. 

WANTED, SHOPMAN in a Country Seed 
Business. Good references required ; a knowledge of 
Book-keeping necessary. Address, stating past experieice, 
Salary required, &c— SHOPMAN, Messrs. Hurst & Co. 152, 
Houudsditch, London. 



WAN T PLA CES. 

RICHARD SMITH and CO. 
beg to announce that they are constantly receiving 
applications from Gardeners seeking situations, and that 
they will be able to supply any Lady or Gentleman with 
particulars, &c. — St. Johu's Nurseries, Worcester. 

Gardeners, Farm-Bailiffs, Foresters, &c. 

DICKSONS, Royal Nurseries, Chester, are 
always in a position to RECOMMEND MEN of the 
highest respectability, and thoroughly practical at their busi- 
ness. All particulars on application. 
Telegraphic and Postal Address—" DICKSONS, Chester." 

F SANDER and CO. oan reoommend 
• several highly qualified and energetio HEAD and 
UNDER GARDENERS, of excellent character, and proved 
ability; men thoroughly fitted for all the various duties of 
their profession. For all particulars, please apply to — 
F. SANDER and CO., St. Albans. 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 33, married, is 
open for re-engagement. Eighteen years' practical 
experience in large private gardens. Four years Head m pre- 
sent situation. Excellent testimonials from present and 
previous employers.— G. DICKENSON, Rose Hill, Delph, 
Oldham. 

GARDENER (Head) ; age 30, married when 
suited.— C. Fielder, Gardener to the Dowager Lady 
Howard do Walden, The Mote, Maidstone, begs to recommend 
Wni. Bacon, who has been Foreman in these gardens during 
the past three and a half years, to any Lady or Gentleman 
requiring a thoroughly trustworthy man, with six men under 
him. Fourteen years' experience in good situations. 



Januaby 6, 1894] 



THE GARDENERS* CHRONICLE. 



27 



GARDENER (Hkad), seeks re - engagement 
■where a reliable and trustworthy man is required.— 
Age 42; married, no family; life experience. — MORRISS, 
East Street, Kimbolton, St. Neot's. 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 37; married^ 
no family. Mr. W. Marks. Ealing Golf Club, Hanger 
Hill, Ealing, can with every confidence recommend a thor- 
oughly practical man to any Lady or Gentleman requiring a 
firatrclass man; conversant with all branches of Ho rticulture. 

GARDENER (Head), where two or three are 
kept ; thorough good all round ; general experience 
boih Inside and Out. Near London preferred. Four and hilf 
years' excellent character.— Apply, stating wages, to W. 
GARDINER, Effingham Park, Crawle y Down. 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 37, seeks a re- 
engagement with any Lady or Gentleman. Thoroughly 
understands Orchids, Stove and Greenhouse Plants, Grapes, 
Peaches, Melons, Tomatos, Flower and Kitchen Gardens. 
Awarded three Banksian Medals from Royal Horticultural 
Society.— MAY, The Gardens, Oakfield, Elen P ark.Eeckenham. 

GARDENER (Head) ; age 33.— Mr. Pbinsep, 
Head Gardener to Viscountess Portman, Buxted Park, 
Uckfield, wishes to highly recommend his General Foreman, 
A. Hatwell, who has been with him for the past two years, 
to any Lady or Gentleman requiring the services of a thorough 
practical man. Sixteen years' experience. 

GARDENER (Head), where three or more 
are kept. — Age 25 ; twelve years' experience. Good 
character from present and previous employers. — A. FANE, 
Greenham Lodge Gardens, Newbury, Berks. 

GARDENER (Head), or GARDENER and 
BAILIFF, seeks re-engagement, where a reliable and 
trustworthy man is required. — Married, no family ; thoroughly 
practical in all branches of Gardening; also Land and Stock. 
Eighteen years' good character.— E. X., Gardeners' Chronicle 
Office, 41, Wellington Street, Strand.W.C. 

GARDENER, (Head Working), where four 
or more are kept. — Age 40 ; twenty-six years' prac- 
tical experience Inside and Out. Eighteen years in last 
situation. — G. BARTLE, 18, BrownLane South, Beeston, Notts. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 32, 
married; eighteen years' practical experience in first- 
class establishments, four years in last place as Head Gardener, 
with three under. Good references from last and previous 
employers.— H. BICKERSTAFF, Snow Hill, Crawley Town, 
Sussex. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 29 ; 
married. Life experience in all branches of the pro- 
fession. Good testimonials and character. — G. G., 47, Hart- 
field Crescent, Wimbledon. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 35, 
married. Life experience in all branches of the pro- 
fession, including Orchids. Good personal character from 
present employer; eight years' previous. — E. DANIELS, Oporto 
Villa, Snakes Lane, Woodford, Essex. 

GARDENER (Head Working), where two 
or more are kept. — Age 33, married. Thoroughly expe- 
rienced in Grapes, Tomatos, Cucumbers, Melons, Stove and 
Greenhouse Plants, and Kitchen Garden. Six and a half years' 
character from present employer, G. C. G. Lockhart, J.P., 
Holwell, Bury, Hitchin. — JOHN BATES, Hoi well, Bury, 
Hitchin. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 40, 
married; thoroughly experienced in all branches. Good 
character, and can be highly recommended. — J. STYLES, 
3, Linford Road, Wood Street, Walthamstow, Essex. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 35 ; 
married, one son. Advertiser having to leave his situa- 
tion through death of employer, seeks re-engagement as above. 
Good practical experience, energetic and trustworthy. Six 
years' excellent character from present and eight from pre- 
vious situations.— T. HURST, Willowhayne, Worcester Park, 
Surrey. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 33; 
life experience in Noblemen's and Gentlemen's estib- 
lishments. Seven years in present situation as Managing 
Foreman. ' Certificated Horticulture, Agriculture, &c. 
Highly recommeuded.— D., Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, 
Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 31 ; 
thoroughly experienced in Vines, Melons, Cucumbers, 
Tomatos, &c. ; Stove and Greenhouse Plants, and Flower and 
Kitchen Gardens. Charaeter will bear strictest investigation. 
— Z., Willow Cottage, Wellington Heath, Ledbury. 

GARDENER (Head Working). — Tho- 
roughly experienced in all branches ; Wife and Daughter 
thorough Laundresses; middle-age, no other family. Good 
character.— G. D., Ivy Cottage, Forest Row, Sussex. 

GARDENER (Head, or good Single- 
HANDED).— Age 36, married"; thoroughly experienced 
with Grapes, Peaches, Cucumbers, Tomatos, Flowers and 
Vegetables. Excellent reference.— GARDEN ER.IDragon Street, 
Petersfield, Hants. 

ARDENER (Head, or good SINGLE- 
HANDED). — Age 32; thoroughly experienced in Vines, 
Melons, Cucumbers, Tomatos, &c. Stove and Greenhouse 
Plants, and Flower and Kitchen Gardens. Character will 
bear strictest investigation.— A. EDWARDS, 59, Ringford 
Road, West Hill, Wandsworth. 

ARDENER (Single-handed, or otherwise). 

— Age 25, married when suited ; ten years' experience 
in all branches. Good references.— A. SNELLING, 26, Stamford 
Terrace, Stamford Hill, N. 



GARDENER (good Single-handed, or one 
or more under).— Age 28 ; can be well recommended. 
Total abstainer.— D., C. Hott, Head Gardener, Caversham 
Park, Reading. .; 

GARDENER (good Single-handed, or with 
help).— Age 25 ; ten years' practical experience. Inside 
and Out. Good references. Total abstainer.— GARDENER, 
Sherbourne St. John, Basingstoke, Hants. 

GARDENER, has been Second on a large 
Gentleman's place for ten years ; seeks a Single- 
Handed place. Accustomed to Vinery, Peach-houses ; ten 
years' good character.— 4, Maunder Road, Hanwell, W. 

GARDENER (good Second).— Age 27 ; tho- 
roughly experienced, Inside and Out.— Mr. Bkaddy 
can with confidence recommend as above. — R. LIMON, 
Knightons East Finchley. London, N. 

GARDENER (Second, or First JOURNEY- 
MAN). — Age 24 ; ten years* experience in Plant and 
Fruit-growing and Conservatory Decoration ; good reference?. 
— E. R., 20, King Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

GARDENER. — A young man seeks situation 
as Second, experienced Inside and Out. Good refer- 
ences. Bothy preferred.— W. H. SOLLIS, Pinkney Park, 
Malmsbury. 

GARDENER.— Good all round. Wanted to 
recommend. Well up in Orchid culture. Four years 
in last situation. Leaving through master's death. Kind, 
obliging, and trustworthy. Excellent personal character. — 
Address Y. Y., Messrs. White & Son, 33, Fleet Street, E.C. 

GARDENER, where one or two are kept ; 
married (one child); ten years' experience Inside and 
Out.— H. WOOD, Severn Stoke, Worcestershire. 

GARDENER.— Bulb and Lily Grower aDd 
Forcer requires situation. Thorough knowledge of 
bath.— W. F.., Gardeners' Cironicle Office, 41, Wellington 
Street, Strand, W.C. 

GARDENER (Under), Inside, or Inside and 
Out.— Age 23 ; good character. Bothy preferred.— T. J. 
RUSH, Chessington Nursery, near Surbiton, Surrey. 

GARDENER (Undeb).— Age 22; expe- 
rienced in Vines, Chrysanthemums, Roses, &c. Good 
references.— H. PARKER, Elevtham, Winehfield, Hants. 

GROWER, or GENERAL.— Age 21 ; nine 
years' experience in General Soft-wood and Foliage 
Plants, Hoses, Nursery Stock. &c— G. SELLEN, Mr3. Sage, 
9, Orchard Place, Faversham, Kent. 

GROWER (Soft-wooded).— Well-up in Ferns, 
Marguerites, Pelargoniums, Hydrangeas, Solanums, aDd 
General Market Stuff. Twenty-six years' market experience. 
— M. J., 15, Canning Road, Highbury, N. 

To tbe Trade. 

GROWER, could invest in the Business; life 
experence.— R. A., Gardeners' Chronicle Oilice, 41, 
Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

To Nurserymen. 

PLANT and FRUIT GROWER.— Good 
knewledge of Prop3gating. Eleven years' experience 
in good establishments.— F. BiKER, Hartnoll's, Morchard 
Bishop, Devon, 

rpO NURSERYMEN, FLORISTS, &o. — 

JL Situation wanted, as FOREMAN or MANAGER and 
GROWER, where all kinds of choice Flowers and Fruits are 
required for Market. Perfectly understands the routine of a 
Market Nursery. Four and a half years' testimonial from one 
of the largest growers in Middlesex. Roses and Carnations a 
specialty.— JOHNSON, Chandler's Hill, Paddock Wood, Kent. 

To Nurserymen, 

MANAGER, or FOREMAN.— Age 38 ; well 
acquainted with the routine of a general Nursery. 
Also all kinds of Plants, Bulbs, Cut Flowers, &c. Two years 
as Foreman Propagator and Salesman in a London Nursery. 
Two years eight months as Foreman in present place. Eleven 
years previous. First-class references.— H. DYER, Royal 
Nursery, Cirencester, Glos. 

OREMAN in the Houses, or good first 
Journeyman in a good establishment. Nine years' ex- 
perience in Vines, Peaches, Stove, and Greenhouses.— J. 
STANYON, Boar's Head, Tunbridge Wells. 

FOREMAN.— Well up in Fruit, Stove, and 
Greenhouse Plants, &c. References will bear investiga- 
tion. Near London preferred.- H. S. FAIRHOLME, Denham 
Park, Egham. 

To Nurserymen. 
FOREMAN and MANAGER (General), or 

JL SALESMAN and PROPAGATOR; well-up in the 
Growing and Selling of Rhododendrons, Conifers, and all 
other hardy stock. — W. H. B., Bagshot. 

FOREMAN (Outside). — Twelve years' expe- 
rience in Growing Trees, Shrubs, Conifers, Roses, and 
Fruit Trees, &c. Management of Men. Good references. — 
F. ROBERTS, 1, Palace Road, Upper Norwood. 

FOREMAN (General).— Age 26; twelve 
years' experience in all branches; good plant and fruit- 
grower ; excellent character and testimonials. — W. H, 
WATERS, Charlton Road, Keynsham, Bristol. 

FOREMAN, or FIRST JOURNEYMAN.— 
Mr. R. H. Brown, Capel Manor Gardens, Horsmonden, 
Kent, can confidently recommend a young man (age 24), as 
above. Leaving through a death. 



FOREMAN, in a Small Establishment, or good 
FIRST JOURNEYMAN. — Age 22; good references. 
Leaving through death.— A. COZENS, 2, Hill-top Villa, 
Alexandra Road, Epsom. 

FOREMAN, PROPAGATOR, and GROWER 
of Hard and Soft-wooded Plants.— Twenty years in 
leading Nurseries. Experienced in the production of Cut 
Flowers. Can be well recommended. — H. J., 5, Oxford 
Terrace, Old Dover Road, Blachbeath, S.E. 

TO GARDENERS. — Mr. Jackson, Head 
Gardener, Capenhurst Hall, near Chester, wishes to 
recommend his Foreman as GENERAL FOREMAN, where two 
or more are kept. Four yeara' good character. 

JOURNEYMAN, in the Houses.— Age 2'2 ; 
nine years' good experience Inside and Out. Can be 
well recommended.— J. BENSTEAD, Benacre Hall Gardens, 
Wrenthara. 

JOURNEYMAN, in the Houses.— Age 21 ; 
good character. Wales preferred.— W. SHACKSON, 
The Gardens, Givon'a Grove, Leatherhead, Surrey. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside and Out.— Age 22;. 
bothy preferred. Five years' experience in general 
Gardening. Four years' good character.— J. F. , Chapel Street, 
Alderley Edge. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside or Out). — Age 24 ; 
eight year's experience in Routine Plant3 and Orchids. 
StreathamorBalham preferred.— H.L., 3, Black's Road, Angel 
Road, Hammersmith. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside. — Age 24 ; good 

fJ experience.— R. JETTEN, Givon's Grove, Leatherhead, 
Surrey. 

JOURNEYMAN in the houses, under a good 
foreman in a good establishment. Age 20; four and 
a half years' experience under glass.— T. GRIMES, Culverhay, 
Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 

JOURNEYMAN ; age 22.— Mr. 0. Turner, 
Cranfleld Court, Newport Pagnell, can with confidence 
recommend J. Francis as above. Four years under Glass. 

T~~0 GENTLEMEN'S GARDENERS. — A 
young Man (age 19) wishes to APPRENTICE himself 
under a good Gardener for two years. Has had some expe- 
rience. Will give £10 for the two years, to receive a small 
wage the first year, with a rise the second.— E. LEACH, The 
Gardens, Hinton Admiral, Christchurch, Hants. 

TX) FARMERS and MARKET GAR- 

J- JDENERS near Richmond, Surrey.— Young Man wants 
outdoor work ; mode rate' wages. Write to VIOLA, Gardeners' 
Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

TO GARDENERS.— Situation wanted by a 
willing and intelligent lad, age 16 ; has been out before. 
Well recommended. Good character.— F. FRANCIS, Cheam 
Common, Worcester Park, Surrey. 

r rO GARDENERS.— Situation wanted in the 

J- Garden for a strong Lad (age 16), active and willing. 
Gardener's son.— G.B., Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wel- 
lington Street, Strand.W.C. 

TO NURSERYMEN.— Situation required by 
young man (age 21).— Used to London Market Nurseries. 
Tomatos, Cucumbers, Cut Flowers; seven years' experience. — 
C. F., Bushey House, Jevington Gardens, Eastbourne. 

T^O NURSERYMEN.— A young man, well-up 

J- in Growing Fruit, Bedding Stuff for market, seeks 
situation; eight years' experience in large firms; can be well 
recommended. - CYRIL BALDWIN, 46, Whitmore Street, 
Maidstone. 

TX) NURSERYMEN. — Situation wanted; 

J- well-up in Growing for Maiket, Grapes, Cucumbers, 
Tomatos, Palms, Ferns, &c. Eight years' experience. Age 23. 
— A. J., Langster Bros., Burgess Street, Bassett. Southampton. 

•yo SALESMEN. —Advertiser (age 24), 

JL experienced in Selling Fruit and Flowers at Covent 
Garden, requires situation.— J. ADCOCK, 7, Ruby Place, 
Wisbech, Cambs. 

TRAVELLER. — Good connection and long 
experience. Best references. Travelling expenses and 
commission . or otherwise. — TRAVELLER, Gardeners' Chronicle 
Office, 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

SHOPMAN. — Married ; sixteen years' first- 
class experience in Seeds, Bulbs. Plants. Nursery Stock, 
and Floral Work. Well recommended. —CLIMAX, GardtJiers' 
Chronicle Office. 41, Wellington Street, Strand.W.C. 

LODGE-KEEPER or GARDENER, chiefly 
glass; good recommendations. — Situation as above 
wanted by a Lady Gardener trained at Horticultural College, 
Swanley, Kent— A. G. S., Messrs. A. &. R. Milne, booksellers, 
229a, Union Street, Aberdeen. 



HARK TO THE GLAD SOUND of goodwill 
and peace amongst men I It is a period of general 
rejoiciDg when friends delight to meet and wish each other 
the compliments of the joyous New Year's season. Unfor- 
tunately, there are many amongst us to whom the sounds of 
rejoicing must seem but a cruel mockery. Tossing restlessly 
upon a bed of pain, they bitterly realise that they are not 
able to enjoy even the most homely kind of domestic happi- 
ness. Holloway's Pills and Ointment have been the means of 
giving health and strength to many a hopeless invalid. They 
are invaluable in all complaints incidental to the winter. 
They never fail to give almost immediate relief. 



28 



THE GARDE NEBS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 6, 1894. 



If you wish to en- 
sure success and secure 
a constant supply of 
good and reliable 
Vegetables all the year 
round, despatch your 
Order at once to us, 
when your wishes will 
receive immediate 
and most careful 
attention. Our Stocks 

of Vegetable Seeds are the best the World pro- 
duces, as the numerous testimonials we are 
constantly receiving prove. We make up Col- 
lections to suit the requirements of the Cottage, 
the Villa, and Rectory, the Mansion, and the 
Palace, at the following prices :— 

6s., 7s. 6d., 10s. 6d., ISs. 6d., 21s., 31s. 6d., 
42s., 63s., 105s. each. 

Or you can make your own seleotion from our 
CATALOGUE if preferable. 




WORLD-RENOWNED 




If you are a lover of 
Flowers, and anxious 
to have your Garden 
gay with blossom, we 
can supply your wants 
with collections con- 
sisting of beautiful 
varieties suitable for 
the Open Ground, the 
Greenhouse, or Con- 
servatory, that will 

gratify your taste, and prove a source of 

pleasure and profit, at — 

Is. 6d., 3s., 5s., 7s. 6d., 10s. 6d., 15s , 
21s., 31s. 6d., 42s. each. 
Or, you can make a Selection from our 
CATALOGUE. 
Our Flower Seeds have a world-wide reputa- 
tion ; and are largely used both on the Continents 
of Europe and America, and in the Colonies. 
We are constantly receiving large numbers of 
unsolicited testimonials. 



iSS* Customers will phase note that all our Choice Strains of FLORISTS' FLOWERS bear our Registered Trade Mark, without which none 



are genuine. 



B. S. WILLIAMS & SON, victoria and paradise nurseries, UPPER HOLLOWAY, LONDON, N. 



HORTICULTURAL B-t w^n ANTHRACITE 

COAL. 

LONG LASTING and ABSOLUTELY SMOKELESS. 

AMMANFORD COLLIERY, 

AMMANFORD R.S.O., CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

A Bmall Trial Truck, direct from Colliery, to any Station. 

Apply to ThOS. FENARD, Agent. LLANELLY, South Wales. 



" 17"ILLMRIGHT," 

JL\_ for Destruction of all Insect Pesta and Mildew. 

THE STOTT DISTRIBUTOR CO. (Lmtd.), 
Barton House, Manchester. 



ORCHID PEAT; Best Quality; BROWN 
FIBROUS PEAT for Stove and Greenhouse use. RHO- 
DODENDRON and AZALEA PEAT. Samples and Prices of 
WALKER AND CO.. Farnborough, Hants. 



WARE and SONS' 
ab EIHE FLOWER POTS best 

THE SUSSEX POTTER Y WORKS, TJCKFIELP, 

Quotations given for quantities. Carriage paid to any 

The Best Railway station. are Cheapest. 

SAMPLES and LISTS FREE. Crates packed. 



WRIGHT and HOLMES, 

Horticultural Builders and Hot-water Engineers, BIRMINGHAM. 




THE GARDENER'S GREENHOUSE. 

•The Gardener's Greenhouse" has on each side of it a range of useful pits, which, with the 
Greenhouse gives a building complete in itself of great usefulness. The system of construction 
mikes it a Tenant's fixture, aB no attachment need be made to the freehold. All can be removed 
at will, and refixed without loss or damage, the glass being fixed in the patent water-tight 
grooved birB with copper-screws, without the use of putty. 




Figure 7.— Wright and Holmes' Patent Portable Span-roof 
Frame. (Every Man his own Glazier.) 



PLANS and ESTIMATES given for Greenhouses, Conservatories. Vineries. Peach Houses, Plant Houses, Orchid Houses, Pits, &c. HEATING by Hot Water with reliable Boilers on the latest 

and most improved principles. PRICE LIST and full particulars sent post free on reference to this Advertisement. 

WRIGHT and HOLMES, MOSELEY ROAD, BIRMINGHAM. 



Editorial communications should be addressed to the '* Editor; " 



Advertisements and Business Letters to "The Publisher," at the OfEoe, 41. Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C 
Printed for the Proprietors by Messrs. Bradbuby, Aqnkw, * Co. (Limited), Lombard Street, Preoinot of Whitefriars, City of London, in the County of Middlesex, and published by 
Arthur George Martin, at the Office, 41, Wellington Street, Pariah of St. Paul's, Oovent Garden, in the said County.— Saturday, January 6, 1894. Agent for Manchester— John Hjsywood. 




No. 368.— Vol. XV. { S T ™.} SATUEDAY, JANUAEY 13, 1894. 



fKegt. aa a Newspaper. J PRICE 3d. 
[with supplement.1 Post-free, 2$d. 



CONTENTS. 



Acacias Baileyana and po- 
dalyriifolia 

Allotments 

Anthuriumsat Highbury, 

I the hybrid 

i Apiary, the... 

Australian fruits, &c.,for 
i the East 

Azalea mollis 

Berberidopsis corallina ... 

Books, Notices of — 
Orchid Seetrers, the 
Orchids : a chat about... 
Xenia Orchidacea 

Chinese and Japanese 
matting 

Chrysanthemum exhibi- 
tions, how to improve... 

Chrysanthemums, large... 

Chrysanthemum boards, 
expanding 

Florists' flowers 

Chrysanthemums, stop- 
ping 

Hiiipeastrutn, the 
Hollyhock, the 

Gardening journals and 
periodicals, list of 

Hard- wooded greenhouse 
plants ... 

Novelties of 1893 

Ob.tuary — 
Ingram, William 

Orchid cultivation in Bel- 
gium and Eng'and 



Orchid no.es and £.l ean " 
inga— 
Cypripedium Boxalli 

varieties 3S 

Cypripedium Poyntz- 

ianum ,. 33 

Ltelia albida var. Sto- 

bartiana 36 

Odontoglossum crini- 

tum 33 

Pavia macrostachya at 

Coombe Wood 45 

Pimeleas, the culture 

of 40 

Rosary, the 3S 

Salford public parks ... 47 
Shows and garden cha- 
rities 49 

Stock-taking : December 4-5 
Traveller's notes, a ... 33 

Trees and shrubs, hardy 

ornamental 48 

Vine ttems, severe strip- 
ping of 49 



Vitis Coignetise 

Weather in Sussex, the . 
,, the recent wintry . 

Week's work, the — 
Flower garden, the 
Fruits under glass 
Hardy fruit garden 
Kitchen garden, the , 
Orchid-houses, the 
Plants under glass 

Wood paving 



ILLUSTRATIONS, 

Acacia Baileyana 

Acacia Podalyriifolia 

Ingram, William 

Pavia macrostachya at Coombe Wood. Supplement. 



44,48 
46 
4i 



41 
41 

42 
41 

42 
42 

40 



'GARDENERS' CHRONICLE." 



Continued Increase in the Circulation. 



L 



Important to Advertisers. — The Publisher 
has the satisfaction of announcing that the 
circulation of the "Gardeners' Chronicle " has, 
since the reduction in the price of the paper, 
Increased to the extent of 76" per Cent. 

Advertisers are reminded that the " Chronicle" 
circulates among country gentlemen and 

AIL CLASSES OF GARDENERS AND GARDEN- 
LOVERS at home, that it has a specially large 
FOREIGN AND COLONIAL CIRCULATION, and 

that it is preserved for reference in all the 
principal Libraries. 

HC ANNELL and SONS' 
• SEEDS. 

Their Catalogue of the above will be sent post-free to all their 
friends and coming customers on application. Its value will 
surprise many, also the success of their Own Grown Seeds. It 
is a fact their superior quality increased our orders 2000 last 
season, absolutely proving they are better in every respect, and 
Five Silver Medals awarded at London Big Shows for Vege- 
tables confirm it, and with their mode of business, is evidently 
highly appreciated all over the World. 

FOR SALE.— OIL PAINTING, by E. Moira. 
Subject, " Camden Park, Chi&lehurst, 1860." The various 
changes which Camden Estate has undergone since 1860 render 
this work of unusual interest. Offers invited. Can be seen 
by arrangement.— G. E., Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wel- 
lington Street, Strand. W.C. 

GARDENERS' CHRONICLE."— For Sale. 
Clean, unbound, July to Dec, 1891 ; 1892 and 1893 
complete; Dec. 22, 1888 to June 8, 1889; several odd numbers, 
first vol., 1891. No reasonable offer refused. 

TAIT, Papcastle, Cockermouth. 



V 



For Early Forcing. 

SUTTON'S FIRST CROP CAULIFLOWER. 
Invaluable for forcing, as it produces few leaves, and the 
habit is dwarf and compact. As an exhibition variety it has 
been exceedingly successful. The Rev. W. E. Fleming, 
Kilskeery Rectory, says:— "Last year I got some of your 
First Crop Cauliflower, and found that no person in this dis- 
trict had ever seen such splendid heads." 

Price of Seed, Is. Gd. and 2s. &d. per packet, post-free. 

SUTTON'S SEEDS, GENUINE ONLY DIRECT FROM 

SUTTON and SONS, THE QUEEN'S 
SEEDSMEN, READING, 

The Best Present for a Gardener. 
INES AND VINE CULTURE. 

The most complete and exhaustive Treatise on 

Grapes and their Culture ever published. 

Third Edition just out. 

Price 5s,, post free, os. &d. 

A. F. BABBON, Eoyal Horticultura l Society, Chiswick, 

WINTER -FLOWERING CARNATIONS. 
— Miss Joliffe Improved, best flesh pink, Autumn 
9truck Cuttings, 4s. Bd. per dozen, 15s. per 100. Cash with 
order.— CEANE and CLARKE, The Nurseries, March, Cambs. 

To the Trade. 

NUTTING and SONS have posted their 
NEW TRADE CATALOGUE of SEEDS to all their 
Customers. If not received, oblige by notifying the same. 
lOd, Southwark Street, London, S.E. 

ORCHIDS. — Odont. crispum, Pesoatorea, 5s., 
7s. Bd. ; K03si majus, Lselia harpopbylla, Cyp. insigne, 
2s. Bd., 3s. Bd.. 5s., all in bud ; and many others. 
H. BROCHNER, Hessle, Yorkshire. 

Special Trade Offer. 

WILLIAM ICETON has a magnificent Stock 
of the leading kinds of PALMS, ABAUCARIAS, and 
FICUS, in small pota, to offer cheap. Areca Lutescens, Cocos 
Wedd., Corypha Aus., Phoenix rup , Latania borb., Kentia9 
Fos. and Bel., Araucaria excelsa, Ficus elastica, Dracaenas 
Lindenii and Doucetti. 

Putney Park Lane, Putney, S.W. 

MILLER'S SEAKALE — Most satisfactory. 
Strong roots for forcing, 8s. Bd. per 100; extra large roots 
for quick forcing, 12s. Bd. per 100 ; good roots for planting, 
4s. <ad. per 100. Illustrated SEED CATALOGUE free. 
F. MILLER and CO., 267, Fulham Eoad, London, S.W. 

ORCHIDS of every description, from Is. each. 
Samples, po9t-free, Is. 3d. Bare plants at low prices. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. Neiv CATALOGUE free. 

THE LEEDS OECHID CO., Bouudhay, Leeds. 

SUPERB ORCHIDS, CHEAP— Thousands 
to select from. Write for LIST, free. 
P. MoAETHUE, The London Nursery, 4, Maida Vale, London.W. 

To the Trade 

W ATKINS and SIMPSON have posted 
their WHOLESALE SEED CATALOGUE for 1894 to 
all their customers. If not received, another copy ■will be sent 
on application. 
Seed Warehouse, 13, Exeter Street, Strand, LondoD, W.C. 



ROSES. — The finest varieties in cultivation. 
The best Trees in commerce. For trees worth any three 
of the scrubs often distributed ; for large, bushy well-ripened 
trees with abundant roots ; for trees in the pink of condition ; 
for the cream of Koses, choicest offspring of the Rosarian's 
skill and love. Send for list and sample dozen, to 
WILL TAYLER, Hampton, Middlesex. 

Cand J. TUEFIN, Commission Agents 
• (Cut Flowers only). — 4, Cross Court, Catherine Street, 
W.C, and Covent Garden Market. 

WANTED, ORCHID and Choice WHITE 
BLOOMS, in large or small quantities, for Cash. 
Boxes supplied. 
MANAGER, Cumberland Park Nurseries, Willesden Junction. 

WANTED, large plants, or leaves, of the 
AGAVE SPECIES (var. Sizalana preferred), MUSA 
TEXTLLIS, or other leaves'or trunk, for experimental purposes, 
—Particulars to WEIGHER, 5, Hackney Road, N.E. 



Trade Price Current for 1894. 

PETER LA.WSON and SONS, Limited, have 
posted their ANNUAL CATALOGUE of SEED3 to their 
customers, but if any have been inadvertently omitted, copies 
will be sent upon application. 

1, George 4th Bridge, Edinburgh. 

BOX'S BEGONIA SEED— For germination 
and quality of flowers superior to all others. Per 
packet, single mixed, Is. and 25. Bd. ; larger packets, 5s. ; 
doable mixed, packets. Is. 6a!. and 2s. Bd. ; larger packets, 5s. 
Sow now. Ask for PEICE LIST of Tubers, and Pamphlet 
on Culture. 

JOHN E. BOX, Seedsman and Begonia Grower, Croydon. 

Important to Mushroom Growers. 

CUTHBERT'S SPECIALITE MUSHROOM 
SPAWN. Always alike ; most productive. Hundreds 
of testimonials. Per bushel, 5s. 

B. and G. CTJTHBEET, Seed, Bulb, and Plant Merchant, 
Southgate, N. Established 1797. 

Seed Fotatos. 

Hand F. SHAKPE have forwarded their 
• SPECIAL PRICED LIST of SEED POTATOS to 
their Customers and others in the TRADE, and will thank 
those who have not received it to inform them, and a further 
copy will be posted. 

SEED-GROWING ESTABLISHMENT, WISBECH. 

CLEMATIS.— Fifty best and most effeotive 
varieties, including Jackmanni, Jackmanni alba, Henryi, 
&c. Strong plants, in 5-inch (48-sized) pots, free from disease, 
12s. to 18s. per dozen ; 90s. to 120s. per 100. 
WM. PAUL & SON, Paul's Nurseries, Waltham Cross, Herts. 

J^A AAA EUONYMUS, Green and Golden, 

JU«UW all splendid bushy plants.— GREEN : 12 in. 
to 15 in., at 30s. per 100; 15 in. to 18 in., at 40s. per 100; 
18 in. to 21 in., at 55s. per 100 ; 21 in. to 24 in., at 75s. per 100 ; 
30 in. to 40 in. at special prices. 

GOLDEN : 5 in. to 12 in., at 3s. to 8s. per dozen. Cash with 
order. J. J. CLARK, Goldstone, Brighton. 

300,000 STRONG RASPBERRY 

BAUMFORTH'S SEEDLING sample 100 6s. Bd. 

CAETEE'S PEOLIFIC ditto 4s. Bd. 

NOBWTCH WONDEE and FASTOLF ditto 3s. 3d. 

Prices per 1000 on application. Special quotations to large 

buyers. 

E. H. BATH, Osborne Farm, Wisbech. 

U BE SUCCESSFUL in Growing Flowers 

and Vegetables to perfection, you must have " DOB- 
BIE'S CATALOGUE AND COMPETITOE'S GUIDE " as your 
lonstant companion. "I thank you for your excellent 
and practical Guide, which is the best I ever had." A speci- 
men of hundreds of testimonials. The book is ready now. It 
consists of nearly 200 pages, and is sent free by post for id. 
Please apply early if you want to be sure of getting a copy. 

DOBB1E and CO., Florists and Seed Growers to the Queen, 
Bothesay, Scotland. 

" T^ILLMRIGHT," 

JjL. For Destruction of all Insect Pests and Mildew. 

THE STOTT DISTRIBUTOR CO. (Lmtd.), 
Barton H ouse. Manchester. _ 

HORTICULTURAL SHEET GLASS. 
Stock Lists and Prices on application. 
GEOEGE FAEMILOE and SONS, Lead, Glass, Oil, and 
Colour Merchants, 34, St. John St., West Smithfleld, London. 

J WEEKS & Co., Horticultural Builders 
. to Her Majesty, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales H.M. 
Government, Admiralty Dept., War Dept., Royal Hort. Soc.. 
Eoyal Botanic Soc, Parks and Public Buildings, Patentees of 
the Duplex UprightT ubular Boilers, King sRoad, Chelsea, S.W. 

THOMSON'S VINE and PLANT MANURE. 
—This Manure can be had as formerly from all Nurserymen 
and Seedsmen, under Analysis by the Edinburgh City Analyst. 
Agent for London :-Mr. J. GEORGE, 14, Redgrave Eoad, 

P Agent toT'tae Channel Islands :-Mr. J. H. PAESONS, 
Market Place, Guernsey. 

Sole Makers:— WM. THOMSON AND SONS, LTD., Tweed 
Vineyard, Clovenfords. 

Price LiBts and Testimonials on application. 



30 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE, 



[January 13, 1894. 



SALES by AU CTION. 

Tuesday Next-Special Sale 

2000 various LILIES, -1000 LILIUM AUBATUM. extra fine; 
15.000 PEARL TUBEROSES, extra tine; 5000 Hjbrid 
GLADIOLI, 4000 BEGONIAS, 2000 SPLR.EAS, 50 Lots of 
GREENHOUSE FERNS, &c 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS 
will SELL the above by AUCTION at tbe'r Central 
Sale Rooms, 67 and 6S, Cheap'ide, London, E.C., on TUESDAY 
NEXT, January 16, at 12 o'clock. 

Wednesday Next. 

7450 LILIUM AURATUM. 
660 „ SPECIOSUM RUBRUM, 

1338 ,, „ ALBUM, 

500 „ TIGRINUM, 

1200 SACRED LILIES, 
Just rectived from JapaD. Also 303 Belladonna Lilies, 50 lots 
of Palms. 70 Nerine Sarniensis, 50 Vollata purpurea, 60 lots 
of named Begonia?, comprising a great variety, 100 Dwarf 
Roses, 2500 Lily of the Valley Berlin Crowns, Engli h grown 
Lilies, &c. ; also 500 Lilium Szovitzianum, 7 to 12 inches, 
received direct. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL the above by AUCTION at their Central Sale 
Booms, 67 ar.d 68, Cheapside. London, E.C , on WEDNESDAY 
NEXT, January 17. at 12 o"Clcck. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Friday Next. 

Important SALE of 1000 magnificent roots of home-grown 
LILIES, 50,000 Berlin Crowns of LILY OF THE VALLEY, 
5C00 MILLA BIFOLIA and BESSERA ELEGANS, 5000 
GLADIOLUS, DOUBLE BEGONIAS, a first-class strain ; 
5000 CARNATIONS and PICOTEES. SPIBiEAS. DIELY'- 
TRAS. TIGRIDIAS. PANCRATIUMS, AMARYLLIS, 
SCILLAS, and many other hardy varieties. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL the above by AUCTION, at their Central Sale 
Rooms, 67 and 68, Cheapside, London, E.C, on FRIDAY* 
NEXT, January 19, at 12 o'clock. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Friday Next, January 19. 

A Magnificent Importation of the Sander.e Section of 

CYPRIPEDIUM INSIGNE MONTANUM. 

An Importation of 

CYMBID1UM DEVONIANUM. 

In fine order and condition. 

The Lovely HABENARIA CARNEA. 

First-class Certificate, Ang. 29, 1393. 
The Finest Tubers ever Imported. 

The Colossal PHAIUS PHILIPPINENSE. 

A dwarf-growing Phaiua from the Isle of Formosa. 
A superb importation of the famous LaDg-tang variety of 

DENDROBIUM NOBILE. 

Ballianum and Album Section. 

AGANISEA IONOPTERA, 

An importation of the superb Pernambuco variety of 

CATTLEYA LEOPOLDII. 

DENDROBIUM PHAL.JENOPSIS SCHRODERIANUM. 

DENDROBIUM FREEMANII. 

CCELOGYNE OCELLATA MAXIMA. 

CYRTOPODIUM VIRESCENS. 

ONCIDIUM JONESIANUM SUPERBUM, &c. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS have 
received instructions from Messrs. F. Sander & Co., 
St. Albjns, to SELL by AUCTION, at their Central Sale 
Rooms, 67 and 68, Cheapside, London, E.C, on FRIDAY 
NEXT, January 19, at half-past 12 o'clock, the above excep- 
tionally fine lot of valuable IMPORTED and ESTABLISHED 
ORCHIDS. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Blackneatn, Kent. 

(Three minutes' walk from Blackheath Station.) 

By order of the Executors of the late BRYAN DONKIN, Esq. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL by AUCTION, on the Premises, Eastnor House, 
Blackheath, S.E., on WEDNESDAY NEXT, Jan. 17, at half- 
past 12 o'Clock precisely, the whole of the ESTABLISHED 
ORCHIDS, consisting of Odontoglossum Alexandras, O. grande, 
O. Edwardii, O. nebulosum album. Oncidium macranthum, 
Dendrobium nobile nobilius, D. Ainsworthii, D. Phalamopsis 
Schroderse, Cypripedium Rothschildianum, C Druryi. C 
Elliottianum, C selligerum, and otherB. CYMBIDIUM 
GIGAN'IEUM, fine plant; Angrajcums, Vandas, Cattlejas, 
Masdevalliaa, Ccelogynes, Zygopetalums, Leelias, Grammato- 
phyllum Set-gerianum , Vanda Sanderiaia, Phaltenopsis of sorts, 
and many other choice Orchids in variety, together with the 
STOVE and GREENHOUSE PLANTS, including Eucharis, 
Davallias, Camellias, Azaleas, Lapagerias, Callas, Amaryllis. 
GARDEN ROLLER, MOWING MACHINE, FLOWER POTS, 
GARDEN TOOLS, &c. 

May be viewed the day prior and mcrning of Sale. Catalogues 
can be obtained on the Premises of Messrs. STREET, POYN- 
DER and WHATLEY, Solicitors, 27, Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
W.C. ; and of tho Auctioneers, 67 and 68, Cheapside, 
London, E.C. 

The Forestry and Gardening Exhibition, Earl'a Court. 

CLEARANCE SALE of the SPECIMEN PALMS, BAY TREES, 
and OTHER PLANTS.— Preliminary Notice. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL by AUCTION, on the Premises as above, on 
THURSDAY. January 25, at 1 o'Clock, the whole of the well- 
grown STOVE and GREENHOUSE PLANTS, which include 
20 Standard Bay Trees in Tubs, with stems 3 to 5 feet ; Cannas, 
130 Tea Plants, 5:10 mixed Ferns, Palms, 211 Rhododendrons, 
182 Aucubas, 155 Hollies, 226 Yews, 185 Cupressus, and others. 
May be viewed flay prior and morning of Sale. Catalogues 
may be had on the Premises, of H. BISHOP, Esq. (MessrH. 
Turquand, Young & Co.), 41, Coleman Street, E.C, and of tho 
Auctioneers and Valuers, 67 and 68, Cheapside, London, E.C. 



Wednesday Next. 
A grand Importation of 2500 LILIUMS, in the finest con- 
dition, just received direct from Japan, comprising — 
15,000 fine Bulbs of LILIUM AURATUM. 



Lilium auratum macranthum 
,, ,, virginale 
,, ,, rubro-vittatum 

Wittei 
,, speciosum rubrum 
,, lorigifiorum 
,, Batemani 



Lilium speciosum rubrum Mel- 
pomene 
Kramerii 
tigrinum 
medeoloides 
concolor 
Coridion 



Choice PJEONIES. Giant CHESTNUT SEEDS. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL the above by 
AUCTION, at his Great Rooms. SS. King St., Covent 
Garden, W.C, on WEDNESDAY NEXT, January 17, at half- 
past 12 o'clock precisely. 

On view morning of Sale and Catalogues had. 

Wednesday Next. 

40 Lots of RUSTIC EARTHENWARE FLOWER- VASES, 
BASKETS, BRACKETS. POTS. BOXES. &c ; SEED- 
PANS, PROPAGATING-GLASSES, CORK BASKETS, 
FERN-STANDS, &c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will include the above 
in his SALE by AUCTION, at his Great Rooms. 38, King 
Street, Covent Garden, W.C, on WEDNESDAY NEXT, 
January 17. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Wednesday Next. 

Pyramid and Dwarf-trained FRUIT TREES, 300 choice named 
Dwarf ROSES, a line Collection of Hardy ORNAMENTAL 
TREhS and SHRUBS. BORDER PLANTS: £00 lots of 
DUTCHBULBS and LILIUMS, 20.000 SPIRAEAS. DIELY- 
TRAS, LILY of the VALLEY, &c. ; PALMS, AZALEAS, 
and BULBS from Ghent, LILIUM HARRISII, NERINES, 
VALLOTAS, &c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will include the above 
in his SALE by AUCTION, at bis Great Rooms, 38, King 
Street, Covent Garden, on WEDNESDAY NEXT, January 17. 

WANTED TO PURCHASE, a NURSERY 

T T covered ^pith Glass, and about 1 acre of land, in thorough 
working order, where Cut Flowers and Fruit are grown for 
market. Would not object to a Shop attached. London or 
suburbs. Must bear strict investigation, with long lease. 

State lowest cash price to R. H , Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 
■11, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

TT'ENT. — TO BE LET. — Two GLASS- 

XV. Houses, with well-established Vines ; productive Fruit 
and Vegetable GARDEN, with Orchard.— Apply to— 

B., Wooldridge, Fruiterer, St. Dunstans, Canterbury. 

FLORISTS, FRUITERERS, SEEDSMEN.— 
First-class business in good suburb, West. Same hands 
twelve years. Owner retiring. Taking over £3000 a year. No 
vegetables. Price for Goodwill, Fixtures, Lease, £700. — 
Address, SURRF.Y, Gardtners' Chrorucle Office, 41, Wellington 
Street, Strand, W.C. 

Abbey Wood. 

Under a DEED of ASSIGNMENT. 
IMPORTANT to FLORISTS, FRUIT, and PLANT GROWERS. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS are 
instructed to SELL by tender, as a going concern, the 
beneficial INTEREST in the LEASE of the Market Nunery 
known as "Ship Logs," Abbey Wood, Kent, comprising 
3 acres 1 rood 37 poles of NURSERY LAND, together with 
thirteen Greenhouses and Vineries standing thereon. The 
property is held for a term of eighteen and a half years un- 
expired at a rental of £77 9s. 3d. The Vineries are planted 
with Vines in good condition, and there is an extensive stock 
of Ferns, Eucharis, Roses, and Peach Trees. Tenders will be 
opened at the offices of Messrs. Protheroe & Morris at twelve 
o'Clock on Monday, January 22. The vendors do not bind 
themselves to accept the highest or any tender. Forms of 
tender, with full particulars as to the Lease and Stock may be 
obtained of Messrs. Lawrence & Jerome. Solicitors, 31. Thread- 
needle Street, E.C, or of Messrp. PROTHEROE and MORRIS, 
67 & 63, Cheapside, London, E.C. 

RASPBERRY CANES.— Norwich Wonder, 
Carter's Prolific, also Fastolf, well rooted. 
Not less than 1000 canes of either sort supplied. 
ALBERT BATH, Vine Court, Sevenoaks, Kent. 

GRAPE VINES.— A fine stock of all leading 
kinds — Hamburghs, Muscats, Lady Downes', Gros 
Colmar, &c. Fruiting Canes, 6s. to 10s. $d. each; Planting 
Canes, 2s. Qd. to 5*. each. 

WM. PAUL & SON. Paul's Nurseries, Waltham Cross, Herts. 

ORCHIDS. — Many rare and choice Cattleyas, 
CypripediumH, Dendrobiums, Odontoglossums, &c, 
always in stock. Inspection invited. Please write for LIST. 

W. L. LEWIS and CO., F.R.H.S., Chase Side, Southgate, 
London, N. 

VINES.— Grand Fruiting and Planting Canes, 
extra strong, and well-ripeued. A very low price to a 
large buyer. 

CUCUMBER SEED, Rochford variety, same as gave so 
much satisfaction last season ; per 100, 5s. 2d., post free. 
A. A. BENNETT, F R.H.S., 
Ashford Vineyard, Cobham, Surrey. 

TOMATO " CHALLENGER " (Collins').— 
Awarded Four First-class Certificates at London Shows in 
one season. The best kind for Amateurs and Market Growers. 
Fruit large, smooth, heavy, bright tcarlet, grandly flavoured, 
free setting, very prolific. Over 10,000 packets already sold. 
Sealed Packets only, Is. (Wholesale, Hurst & Son). Illus- 
trated Descriptive Seed LIST gratis.— COLLINS BROS, and 
GABRIEL. :il>. Waterloo Road, London, S.E. 

Prize Cob Filberts. 

MR. COOPER, Western Elms, Reading (late 
of Calcot Gardens), is the largest grower of Prize Cob 
Filberts in the Kingdom; 20,000 fine young Trees now ready 
for Sale. Pamphlets and Price Lists on Application. 



Willesden Local Eoard. 
r PHE ABOVE BOARD are prepared to re- 

-L ceive TENDERS for SUPPLY and PLANTING of certain 
TREES at the Recreation-Ground, Harlesden, and upon the 
various Highways of their District. Copies of conditions and 
forms of tender may be obtained on and after Monday, the 
15th inst,, upon application to Mr. O. CLAUDE ROBSON, 
Surveyor to the Board, Public Offices, Dyne Road, Kilburn, 
N.W. 

The tenders, endorsed "Tender for Trees," to be delivered 
at the Offices of the Board not later than 4 P. M. on Tuesday, 
January S?3, 1894. The Board do not bind themsalves to accept 
the lowest or any tender. By Order, 

SAMUEL TILLEY. Clerk to the Board. 
Public Offices, Dyne Road, Kilburn, N.W. 
January 10, 1S94. 



FOR ORCHIDS and GARDENERS 
to Grow Them, apply to SANDER'S, St. Albans. The finest 
6tock of Orchids in the World.— 30 minutes from St. Pancras. 

FOR SALE, 10 Cwt. of SHALLOTS. 
Apply to— 
Mr. BRACEY, Marlham, Yarmouth. 

TUSHROOMS, sent anywhere, 1*. 3d. 

'A per pound, carriage free. 

MUSHROOM SPAWN, the very best, 4s. 6rf. for 16 bricks. 
BAILEY'S Mushroom Nursery, Croom's Hill. Greenwich. 



M 



M 



YATT'S PROLIFIC POTATOS for Sale, 

true. 50s. per ton. 
G. F. YOUNG. Swineshead Abbey, Boston. 

FOR SALE, 50,000 well-rooted Norwich 
Wonder RASPBERRY CANE: also a large quantity of 
John Ruskin STRAWBERRY PLANTS. 

Price on application to — 
W. CHAMBERS, Southtleet. near Gravesend, Kent. 

FOR SALE, a Stock of good LOBELIA, all 
grown from Cuttings ; 3s. per box. 
J. CHARMAN, 3, Heme Grove, Peckham Rye, Surrey. 

CHRYSANTHEMUMS, strong cuttings of 
Beauty of Exmouth.W. Seward, J. Shrimp'-on.C. Shrimp- 
ton, EdaPrass, C. Blick, Lord Brooke. Col. W.B. Smith, and other 
best sorts. The oest old sorts from Is. 6tf. per dozen. 10s. per 100. 
Also a quantity of the best market sorts by the 100 to the Trade 
at a low price. Catalogue of W. ETHERINGTON, Chrysan- 
themum Grower, Swanscombe, Kent. 

PETUNIAS.— Hender's Prize Strains, Grand 
Double Frilled, Is. ijd. and 3s. packets; the new Single- 
striped Frilled, 2s. packets ; Hender's Sinele-striped Plain, Is. 
and 2s. pacnets. The best Double BEGONIA SEED offered. 
Is. §d. and 2s. <6d. packets ; Single, Is. Send for The Gem List 
of Flower and Vegetable Seeds. 

HENDER and SONS, Nursery, Plymouth. 

PALMS, FERNS, &c— KENT1AS, fine, in 
48*9, 12s. per dozen ; t-ix sorts of PALMS, in 48's. 9r. 
and 12s. per doz. ; Large KENTIAS, in 60's. 5s. and 6s. per doz. ; 
eight sorts of PALMS, in 60's, 4s. and 5s. per doz. ; do. in large 
thumbs, 3s. per doz., 20s. per 100 ; ARALIAS, in 48 s. 5s. and 
6s. per doz..; twelve best sorts of FERNS, 12s. per 100; 
ASPARAGUS PLUMOSUS NANUS, 6s. per doz. ; variety of 
FERNS in 48's, 5s. & 6s. per doz. Freeonrail. Cash with order. 
LANE AND MARTIN, 227, Brixton Road, London, S.W. 



Illustrated, Free, 

CATALOGUE. 

Mention this paper. 
Nothing is too small, or too much trouble. 
Correspondence Invited. The Trade Supplied. 

E. D. SHUTTLEWORTH & CO., Ltd., 

PECKHAM RYE, LONDON, S.E., and 
FLEET, HANTS. 

BARR'S SEEDS.— UNEQUALLED VEGE- 
TABLE SEEDS in the best sorts only. Much valuable 
information. Catalogue free on application. 
FLOWER SEEDS.— Upwards of 2000 species and varieties, all 
decorative kinds. Catalogue free on application. 
BULBS. — Gladioli, Lilies, Anemones, Ranunculus, Hyacinthus 
candicans, Tigiidias, &c, for Spring Planting, LISTS 
ON APPLICATION. 
PLANTS. — Michaelmas Daisies, Perennial Sunflowers, Double 
and Single Pfeooies, Irises, Oriental Hellebores, Carna- 
tions. &c. Lists free on application. 
BARR AND SON, 12, King Street, Covent Garden, London. 

Important to Exhibitors. 

TOMATO, CUTHBEHT'S CRIMSON 
EMPEROR.— This splendid Tomato is a cross between 
the well-known American variety "New Jersey" and "The 
Trophy." The colour is a rich glossy crimson, with very solid 
flesh. The beautiful shaps of the fruit will make it a general 
favourite, both for exhibition, the market, and private me. 
Per packet, Is. 

MELON, CUTHBERTS EMPRESS OF INDIA, a cross 
between the two well-known and valuable varieties, "The 
Countess" and ,l Sion House." The fruit is beautifully netted, 
the flesh of a delicate pink colour, and it is a free setter; 
flavour exquisite. Per packet, Is. 6d. 

Descriptive CATALOGUE free. 

R. AND G, CUTHBERT, Seed Merchants, Southgate, N. 

Established 1797. 

To the Trade. 

Hand F. SHARPE ha* r e posted their 
• GENERAL WHOLESALE LIST to their customers 
and others, and i-hall feel obliged if those who have not received 
it will inform them and another copy will be sent. 

SEED-GROWING ESTABLISHMENT, WISBECH. 



January 13, 1894. 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE, 



FRIDAY, January 26 . 

NEW AND MAGNIFICENT CYPRIPEDIUM CHARLESWORTHII 

(ROLFE, N. SP.) 

Exhibited and unanimously awarded a First-class Certificate by the Orchid Committee of the Royal Horticultual Sooiety, and pronounced by every 
one to be the most beautiful and charming Cypripedium introduced, causing quite a sensation at the Drill Hall on Tuesday, September 20, 1893. 

The special feature of this novelty is the dorsal sepal, which is quite distinct in appearance and colour to any other known Cypripedium, which will 
render it exceptionally valuable to the hybridist. 

The consignment we are offering is one of the best conditioned we ever had, embracing plants of wonderful size, which almost look like 
established plants ; and we may reasonably expect some of them will flower soon. 

Also a fine lot of CYPRIPEDIUM BELLATULUM, ONCID1UM SARCODES, VANDA KIMBALLIANA, and other Choice ORCHIDS. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE & MORRIS have received instructions from Messrs. Charles- 
"WORth, Shuttle worth & Co., Heaton, Bradford, to offer the above great novelty at their Central Sale 
Eooms, 67 and 68, Cheapside, London, E.G., on FKLDAY, January 26, at half-past 12 o'Clock. 

On vieiv morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 



BURMESE LILIES. 

(HARDY GARDEN). 

HUGH LOW & CO. 

Have just received, per s.-s. Yorkshire, a grand 
Consignment of L. NEPALENSE and L. 
SULPHUREUM (WALLICHIANUM SU- 
PERB UM), which they propose to offer at 
greatly reduced prices. The bulbs vary very 
much in appearance, and new varieties may be 
confidently expected, 

CLAPTON NURSERY, LONDON, N.E. 

THE COLORADO BLUE SPRUCE. 

ABIES PUNGENS GLAUCA and ARGENTEA. 

Handsome specimens, 3, 4, 5, and 6 feet high. These are all 
of the Bluest type, and undoubtedly the finest plants in 
commerce. They are all Seedlings, the plants usually met 
with being grafted on the Common Spruce Fir. 

ANTHONY WATERER, 

KNAP HILL NURSERY. WOKING. SURREY. 

WHOLE SALE SEED CATA LOGUE. 

We have now published our Wholesale Catalogue of 

VEGETABLE & FLOWER SEEDS 

Containing also the best Novelties of the Season. MAY BE 
HAD ON APPLICATION. Any of our Customers not having 
received one by post will oblige by letting us know, when 
another shall at once be posted. 



WATKINS&SIMPSON, 

BULB AND SEED MERCHANTS, 

EXETER ST., STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

Seed & Trial Grounds — Felt ham & Twickenham, Middlesex. 

TSAAC MATTHEWS and SON have for 

JL immediate disposal as follows, all oE first-class quality, in 

full health and vigour : — 
RHODODENDRONS, White, full of buds. 
,, Scarlet and other varieties, full of buds. 
„ Hybrid Seedlings and Ponticum varieties, from 1 to 4 feet, 
at remarkably low prices, all bushy fine plants. 
PRIVET, Oval Leaf, from 2 to 4 feet, fine; ASH, Common, 
and MOUNTAIN BEECH; HAZEL, HORSE CHEST- 
NUTS, ELM, LARCH, AUSTRIAN PINE, POPLARS 
(various), EVERGREEN PRIVET, THORN QUICK, 
SCOTCH FIR, SPRUCE, SYCAMORE, and WILLOWS, 
all good, well-grown Trees, from 1£ to 4 feet, and upwards. 
ROSES, AUCUBAS, BERBERIS AQUIFOLIA, BOX, 
CtlPRESSUS, DOGWOOD, GOLDEN ELDERS, HOL- 
LIES, IVIES, LAURELS, RETINOSPORAS, English and 
Irish YEWS, AZALEAS (various), and many other varie- 
ties. For Price List, apply to— 

The Nurseries, Milton, Stoke-on-Trent. 

NOW IS THE TIME TO PLANL 

Send for our NEW DESCRIPTIVE and PRICED 
CATALOGUE of FRUIT TREES, ROSES, CONI- 
FERS. SHRUBS, FOREST TREES, CLIMBERS, 
HERBACEOUS PLANTS, &c. A large Stock grown. 

LANDSCAPE GARDENING 

A leading feature. Plans, Specifications, and Estimates 
prepared. 

GEO. JACKMAN & SON, 

WOKING NURSERY, WOKING, SURREY. 

Established 1810. Akea 150 acres. 



FOR SALE. — A Lady offers privately her 
choice Collection of DUTCH, CAPE, and EXOTIC 
BULBS, also a few select GREENHOUSE PLANTS.— For par- 
ticulars, write to MANAGER, Blandford Nursery, Teddington. 

ASPARAGUS of fine quality— For Forcing: 
5-yr. old, splendid roots, 12j. Qd. per 100 ; 6-yr. old, 
extra fine selected, 15s. per 10). For planting: 3-yr. old, 
25s. per 1000; do., selected, 35s. per 1000; 4-yr. old, 5s. per 100. 
All quotations are free on rail, and for cash with order. My 
Asparagus always makes the very top price at Covent Garden. 
J. J. CLARK, Market Gardener, Goldstone. Brighton. 

1000 BEA -UTIFUL DAFFODILS for 21s., 
-LV/V/ V/ Carriage Paid on receipt of remittance — a mix- 
ture of beautiful named soits. Beautiful PEERLESS CHALICK- 
CUPPED and POET'S NARCI-SI, in mixture, per 1000, 21s. ; 
per 100, 2s. 6rf. SWEET-SCENTED BUNCH FLOWERED 
NARCISSI, named sorts, mixed, per 100, 4s. 6i. Beautiful 
MIXTURE of HYACINTHS, from many named sorts, per 100, 
lOs.Vjrf.; perdoz..ls. $d. Beautiful SINGLE NAMED TULIFS, 
in mixture, per 100, 4s. Hd. YELLOW WINTER ACONITES, 
per 1000. 10s. 6<i. SNOW-WHITE GLADIOLUS, " Bride," per 
100, 2s td. BLUE APENNINE ANEMONES, per 100. 3s. 6d. 
CROWN IMPERIALS, mixed, per dozen, 2s. SNOW-WHITE 
TRUMPET LILY", " Harrisi," per dozen, 5s. 6rf. 

All sent carriage paid on receipt of remittance. 
BARR akd SON, 12, King Street, Covent Garden, London. 

A complete CATALOGUE 
of all wants for the gardeD, 
including NOVELTIES and 
SPECIALTIES for 1804, of 
sterling worth, will be posted 
free. All Exhibitors and 
Growers should see this List, 
which contains the best at 
moderate prices. 
STRAWBERRIES, including 

new "ROYAL SOVEREIGN," can still be 



LAXTONS' 
SEEDS. 



T AXTONS' 

-I— J their grand 

supplied in large or small quantities. 



LAXTON BROTHERS, -"SmSST""* 



For PLEASURE and PROFIT. 



FRUIT. 
ROSE 



Nothing so Profitable 

and Easy to Grow. 
80 ACHES IN STOCK. 



Hundreds of 

Thousands. 

Bushes in variety. Packing and Carriage Free for Cash 
with Order. 8s. per dozen, 60s. per 100. 

All other Nursery Stock Carriage Forward. 

Roses in Pots from 15a. per doz. 

Ornamental Trees, 91 Acres. 

4 Acres of Glass. 

CLEMATIS (80,000), from 15«. per dozen. 

N.B. — Single Plants are sold at slightly increased prices. 



SEEDS. 



The Best procurable. 

Lists Free. 



GENERAL CATALOGUE 

(over 140 pages) of Nursery Stock, artistically produced, 

containing some hundreds of illustrations, and full of 

valuable information, sent FREE. 

RICHARD SMITH & CO., WORCESTER. 



To NurserymeD, Builders, LocalBoards, Vestries, &c 

AND OTHERS WHO INTEND 
PLANTING TREES and'SHRUBS THIS SEASON. 

ROBERT NEAL, The Nurseries, Trinity 
Road, Wandsworth, S.W., begs to offer an extensive 
stock of FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUBS, 
ROSES, GRAPE VINES, FRUIT TREES, CLIMBING 
PLANTS, &c, which being grown in the neighbourhood of 
London are especially suitable for Town Planting. Also a large 
stock of extra fine SEAKALE and RHUBARB, for forcing. 
CATALOGUES free on application. 

FERNS ! FERNS ! ! and DECORATIVE 
PLANTS.— Trade Ferns, in 2£ inch pots. Stove and 
Greenhouse, 30 best selling sorts, 12s. per 100 ; Stores, 6s. per 
100 ; large ditto, in 48's, 10 best selling sorts, 6s. per dozen. 
Adiantum cuneatum, in 48's, for cutting (value in fronds), 6s. 
and 8s. per dozen; ditto, for making large plants quickly 
(bushy), 16s. and 20s. per 100. Aralias, Grevilleas, Solanums, 
Cyperus, in 48's, Gs. per dozen. Ficus, Palms, Dractenas, Eiica 
hyemalis, and Cyclamen, Is. each. Best (Trade) Value, packed 
free, Cash with Order.— J. SMITH, London Fern Nurseries, 
Loughborough Junction. London, S.W. 

Chrysanthemums. — Chrysanthemums. 

TO MARKET GROWERS and OTHERS.— 
The four best kinds for Market : President Hyde, best 
yellow; Florence Percy, best white; Source d'Or, best bronze, 
the prevailing colour; Cannell's Elsie, best cream. My 
salesmen have repeatedly returned me as much again per box 
for the latter two sorts over all others. Splendid strong 
Cuttings, 2s. 6d. per 100, by Parcel Post. Also the following, 
at very low prices : — Lord Cannirjg, splendid late white ; 
Lacroix, Molyneux, Sunflower, Rocher, Florence Davis, Eyns- 
ford White. Beauty of Exmouth, and a host of others. Strong 
cuttings, true to name. — W. CONNELLY, Lyme Regis. 

BEGONIAS A SPECIALTY. — Awarded 
Seven Gold Medals. Gold Cup, and only Gold Medals for 
Begonias at the I ternational Horticultural Exhibition. Seed 
saved from Pri/.e Plants. Choicest mixed, Single or Double 
varieties. Is., 2$ dd., and 5s. per packet. Collections (Seed), 
Single, Twelve named varieties, separate, 5s. 6d. • Six ditto, 
3s. Tubers, named singles, from 18?. to 60s. per dozen ; 
Choicest Seedlings, 4s, to uls. per dozen; Bedding, choicest, 
3s. to 9s. per do? en; Choicest named Doubles, from 18s. per 
dozen; Choicest Seedlings, 12s. to 30s. per dozen; Choicest 
mixed, for bedding, 9s. to 18s. per dozen. Catalogues gratis. 

JOHN LAING and SONS, Begonia Growers, &c, Forest 
Hill, London, S.E. 

TO MA RKET G ROWERS. 

Two of the BEST PEAS for MARKET GARDEN purposes are 

PRIDE OF THE MARKET, 

GLADIATOR. 
The former we can recommend as a substitute for Stratagem. 
It is a cheaper and better Pea, and cannot be distinguished 
from Stratagem when growing. 

Samples and prices from — 

CHARLES SHARPE & CO., Sleaford. 

FRUIT TREES. 

To MARKET and PRIVATE GROWERS. 

We hold aD extensive Stock of all kinds of the above, 

in first-rate quality and at reasonable prices. 

Intending Planters would do well to send for Descriptive 

Catalogue free on application. 

& SONS, 

MIDDLESEX. 



s. 



S P O O N E R 

HOUNSLOW NURSERIES. 




C 1 



iTJTBUSH'S MILL- 
track MUSHROOM SPAWN. 
— Everyone can readily grow Mush- 
rooms, and by using this Spawn will 
ensure success. All growers apeak in 
high praise of the quality. Numerous 
Testimonials. NoDe genuine unless 
in sealed packages, and printed cul- 
tural directions enclosed with our 
« signature attached. 

Price, 6s. per bushel, Is. extra for 
[package; or, Is. per cake, free per 
Parcel Post. 

WM. CUTBUSH & SON, Nurserymen and Seed Merchants, 
Highgate Nurseries, London, N., and Barnet, Herts. 



32 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januabt 13, 1894. 



COVERT PLA NTS-COV ERT PLANTS. 

EVERGREEN' PRIVETS, 2 to 3 feet, at 21s. per 1005. 
SSOWBERRY, 3 to 4 feet, at 30s. per 1000. 
GORSE. 1 to 2 feet, at 15s. per 1000. 
SCARLET DOGWOOD, 2 to 3 feet, at 15s. per 100. 
All stout transplanted plants. 



JOHN PERKINS & SON, 

52, MARKET SQUARE, NORTHAMPTON. 



NOTHING 
NOTHING 



is too small. 



is too much trouble. 



The Trade Supplied. 

E. D. SSUTTLEWOSTB # CO, Ltd., 

(Albert Nurseries) 

PECKHAM RYE, LONDON, 8E„ 
and FLEET, HANT8. 



BEST LATE APPLE. 

WE CAN STRONGLY RECOMMEND OUR NEW APPLE 
"NEWTON WONDER," 

as the best late Apple in cultivation; fruit keeps till June ; 

large, well-coloured, perfect form, splendid cooking quattty; 

tree a vigorous grower, free from canker, and very productive. 

Awarded First-class Certificate, R.H.S., Dec. 1887. 

Now Widely Known. Descriptive Catalogue of Fruits 
on Application. 

J. R. PEARSON & SONS, CMlwell Nurseries, Notts. 



SPECIAL CULTURE OF 



FRUIT TREES AND ROSES. 

A LARGE AND SELECT STOCK IS NOW 
OFFERED FOR SALE. 
The Illustrated and Desoriptive Catalogue of 
Fruits, post-free, 3d. 

The Desoriptive Catalogue of Roses, post-free. 



THOMAS RIVERS & SON, 

THE NURSERIES, 

SAWBRIDGE WORTH, HERTS. 

J. DAVIES & SON 

Have a fine Stock of the Following to Offer,— 

SWEET-SCENTED RHODODENDRONS, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6rf. 
each; their new Dwarf varietiea, 2s., 3s., and 5s. each, all 
covered with buds; bIbo 20,000 choice named hardy kinds, 
bushy, and well-budded, cheap by the 100, to clear ground. 

AZALEA MOLLIS Seedlings in various colours, 12 to 20 
buds, 9s. per dozen, 60s. per 100; best named mollis. Ghent, 
and other varieties, well-budded, 24s. perdozen, splendid plants 

DAPHNE INDICA RUBRA, in Flower and Bud, Is. Qd., 2s, , 
and 2s. Qd. each. 

LILIUM AURATUM. 30,000 home-grown, sound flowering 
bulbs, at 3s., 6s., and 9s. per dozen, leas per 100. 

CATALOGUE of General Stock free on application. 
BROOK LANE NURSERY, ORMSKIRK, LANCASHIRE. 

GOLD MEDAL 
CHRYS ANTHE MUMS. 

My Collection has been awarded this season two Gold 
Medals, two Silver Gilt, one Silver, and one Bronze, the 
highest award in each cose. The National Chrysanthemum 
Society's Gold Medal being the only one ever awarded to a 
Collection of Cut Blooms. 

My Stock is in fine condition, and all who are interested in 
Chrysanthemums ahould secure a copy of my new, Descriptive, 
and Illustrated Catalogue, the most useful and complete ever 
published, which contains Cultural Articles by Mr. Charles E. 
Shea, and Mr. H. Shoesmith ; also Cultural Notes, by Mr. E. 
Beckett. Post-free, 7 stamps. 

H. J. JONES, 

Ryecroft Nursery, Hither Green, Lewlsnam, S.E 



Plants Shipped to all Farts. 

W'ATSON and SCULL, 90, Lower Thames 
Street, London, E.C., give special attention to the 
receptien and forwarding of Plants and Botanical Specimens 
to and from all parts of the World. Be particular, and have 
them consigned to our Care, and save Expense and Delay. 

Dealers in Virgin Cork, Raffia, Bamboo Canes, Garden 
Sticks. Palm Seeds. &c. 

OOSES IN POTS. —Extra strong plants 

JLV established in 8-inch pots, ready for immediate forcing, 
leading H. P. and Tea- scented varieties, 24s., 30s., and 4?s. 
per dozen. Cheaper by the 100. Climbing kinds for conserva- 
tories. &c , 30s. and 42s. per dozen. 

WM. PAUL & SON, Paul's Nursery, Wallham Cross, Herts. 



K""»" in mi minimum i i iiiiiiiiiiiniiiiigj 

| HARDILY-GROWN, ,..•'' = 

I Thoroughly Transplanted .••'' V • " 

(Forest, Fruit ^ I 

E AND ALL OTHER .••''._ V? .-•''' I 

I TREES, yVfr^ I 

| PL ANTS/^-l/ STOCKS I 

&c "" Cjy ARE Q UITE I 

^y"' UNEQUALLED. = 



w y$- y Nurseries \ 
[ "O , ••"' 4SO Acres. 1 

I ...•■' CATALOGUES FREE on Application. \ 
@.HiuiiHimumitiiiimiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuuinriiHiiiiiiiiiiiiuuiS 



IfARLY TOMATO PLANTS.— Hackwood 
■^ Park Improved, most reliable for early planting. 2s. Gd. 
per dozen; Ham Green Favourite and Sutton's Perfection, 
for succession, 2s. per dozen, strong sturdy plants, carefully 
packed, carriage free for cash with order. 

HEAD GARDENER, Dashwood, Gravesend, Kent. 

kA 000 GERANIUM CUTTINGS.— 

UU^UVlf F. V. Raspail. 2s. 6d. per 100, £1 per 1000. 
40.000 CHRYSANTHEMUM CUTTINGS, Mrs. N. Davies 
Princess Teck, Cullingfordii, Mrs. H. Cannell, Is. 6rf. per 100, 
10s. per 1000; Stools of all above, 2s. per dozen. 2000 CAR- 
NATIONS in 60-pots. Mrs. F. Watts, Germania, Mrs. R. Hole, 
4s. 6<t per dozen, 25s. per 100; Souvenir de !a Malmaison, 
deep pink, Rothschild's variety, strong stuff, 6s. per dozen, 
40s. per 100. Cash with Order. 

JAMES GREEN, Reliance Nurseries, March. 

TO EXHIBITORS, and those who require 
the best and first-class GARDEN SEEDS. 
CAULIFLOWER, Corinium, most valuable early variety, per 

packet. Is. Gd. 
CARROT, Prizetaker, per oz., 8d. 

,, New Red Intermediate, per oz., 6d. 
CELERY, Jefferies' Cirencester Red Champion, the best in 
cultivation, peroz., Is. 
,, Jefferies* Cirencester White Champion, very superior, 
per oz., Is. 
LEEK. Prizetaker, the finest grown, per packet, Is. 
LETTUCE, Siddington Cos, large, self-folding, fine flavour, 

per packet, 6d and Is, 
ONION, Ailsa Craig, per packet, Is. 6<2. and 2s. id. 
,, Iuwood Favourite, per packet, Is. 
,, Rousham Park, superior stock, per oz., Is. 
For all the latest and best novelties in VEGETABLE and 
FLOWER SEEDS, see our CATALOGUE, illustrated through- 
out with (54 pages, post-free to applicants. 
Seeds Carriage Free. 
JNO. JEFFERIES AND SON, Seed Merchants, Cirencester, 

Covent Garden Marltet. 
pHAS. E. COOPER, Wholesale Florist and 
\J Com.misfion Salesman, 33, Russell Street, Covent 
Garden, and 370. New Flower Market, W.C., is open to receive 
consignments of choice Cut Flowers, Ferns, Foliage, &c. Also 
the Provincial Trade supplied at market prices. For terms 
and further particulars, apply as above. Price List on applica- 
tion. Telegrams, " Lapageria, Lon J on." Bankers, The 
National Bank, Limited, Charing Cross Branch. 



NOW READY. 




'E'S ILLUSTRATED 

1894 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

Post-free on application to 

CHARLES SHARPE & CO., 

SEED FAEMERS AND MERCHANTS, SLEAFORD. 




OWEN'S NEW CHRYSANTHEMUMS 

Awarded 5 Medals and 50 First-olass Certificates for New Varieties by the National, 
Royal Horticultural, and other Chrysanthemum Societies, 1893. 

SPECIAL ILLUSTRATED and DESCRIPTIVE LI3T OF LATEST 

CERTIFICATED NOVELTIES for 1894 NOW READY. 

INCURVED.— Lord Rosebery, 5/- ; Mrs. John 

Gardener, 5/-; Robert Petfield, 7/6: and Sir Titus, 3/6. 

ANEMONE.— John Runyan, Queen Elizabeth, 

Sir Walter Raleigh, and W. W. Aslor, 3/6 each. 



JAPANESE. — Rride of Maidenhead, James 

Myers, Mrs. P. Blair, Miss Alice Wilson, Ri< hard Dean, 
Richard Jones, Rose Wynne, Thomas Wilkins, W. H. 
Fowler, and Wilfred Marshall. 5/- each. 



R. 



ORDERS ROOKED and EXECUTED IN ROTATION in MARCS. 

OWEN, Floral Nursery, MAIDENHEAD. 



NOW READY, Crown 8vo, Price Is ; post-free, Is. 3d. 

THE HORTICULTURAL DIRECTORY for 1894. 

THIRTY-FIFTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION. 

CONTENTS.— Calendar, Postal, and other Tables, with Miscellaneous Information useful to Gardeners.— Garden Recipes.— 
Certificates Awarded by the Royal Horticultural Society from October 1892, to September 1893.— London Seedsmen and Florists. 
— Nurserymen, Seedsmen, and Florists in the Metropolitan Postal District.— County List of the Nurserymen, Seedsmen, find 
FIon'HtH in England and Wales.— Ditto, ditto, in Scotland.— Ditto, ditto, in Ireland.— Ditto, ditto, in the Channel Islands.— 
County List of the Seats of the Nobility and Gentry in Great Britain, Ireland, and the Channel Islands, with their Post Towns.— 
Alphabetical List of the Nurserymen, Seedsmen, and Florists in Great Britain and Ireland.— Alphabetical List of the Seats in 
Great Britain and Ireland, with their Railway Stations.— Alphabetical List of the Gardeners, and their Full Addresses, in Great 
Britain and Ireland.— Commission Agents and Salesmen at Covent Garden Market, London. — Landscape Gardeners. — Horti- 
cultural Builders, Engineers, &c. — Botanical, Horticultural, and Floral Societies in Great Britain and Ireland. — The Principal 
Nurserymen, Seedsmen, and Florists on the Continent, in America, and the Colonies. — Botanical Gardens and Public Parka in 
the British Empire.— Public Parks in London, with their Superintendents. 

"JOURNAL OF HORTICULTURE" OFFICE, 171, FLEET STREET, LONDON, E.C. 



Januaby 13, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



33 



DICKSON & ROBINSON'S 

DESCRIPTIVE PRICED CATALOGUE OF 

GARDEN SEEDS 

IS NOW BEADY, AND WILL BE SENT, POST FREE, ON APPLICATION. 



12, OLD MILLGATE, MANCHESTER. 

Telegraphic Address :— " PURITY, MANCHESTER." 



c 



THOMAS METHYEN & SONS 

(By Royal Warrant Nurserymen and Seedsmen to the Queen), 



BEG TO INTIMATE THAT THELR DESCRIPTIVE PRICED 



CATALOGUE OF GARDEN AND FLOWER SEEDS, 

IMPLEMENTS, GLADIOLI, &c, FOR 1894, 

Is NOW READY, and may be had FREE on application. 



East Lothian Intermediate Stock (Methven's Choice Strain), 

White, Purple, Soarlet, Crimson, and Snow-white, Wall-leaved. In Packets, Is., 2s. Qd., and 
5s. eaoh colour. 

Methven's June Broccoli. In Sealed Packets only, per pkt., Is. 6d. 



SEED WAREHOUSES:— 

15, PRINCES STREET, and NURSERY GATE, LEITH WALK, EDINBURGH. 



HOICE GERMAN 

FLOWER and VEGETABLE SEEDS. 

CATALOGUES free on application. 

FRED. R03MER, Seed Grower. Quedlinburg, Germany. 

Seakale, Peach Trees, Rhubarb, and Asparagus. 

BAGLEY'S noted SEAKALE for Sale; also 
two, three, and four-year old PEACH TREES, in pots ; 
two, three, and four-year old Victoria and Champagne RHU- 
BARB ; and one-year-old ASPARAGUS. For Prices apply to 
WM. BAGLEY, Millshot Farm, Fulham, S.W. 

NATIVE SCOTCH FIR, &c— Fine stook, 18 
to 24 inches, and 2 to 3 feet. Also, NATIVE LARCH, 2 
to 3, and 3 to 4 feet. ASH, 3 to 4, and 4 to 5 feet. BEECH. 
2 to 3 feet and 3 to 4 feet. POPLAR, 3 to 4, and 4 to 5 feet. 
Whinham's Industry GOOSEBERRY, per 100 or 1000. 
THOMAS MATHESON, Nurseries, Morpeth. 

CHEAP OFFER— HYACINTHS, Red, Pink, 
Blue, and Yellow. 5s. per 100. 
CROCUS, Mixed, 7s. %d. per I0C0. 
TULIPS, late B ; zarres, 10s. per 1000. 
LILIUM LANCIFOLIUM RUBRUM, 15s. per 100. 

,, UMBELLATUM, 6s. per 100. 
LILIES OF THE VALLEY, strong crowns, ISs. per 1000. 
BEGONIAS, Prize, single, in five colours, 2s. 6rf. per doz., 18s. 
per 100; double, mixed, 5s. per doz. 
,, Dutch, mixed. 12s. %d. per 100. 
GLADIOLUS, Prize French Hybrids, the finest mixed colours 
grown, 10s. per 100. Samples of all above sent free. 
J. D. HAMON, Flower Salesman and Bulb Importer, Jamaica 
Row, Birmingham. 

NEW CHRYSANTHEMUM for 1894. 
" ROYAL WINDSOR." 

A Japanese variety, of it very dwarf and robust habit, the 
plants being well furnished with exceptionally large dark 
green foliage of an extraordinary texture. The flowers are 
large, and of a good form and substance ; when expanding, 
they are of a beautiful rosy chestnut and gold, opening out 
until the outer petals become a light primrose colour, with a 
centre of a pleasing deep orange-yellow, shaded with bronze. 
Acknowledged by all who have seen it to be a gem. 

Plants are now ready for distribution. To be had of all the 
leading Chrysanthemum growers, price 5s. eaoh, three for 
10s. fcrf., six for 21s. 

Also, a fin,e stock of the leading varieties now ready for 
sending out. 

JOHN SMITH, F.N.C.S., St. Leonard's Road Nursery, 
Windsor, Berks. 

IF AST LOTHIAN STOCKS.— Now is the time 
li to Sow FORBES' CELEBRATED STRAIN, in six 
distinct sorts, viz. : Crimson, Purple, Scarlet, White, Crimson- 
Wallflower-leaved, and White Wallflower-leaved, each sort, 
Is., 2s. Gd. t and 5s. per packet. Catalogues free. 

JOHN FORBES, Nurseryman, Hawick, Scotland. 



LUCIEN LINDENS WORKS ON HORTICULTURE, 

PUBLISHED IN THE FRENCH LANGUAGE. 

LESORCHIDEES EXOTIQUES ET LEUR CULTURE EN EUROPE. La culture Beige ddvoilde ! Traite complet iconsaore 

a, la culture des principals merveilles de la Flore tropicale, 800 pages de texte, grand in 8°, nombreuses gravures dans et hors texte, sera mis 
en vente en Mars prochain. 20s. (25 francs) l'exemplaire. 

L'lLLUSTRATION HORTICOLE. Transformed a partir de 1894, en un nonvean Journal populaire de 1' horticulture 

dans toutes ses branches, paraissant le 15 et le 30 de chaque mois. Journal illustre de tons les progres horticoles, le plus complet et le 
meilleur marche de tons ceux publics en langue Francaise, 24 numeros par an, 24 magnifiques planches colorizes, grand in 8' , 384 pages de 
texte, nombreuses gravures. 12s. (15 francs), par an, pour toute l'union postale. 

LE JOURNAL DES ORCHIDEES. Guide pratique de culture paraissant le l er et le 15 de chaque mois. _ 16 pages 

de texte par numero, gravures', publie avec la collaboration de 50 Orchidophiles de tous les pays. 8s. (10 francs) par an pour toute l'union postale. 

LA LINDENIA. Iconographie des Orchiddes ouvrage dtjdie" au grand Botaniste Explorateur J. Linden. 4 grandes 

planches admirables executes par numero, parait tous les mois. Editions separees en langue francaise et en anglais. Prix sur demande. 

" The beauty and accuracv of the plates in the Lindmia is remarked by all who are qualified to give an I •' Lindeniais one of the books which are indispensable to every serious student 

opinion, ana I note too that' the crimson and purple colours, which it is so difficult to give in a picture, of Orchids, and will naturally find aplace in all botanical and Horticultural iiDranes; 

come out to the life in the Lindenia, and what is of equal importance they do not fade as they do in most I the beauty of the illustrations and their fidelity to Nature commend it to all lovers 

other publications which give coloured plates of Orchids."— James O'Brien, Oct. 2, 1893. I of handsome books."- Garden and Forest, Doc. 20, 1893. 

ON SOTJSCRIT AUX BUREAUX: 100, RUE BELLIARD, BRUXELLES. 



HEATING ! HEATING !! HEATING !! ! 

THE THAMES BANK IRON COMPANY 

Undertake the complete erection of HEATING APPARATUS for GREENHOUSES, OFFICES, PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &c. Have the 
largest stock of BOILERS, PIPES, and CONNECTIONS in the Trade to select from, and invite inspection of same. 

BOILERS of the latest and most approved class, including the 

Patent HORIZONTAL TUBULAR, with WATER BARS; CAST-IRON SADDLE, with WATERWAY-END, &e. ; 

VENTILATING GEAR AND VALVES. 

AWARDED THE ONLY COLD MEDAL & INTERNATIONAL HORTICULTURAL FXHIBITION. 1892, „ HOT-WATER APPLIANC ES, 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, Is. PRICE LIST FREE. 
UPPER GROUND STREET, BLACKFRIARS, ^ O N P <5 N , S.E. 

Telegraphic Address-" HOT- WATER, London." Telephone No. 4763. t . i » 



34 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januaby13, 1894. 



GENUINE 




b E E D b. 



JAMES VEITCH & SONS, 

ROYAL EXOTIC NURSERY, CHELSEA, S.W. 




4 



wma 



\ 



^W^^' 




"ivsaj 






NEW MELON— FROCMORE SEEDLING. 

An exceedingly fine Melon, raised by Mr. Owen Thomas, Royal Gardens, Frogmore. The 
fruit is of medium si2e, having white flesh of unusual thickness, very juicy and exceedingly 
ewe€t ; the rind is thin and delicately netted, and pure yellow. 
Per Packet, 2a. 6d. 

CAULIFLOWER, 
VEITCHS' EARLY FORCINC. 

Awarded a First-class Certificate, Royal Horticultural 
Society. Highly recommended for forcing purposes. Very 
compact pure white heads of email medium size. 

Per Packet, Is. 6d. and 23. 6d. 

CARROT- VEITCHS' MATCHLESS. 

A f-plendid strain of the Intermediate type, but heavier 

cropping, earlier, and far superior io quality and shape to the 

old variety. The roots are of medium size, symmetrical form, 

and handsome appearance, with skin of a glowing scarkt<olour. 

Per Ounce, Is. 

CELERY— VEITCHS' EARLY ROSE. 

A very attractive variety, the stem3 solid and crisp, and of a 
fine Walnut flavour. p er packet, lB.'_6d. 

BORECOLE -VEITCHS' LATE-CURLED. 

An excellent variety, of dwarf habit, and beautifully curled. 

Per Ounce, Is. 

CUCUMBER— VEITCHS' PERFECTION. 

A distinct and .superior variety, of robust constitution, and 
very prolific. p er Packet, 2b. 6d. 

LETTUCE— VEITCHS' PERFECT CEM. 

Very distinct and compact growing kind. Crisp find tender, 
and withstanding drought bi-tter than any other kind. 

Per Packet, Is. 6d. 

NEW PEA— VEITCHS' MAIN CROP. 

A decided acquisition to the mid-season kinds, Very 
br .nching in habit, and an abundant cropper. Height 3 feet. 

Per Packet, 2a. 6d, 




ifSM^, 




BRUSSELS SPROUTS— VEITCHS' 

EXHIBITION. 

A remarkably distinct and eirly variety, perfectly hardy, 
nnd very productive. The fprouts are firm and tolid, remurk- 
nbly tender, and of delicate flavour. 

Per Packet, is. 6d. 



BROCCOLI— VEITCHS' MAIN CROP. 

A mngnificent variety of robust, hardy constitution and compact growth, succeeding 
Veitch's Spring White, large, solid, snow-white, well-protected heads, of finest quality. The 
best variety for main crop. 

Per Packet, is. 6d. 

NEW DWARF FRENCH BEAN, 
SMYTHE'S HYBRID. 

Awarded Certificate of Merit, Royal Horticultural Society, 
Augu»t5, 1891. A new and exceedingly productive variety. 
Very early and of compact growth, bearing an abundance of 
medium-sized pods, which are very delicate in flavour when 
cooked. Per Pint, Is 6d. 

SCARLET RUNNER BEANS, 
VEITCHS' MAMMOTH. 

A carefully selected strain. Very prolific, and of excellent 
quality. p er Q Ua rt, 2s. 6d. 

BEET— VEITCHS' SELECTED RED. 

A very handsome variety, of good colour, and symmetrical 
Per Ounce, Is. 6d. 

CABBAGE— VEITCHS' EARLIEST OF ALL 

An ex eedingly early new variety, f-p'einlly adapted for 
spring sowing, and coming into use quicker than any other sort. 

Per Packet, Is. 

PARSLEY, VEITCHS' SPLENDID CURLED. 

A most beautifu'ly curled variety, very decorative, and 
extremely hardy. p er Ounce, IB. 

LETTUCE, VEITCHS' SUPERB WHITE COS 

A splendid summer Lettuce, of immense size, forming close 
compuut hearts. p er p ac ket, la. 6d. 



Seeds Carriage Free, except parcels of Peas and Beans under 10*'. in value. 

VEITCH'S COLLECTIONS of VEGETABLE SEEDS, 13s. 6d., 21s , 31s. 6d., 42s., 63s., and 105s. 

VEITCH'S MUSHROOM SPAWN, always fresh and of superior quality, per bushel, 5s. 

For full particulars of ahoxc anil other nineties of Choice VEGETABLE SEEDS see SEED CATALOGUE for 1891, forwarded gratis and pott free on application, 

ROYAL EXOTIC NURSERY, KING'S ROAD, CHELSEA, LONDON, S.W. 



Jamcahy 13, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



35 




SPRING 



CATALOGUE 



FOR 1894, 



Beautifully Illustrated with Five Coloured Plates (illus- 
trating CucuaiBEKS, Onions. Beans. Celery", Primulas, 
Gloxinias. Silenes, Antirrhinums. Convolvulus, and 
Chrysanthemums), and hundreds of Engravings. Also 
containing complete Cultural Instructions, an Article on 
" Beautiful Borders," List of Novelties, &c, &c. 

NOW BEADY, POST FREE, Is., 

which may be deducted off subsequent Orders. 

Abridged Edition, ready on Feb. 1, Gratis and Post Free. 

Seedsmen by Royal Warrants, 

WORDSLEY, STOURBRIDGE- 



CHARL ES SHARPE & CO. 

Seed Growers — Seed Merchants 

Cultivateurs — Marchands Grainiers 

Samenculture — SamenhandluiLg. 



TRADE CATALOGUES 

IN 

ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN. 

SLEAFORD, ENGLAND 

NOW BEADY. — NOW BEADY. 

DANIELS' 

ILLUSTRATED GUIDE and 

SEED CATALOGUE 

For AMATEUR GARDENERS, 

Spring, 1894. 

Containing 132 pages, imperial size, of besutif ully illustrated 
letterpress, three superb coloured plates, a Belect list of 
Choice Kitchen Garden and Flower Seeds, Seed Potatos, 
Fruit Trees, Roses, Clematises, Carnations, and other florists' 
flowers, with copious notes on cultivation, and a list of 
the best novelties of the season. The whole enclosed in 
a charmingly priated coloured wrapper. This will be found 
by far the best and most complete Garden Catalogue yet 
published, and should certainly be in the hands of all who are 
interested in horticulture, 

PRICE IB., POST FREE. 

The Shilling to be deducted from first order of 5s. or upwards. 

DANIELS BROS., 

ROYAL NORFOLK SEED ESTABLISHMENT, 

NORWICH. 

FRUIT TREES, 
ROSES in POTS, 

VINES, 

OF ALL THE FINEST VARIETIES, 
NEW AND OLD. 



SUTTON'S 

AMATEUR'S GUIDE 

IN HORTICULTURE 

FOR 1894. 

CONTAINS FULL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

ALL THE BEST 

VEGETABLES -> FLOWERS, 

WITH COMPLETE PRICE LISTS OF 

EVERY SEED M the GARDEN. 

It is Illustrated with 

LIFE-LIKE PICTURES, PHOTOS, 

CHROMOS, and ENGRAVINGS 

OF THE LEiDING 

VEGETA BLES AND F LOWERS. 

The Field says : — " Messrs. Sutton have 
excelled themselves in this publication." 

The Morning Post says : — " It is laden with 
practical information of the highest value." 

Price Is,, post-free; Gratis to Customers, 
from — 

SUTTON & SONS, 

The Queen's Seedsmen, BEADING. 



ANTHONY WATERER respectfully invites 
from intending Planters an inspection of the following 
well-grown and finely-rooted EVERGREENS :— 
ABIES DOUGLASII GLAUCA, 5, 6, 7, and 8 feet. 
, HOOKERIANA (Pattoniana). 4, 5, and 6 feet. 
PUNGENS GLAUCA ((Colorado Blue Spruce), 
ARGENTEA ( 3, 4, 5, and 6 feet. 
CHORUS ATLANTICA GLAUCA, 4, 5, 6, and 7 feet. 
CEDARS OF LEBANON, 5, 6. 7. 8 to 10 feet. 
GOLDEN CHINESE JUNIPER, 4. 5, 6, 8. and 10 feet. 
GOLDEN YEWS, Seedlings, 4, 5, 6, and 7 feet. 
PICEA C0NC0L0 £ I0LACEA [ 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 feet. 

" LASIOCARPA I R 6 t0 8 feet 
" MAGNIFICA f 6> b> t0 8 teCt - 

PINU LA A RKIO IACA \ 3 ' 4 ' 5 ' «• t0 8 £e6t - 
THUIOPSIS BOREALIS I B to 8 f eet 
DOLABRATA f " l ° " IeeI ' 
HOLLIES, GREEN, Common, up to 10 and 12 feet. 
HODGINS ) 

LAURIFOLIA > up to 10 feet. 
MYRTIFOLIA ) 
GOLDEN QUEEN. 
SILVER QUEEN. 
,, WATERER'S, and many other variegated kinds, 

6 to 10 feet. 
PERRY'S WEEPING) with straight Btems and 
GOLDEN WEEPING j fine heads. 

Knap Hill Nursery, Woking, Surrey. 



HUGH LOW & CO., 

BUSH HILL NURSERY, 
ENFIELD. 



THE BEST 




SEEDS 

AT MOST MODERATE PRICES. 

SEED POTATOS, 
GARDEN TOOLS, & SUNDRIES. 

Descriptive Catalogue No. 432, Post Free 

on Application. 

Delivered Free by Rail or Parcel Post. 

DICKSONSChIster 




THE 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 13, 1894. 



ALLOTMENTS. 
~VTOW that the Parish Councils Bill seems to 
-*- ' be in a fair way of becoming law, there are 
doubtless many persons in the country who will 
be greatly interested in this very important 
matter. That there will be much opposition to 
taking land for this purpose those who reside in the 
country know full well, although landlords are at 
the present time not paying their way. As a proof 
of this, I will give an instance of what occurred 
some time ago. A farmer was complaining that 
his land did not pay, so I offered to take a field 
off his hands, and to pay him double the rent that 
he was paying, in addition to all other expenses, 
as I was desirous of making it into garden-plots 
for the school children. I went to the school 
managers and explained my plans, told them I 
would be responsible for the rent, and would let 
the children have their plots free, besides giving 
them instruction how to cultivate, sow, and 
plant, into the bargain. None of the managers 
(" four of whom, it must be understood, were 
farmers ") would listen to this proposal, as they 
said if the children were thus instructed, they 
would be telling them how to farm instead of 
doing what they were told. Nothing daunted 
by this, I went to the landlord and asked him, 
but he, like the farmers, was averse to letting 
the land, though I offered him double the rent 
he was receiving, and twelve months in advance. 
If all the landed proprietors are of the same 
disposition as those alluded to, there is but a 
poor prospect of the cottagers in some dis- 
tricts obtaining allotments for a long time 
to come. The County Council have spent, 
and are spending in some counties, a liberal 
amount of money on instructing people how to 
grow fruit and vegetables ; but what is the use 
of affording them this information unless it can 
be put in practice ? I know of several places 
where horticultural lectures have been given to 
audiences not one of whom cultivates a yard of 
ground. If this be so, what is the use of 
spending money on such instruction ? Better 
by far provide the people with the allotments 
first, and afterwards instruot them how they 
should be cultivated, than to spend money on 
lecturing to those who, in all probability, will 
never be able to get any ground to cultivate. 
Any one residing in districts where there are 
well-kept cottage gardens, can see at a glance 
the difference in the attention given to them 
than to the land adjoining, which is cultivated 
by a farmer. 

But for these allotments to be a real gain to 
the cultivator there must be a system established, 
whereby the produce can be conveyed to the large 
centres of consumption at a much cheaper rate 



36 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 13, 1894. 



than is now the case for small quantities. In 
some parts of Sussex where there are large 
chicken farms, special arrangements are made 
with the railway companies for taking them at a 
low rate by passenger train, and I am told that 
this plan answers well. In some instances as many 
as 11 tons o dead chickens have left one station in a 
week, and this is carried on throughout the year. The 
plan adopted is this : a person goes round three times 
each week with a van to collect ; the chicken fat- 
teuers have their lots ready, and those that reside 
some distance from the main road take them to con- 
venient places where the van passes by for the col- 
lector to pick up. Each package is properly labelled, 
having the address on to whom it is consigned, 
and by whom sent. These lots are taken to the station 
and sent to London and other large towns at the 
ton rate ; and the persons sending them usually get 
their money returned by the next post, the cost of 
the whole transaction amounting to about 2.Ji. per 
head. The number of chickens that some persons 
in Sussex fatten for the market is astonishing, the 
larger dealers having from SOOO to 5000 birds in 
their possession at one time. Now, if some such 
system as this could be established whereby allot- 
ment-holders could get the produce of the land to 
the large centres of consumption, their holdings 
would be a source of profit to themselves and a 
benefit to the dwellers in the towns. This is a 
subject well worthy the consideration of those who 
are about to seek to be appointed as Parish Coun- 
cillors, and one that should have special interest for 
those in the rural district', for if cheap carriage 
could be arranged, there would be but little fear of 
the land going out of cultivation, or the produce of 
it declining, for it would be better cultivated, larger 
crops grown, and the entire community benefited. 
A Rural Dweller. 



Orchid Notes and Gleanings. 



LJELIA ALBIDA VAll. STOBARTIANA. 

This is one of the prettiest forms of L. albida. and 
a fine inflorescence of it from Reginald Young, Esq., 
Sefton Park, Liverpool, displays it at its best. The 
spike has fifteen pretty cream-coloured flowers, the 
lip of a rose-purple colour, and the other segments 
tinged with the same hue, but in lesser degree. As 
a winter-flowering plant it is very desirable. A fine 
flower of L. autumnalis, which expands to a width of 
6 inches, came at the tame time. 

Cypbipedidm Boxalli Varieties. 
Flowers of the ordinary C. Boxalli, and of his 
darkest variety, are sent by K?ginald Young, Esq., 
Liverpool, to show the wide range of variation 
and also the excellence of hia form of the plant, the 
colour being very dark, the upper sepal almost black, 
with a slight margin of green, purple, and white. 
It is a handsome form, and one of the best of this 
showy and free-growing species. 

OdONTOOLOSSUM CB1N1TOM. 

This remarkable specie?, discovered by Rofzl in 
eastern New Granada, and afterwards found by 
Wallis in the same locality, first flowered under culti- 
vation in the collection of Joseph Broome, Esq., 
Sunny Hill, Llandudno, when he resided at Man- 
chester, in 1882, and it was described in the Gardeners' 
Chronicle of that year. It has again flowered with 
Mr. Broome, who says, "I possess three plants, and 
the one I sent you the spike of is, I believe, the 
plant from which the original spike was taken and 
described by Professor Reichenbach. Two plants 
have grown vigorously, considering the small bits 
they were to start with." It was with pleasure that 
I recognised the pretty little plant which the careful 
culture of Mr. Broome had preserved, and of which I 
had on three occasions forwarded specimens to the 
late Professor Keichenbach, all differing from each 
other in some degree, but none so pretty as the 
variety " sapphiratum," Ilchb. f., in Mr. A. H. 
Smee'a collection, and which recently appeared with 



Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., the rose-purple spots on 
the spiny labellum of which makes it very attractive. 
Whenever we get an importation of 0. crinitum we 
are sure to get great variation, and doubtless some 
Btill handsomer forms. 

Cypbipedium Poyntzianum. 
Comparable in point of beauty only with the pale- 
coloured Cypripedium Ilookerrc Bullenianum, there 
is still an attractive appearance in the quaint form 
of the flowers of this singular plant. It appeared 
among imported specimens of C. callosum in the 
collection of Reginald Young, Esq., of Sefton Park, 
Liverpool, and after whose gardener it has been 
named. It has been suggested that it is a natural 
hybrid between C. callosum and C. Hookerce. 
Two features are specially striking, viz., the length 
of the thin ovary, which is 3 inches long, and the 
horizontally extended petals, which reach nearly 
5 inches, and have a twist in the middle, which 
throw the pale lilac tips of the blades upward. 
The upper sepal is rolled forward at the margin ; 
pale green with dark green lines ; the inner halves 
of the petals green with a few chocolate spots ; 
the broader outer halves pale lilac ; the lower sepal, 
half as long as the lip, is greenisb-white ; the lip, 
which somewhat resembles that of C. superbiens, 
whitish tinged with rose at the base, and spotted 
with purple inside; the staminode green, with 
yellow margin at the sides. J. O'B. 



NOVELTIES OF 1893. 

(Continued from p 8.) 

Mb. Measures. 
In Cypripediums, the collection of K. I. 
Measures, Esq., at Cambridge Lodge, Camber- 
well, is specially rich. AmoDg the finest of the 
season hailing from there are C. insigne Ernesti, 
a clear yellow form, which, when it gets tho- 
roughly established, will be a very near approach 
to C. i. Sandene, the most valuable of Cypripe- 
diums; C. i. illustre, a most beautifully spotted 
form, and quite unique ; C. venustum Measures- 
ianum, the white and green variety, which is to 
C. venustum what C. Lawrenceanum Hyeaimm 
is to its species. Cypripedium x Ganesa (Sal- 
lierii £ , Lawrenceanum Hyeanum <J ), another 
delicately-tinted flower; other hybrids, and 
several interesting Pleurothallis, for which also 
the collection is noted, are recorded from the 
Cambridge Lodge collection. 

Messrs. Williams & Son. 

Among the new Orchids offered for the 
first time by Messrs. B. S. "Williams & Son, 
Upper Holloway, N., are the beautiful and 
floriferous Lpelio-Cattleya x Blesensis (Catt- 
leya Loddigesii <}? , Lnelia pumila Dayana $ ), 
a very free-growing hybrid of neat habit 
of growth, and flowers novel in shape and 
rich in colour; Calanthe vestita Oweniana, a 
very handsome hybrid of C. v. iuteo-oculata ; 
the fine pure white Calanthe X Mylesii, shown 
before, but Certificated last year ; Cypripedium 
x Adonis (Spioerianum magnificum x Ilarris- 
ianum superbum), C. x Cythera (Spioerianum x 
purpuratum), both distinct, but scarcely to be 
compared with the massive C. x Pitcherianum, 
Williams var., of last year. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. 

The famous Clapton firm, among hybrid 
Cypripediums, flowered several plants of their 
new C. x Pluto (Boxalli x oalophyllum), 
all of them pretty, and all dissimilar. The 
flowers are very highly polished, and dark and 
richly coloured. The C. Volonteanum gigan- 
tism of the same firm gives a really handsome 
form of a generally indifferent speoies ; and the 
pure white Stanhopea Amesiana is even more 



beautiful than the typical S. Lowii, and the same 
in its very singular structure. 

Messrs. W. L. Lewis & Co. 

The Southgate firm imported and flowered the 
new Brassia Lewisii, like a neat form of B. cau- 
data, but botanically distinct ; Odontoglossum 
Pescatorei Lewisii, with fine flowers, and a beau- 
tifulpurpledecoratedlip; and among theirhybrids 
they flowered a very pretty batch of crosses 
between Cattleya Harrisoniie and C. Warsce- 
wiczii, displaying great variation, that called 
C. x Ashtoniana having flowers like some of the 
forms of C. Mendelii, while that named C. x 
Johnstoniana has flowers without orimson on the 
lip, and resembling C. Schroderre. 

Mr. Thos. Statter, 

The proprietor of Stand Hall, Whitefield, Man- 
chester, who is always on the look-out for really 
good things, received Certificates at the Royal 
Horticultural Society in 1893 for Cypripedium x 
Statterianum (Spioerianum magnificum 9 , vex- 
illarium superbum (J), a very handsome and 
distinct thing; C. x Edwardii (superbiens <J . 
Fairrieanum ^ ) ; and C. x Fairrieano-Law- 
renceanum, both good, as hybrids of C. Fairrie- 
anum always are ; C. x Swinburnei, Stand Hall 
variety ; C. Stonei Cannaertii, of Linden, a very 
handsome form, in which the purple of the upper 
sepal shows on both sides; Lffilia anceps Ames- 
iana, desoribed, but never shown before ; and 
very handsome forms of Lcelia crispa superba 
and Dendrobium Bensonire album. 

Mr. Crawshay. 

The Rosefield collection of De Barri-Crawshay, 
Esq., at Sevenoaks, is noted for its grand 
varieties of Odontoglossums, of which some half- 
dozen of the best, which flowered last year and 
were exhibited, may be taken a* the best yet 
bloomed. Of these, O. crispum Mrs. De Barri- 
Crawshay and 0. o. Princess May are splendid 
flowers, perfect in all points, and O. c. Florence 
Bovill is in its way equally good ; while among 
spotted hybrid forms, O. o. Crawshay's variety 
has the flowers of a good 0. crispum with the 
colour and markings of a good 0. Andersonianum. 

Mr. Brymer. 

W. E. Brymer, Esq., Ilsington House, Dor- 
chester, produced two exceptionally fine things 
in his Loelio - Cattleya x Brymeriana (L. - C, 
Amanda x C. Warscewiczii) ; and Dendrobium 

x Benita (aureum x Falconeri). Mr. Jas. 
Cypher, Cheltenham, contributed a splendid 
hybrid in Dendrobium x Rubens (Ainsworthii 
Leechianum ? , nobile nobilius ^ ), Cypripedium 

x Calypso, Cypher's var., and the two grand 
forms of L;elia purpurata shown at the Temple 
Show, viz., L. p. atrorubens and L. p. Niobe, re- 
presented the grand dark and a lovely white 
form respectively. 

Messrs. Linden. 

Of the many beautiful new plants exhibited 
at the Royal Horticultural Sooiety by Messrs. 
Linden, l'Horticulture Internationale, Paro 
Leopold, Brussels, none have been more ad- 
mired than the fine pure white Zygopetalum 
Lindeni, and at the same meeting when it was 
shown an excellent example of their gigantic 
type of raphinia grandis was exhibited.; both 
illustrated in the Gardeners' Chronicle soon after- 
wards. Another noteworthy exhibit from the 
same firm was a set of six very distinct forms 
of Lsolia elegans, evidently of a new strain, neat 
in the form of their flowers, and almost wholly 
coloured of a bright purple-crimson. The best 
were L, e. Luciana and L . e. Treyerame ; but 



Januaey 13, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



37 



since that, a still finer thing, L. elegans 
Weathersiana, of a most glowingly rich dark 
purple oolour, has appeared, and it is probable 
that the showy hybrid Lfelia X Owenisa (F Per- 
rini x elegans) came out of the same batch. 
Among other good new Orchids of Messrs. 
Linden should be noted Lyoaste cinnabarina, a 
very showy thing ; L. Imschootiana, obtained by 
Mr. Van Imsehoot, between Lycaste Skinneri 
and Maxillaria nigrescens, it is said, though in it 
there is no trace of the latter ; and L. Luoiani, 
remarkable, and probably of hybrid origin ; 



thing ; and Dendrobium Phalrenopsis Broomea- 
num of that excellent cultivator of Orchids, 
Joseph Broome, Esq., of Llandudno ; the fine 
Miltonia Joioeyana X of Major Joicey, Sunning- 
dale Park ; the unique Lrelia tenebrosa, Walton 
Grange var., and Masdevallia x MoVitiite 
(tovarensis $? ,Veitohii <J ) of W. Thompson, Esq., 
Walton Grange, Stone ; the Cypripedium villo- 
sum Gortoni and C. x Tennyson (cenanthum 
superbum § , Dayanum £ ) of Mr. McArthur, 
Maida Vale ; Cypripedium x Edith Winn (bar- 
batum 9 , Stonei $ ) of Chas. Winn, Esq., Bir- 




AM'.'^ISP"'"" 







Fig. 4 — acacia baileyana: greenhouse SHRnB, with yellow flowers. 
(The spray is reduced ; the detached leave9 are of the real size.) 



Brassia brcolor, a very curious species ; Odonto- 
glossum Insleayii ImschoDtiana, all clear-yellow ; 
Cypripedium x Memoria Moens, C. x Clotilde 
Moens, C. X Leonts, C. X Luciani, and C. X 
Spicero-Lowianum, all very worthy hybrids ; 
and Cattleya labiata Imschootiana, fine in 
colour, and probably the largest form of C. 
labiata. 

Miscellaneous. 
Other noteworthy plants new and distinct are 
the Cattleya labiata Margarita, a pearly-white- 
petalled form ; C. Trianoei Broomeana, a grand 



mingham ; C. X Clinkaberryanum var. Warn- 
hamensis (Curtisii X philippinense) of C. J. 
Lucas, Esq. ; Masdevallia Burbidgeana and other 
new Orchids flowered in the Royal Botanio 
Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin ; Cypripedium x 
T. W. Bond (Swanianum $? , hirsutissimum <J ) ; 
and the fine Lfelia elegans Ingrami of 
Chas. Ingram, Esq., Godalming ; the grand 
white Miltonia vexillaria Daisy Haywood; the 
distinct Cypripedium insigne albens, and the 
beautiful Odontoglossum x excellens Treseder- 
ianum of Messrs. Heath & Son, Cheltenham ; 



Cattleya X Hardyana, Selwood var. of G. D. 
Owen, Esq. ; Cjpripedium insigne Clarkii, 
flowered by Walter C. Clark, Esq., Liverpool ; 
C. X Hermione (Spicerianum § , barbatum War- 
neri $ ), and C. X Leeanum, Young's var., the pro- 
ductions of Reginald Young, Esq., of Liverpool ; 
C. Crossianum, Castle Hill var., of Geo. C. 
Raphael, Esq. ; C. X Ashworthise (Leeanum 
superbum x selligerum majus), of E. Ashworth, 
Esq., Wilmslow, and C. X Dibdin and C. X Mrs. 
Tautz, raised in the gardens of Fred. G. Tautz, 
Esq., at Ealing, the last-named (C. X Mrs. Tautz). 
one of the most beautiful of all the Cypripediums, 
having for a base that most ornate of all the forms 
of C. insigne, viz., C. i. violaceo-punctatum. 

The following novelties among Orchids have 
been illustrated in the Gardeners' Chronicle in 
the past year : — 

Cattleya X Chloris, Oct. 28, p. 525. 
Cirrhopetalnm ornatissimum, Nov. 4, p. 553. 
Ccelogyne Sanders, March 25, p. 361. 
Cynorchis grandiflora, Feb. 18. p. 197. 
Cypripedium Charlesworthii, Oct. 7, p. 437. 
Cypripediam x Clinkaberryanum, July 22. p. 86. 



p. 267. 

August 19. 
p. 715. 



Cjpripedium x Massaianum, Sept. 2, 
Laslia x vitellina, March 25, p. 365. 
Laelia Finckeniana, Dec. 30, p. 779. 
Laalia tenebrosa Walton Grange var 
Lailio-Cattleya X Maynardi, June 17, 
Luisia Amesiana, July 8, p. 32. 
Luisia volucris, July 8, p. 32. 
Lycaste X Imschootiana, Dec. 23, p. 775. 
Paphinia grandis, Nov. 4, p. 561. 
Phaius x amabilis, Feb. 22, p. 229. 
Stanhopea Lowii, Dec. 2, p. 689. 
Utricularia longifolia (grown with Orchids), June 
17. p. 713. 

Zygopetalum Lindeni, Oct. 21, p. 493. 
(To be continued.) 



ACACIA BAILEYANA. 

This is a very beautiful species of Acacia, described 
by Baron von Mueller in the Transactions of theBoyal 
Society of Victoria (1887), and figured in hia Icono- 
graphy of Australian species of Acacia (1888) , decade 
xii., n. 5. Tbe leaves are stalked, bipinnate, with 
two pairs of pinnae bearing small linear lea6ets, and 
the flowers are in small globose heads, arranged in 
erect loose racemes. The pods are long, linear 
oblong. It is a native of New South Wales and 
Queensland. 

A. podalyriifolia (§ Uninerves), was described by 
Allan Cunningham in Don's General System, ii., 405. 
Its leaf-stalks are expanded into broad mucronate, 
glaucous phyllodes, the true leaves being undeve- 
loped. The flowers are in globose heads, arranged in 
racemes two or three times longer than the phyllodes 
(see fig. 5). 

For the opportunity of figuring these two very 
elegant species of Acacia, we are indebted to the 
kindness of Mr. R. Irwin Lynch of the Cambridge 
Botanic Garden. Both are well adapted for the 
warm greenhouse, and flowering at this season they 
are particularly valuable. 

In the illustration by Mr. W. G. Smith, the sprays 
are shown as reduced one-half; the separate foliage 
is of the real size. 



Trees and Shrubs. 



BERBERIDOPSIS CORALLINA. 
It is seldom that this evergreen climber is found 
in a flourishing condition in gardens — a fact that is 
chiefly owing to the unacquaintance of gardeners 
with its requirements. Some consider that a wall 
with a direct southern exposure is the best for most 
hardy climbing plants ; but in this case it is not so. 
Having lost several plants on a wall with a southern 
aspect, I was induced to try one against a wall with 
an eastern aspect, and on this side the results were 
excellent ; and notwithstanding the abnormally hot 
and dry weather of last summer, our plant of Ber- 
beridopsis appears to be as healthy as possible. A 
mixture of peat, loam, and leaf-mould was substi- 
tuted for the staple in which to grow the plants. E, M. 



38 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januaby 13, 1894. 



Azalea mollis. 

In this Japanese shrub we have one of the most 
usefnl and charming hardy-flowering plants in culti- 
vation for forcing into flower during the winter and 
early spring months. Well-grown plants produce 
large trusses of sweetly- scented flowers in novel and 
pleasing colour?, including countless shades of yellow, 
orange, and bronze. 

No time should be lost in obtaining the necessary 
number of plants from the nursery, and potting 
them at once into 6-inch, 7-inch, and 8-inch pots, 
according to the size of the individual plants, and 
the balls attached thereto. From \h to 2 inches 
depth of crocks should be placed in the bottom of 
each pot for drainage, and a handful of leaves or a 
bit of moss placed over them, to prevent the com- 
post from choking same. This should be rammed 
well together with flat strong label-like rammers. 
Any kind of light sandy or peaty soil will answer 
for the purpose. When the plants are potted they 
should be stood in a structure in which a minimum 
temperature of from 40° to 50° is maintained, 
affording water to settle the soil, Afterwards take 
the plants into the forcing house at short intervals, 
the number of plants put into heat at one time 
being determined by circumstances. Maintain the 
soil about the roots in a uniformly moist condition. 
Any forcing house in which a minimum tempera- 
ture of from 55° to 60° is observed will Buit 
the plants until they come into flower, when 
they should be transferred to a house having a drier 
air and lower temperature, such as a conservatory, 
greenhouse, &c. The plants, when in full flower, 
are admirably adapted for standing in vases. 
H. W. Ward. 



A TRAVELLER'S NOTES. 

(Continued from vol. xiv.. p. 716.) 
Brisbane, January 13, 1803. — There are in this 
town two gardens well worthy of a visit — one the 
Government Botanic Gardens, under the direction 
of Mr. MacMahon, formerly of the Forestry Depart- 
ment, Assam ; the other, Bowen Park, the garden of 
the Acclimatisation Society, managed bv Mr. 
Soutter. The latter is some little distance out of 
Brisbane, and was established for the introduction 
and distribution of new plants, as well as for the more 
important work of conducting trials of economic 
plants likely to be of value to planters and land- 
owners. About 11 acres are under cultivation, the 
ground being distributed in irregular- shaped shrub- 
beries, divided by broad winding grass paths. Near 
the centre a somewhat more extensive patch, de- 
voted to carpet-bedding, is bounded on one side by 
huge masses of Bambusa arundinacea, and encloses 
a pretty tank, partially filled with luxuriant clumps 
of Papyrus antiquorum, 18 to 20 feet high, and a few 
Water Lilies. 

Near the entrance is Mr. Soutter's office, a 
neat little building, the front entirely hidden by the 
climbing Thunbergia grandiflora ; it contains much 
interesting matter. Hanged on shelves in glass 
bottles are some 280 plant products used in medicine ; 
whilst below, in jars of baked clay, are many species 
of Beeds. These jars Mr. S. considers superior to any 
other means of preserving seeds in this climate ; 
they are easily cleaned, moisture is absorbed, and 
insect attacks prevented. On the walls hangs a 
collection of fibres, cloBe to a frame containing papers 
manufactured from Queensland kinds exclusively. 
A representative collection of woods is also to be seen. 
In the shrubberies, usually edged with one or other 
of the varieties of Alternanthera, many annuals, 
herbaceous plants, &c, are now flowering, in front 
and between the larger and more robust-growing spe- 
cimens. Amongst others, Fancratiums, Crinums, 
Ixoras, Tea Hoses, Kniphofiac, Zinnias, Bouvardias, 
Clerodendrons.BetuniaB, Gladioli, Geraniums, Vincas, 
Hibiscus Bjriacue, AcanthuB ilicifolius, Pavonia haB- 
tata are well represented. Many creepers, left more 
or leBB to follow their own inclinations, trail over 
the larger ahruba, one, Biota orientalis, in particular, 
being prettily draped with Quinqualis indica and 
Antigonon leptopus, both flowering, the former mcBt 
profusely; Bougainvillea glabra, the brick-red B. 
lateritia, the rich blue Petrea volubilifl, Ipomcoa 
Horsfalli, PAssiflira incarnato, the sweet fruit of 
Jamaica ; Mr. Watson's P. kewensisX, as good as I 
have yet met with it; Wistaria chinensis, Tecoma 
Hillii, and the new T. Mackeni, pare white, with 



reddish veins, obtained by a southern gardener from 
T. rosea, most of them now flowering, I noticed in 
various parts of the garden on living supports. 

Amongst the shrubs, Solanum macranthum is one 
of the most effective at this moment — a profusion 
of blue blossoms in all shades. Mangoes do well, 
and frequently produce fruit above the average, 
several now hanging promising well. Acacia poda- 
larifolia, both in colour and shape of leaf is uncom- 
monly like our cultriformis ; Lagerstrojmia indica 
in variety, L, Flos-regin£e larger in all its parts, a 
quality possessed to a marked extent in a seed- 
ling Duranta raised from D. Ellieii, and a flowering 
specimen of Eugenia myrtifolia, are all showy. 

Very handsome is a bush of Gardenia Thunbergii, 
some i6 feet in diameter, bearing many scores of pure 
white, powerfully fragrant eight-petalled blooms, 
quite 3 inches across, standing out well from the 
foliage, on tubes of even greater length. Lasi- 
andra macrantha is now profusely blooming; the 
campanulate blooms of Gardenia globosa Mr. Soutter 
speaks highly of; and Bauhinia corymbosa, judging 
from the number of seed- pods, must be a fine sight 
when in flower. Crotons do well, notwithstanding 
the 2° to 4° of frost occasionally experienced ; 
though it naturally affects them, it is said never to 
kill. Some of the Palms are good, scattered about 
effectively in the various borders. Oreodoxa regia, 
Caryota urens, flowering and fruiting ; Saguerus 
Kumphii, bearing a strong resemblance to Arenga 
saccharifera ; Areca lutescens, with stems 18 to 
20 feet high ; Sabal palmetto, Cocos plumosus, Gocos 
flexuosus, Martensia caryotifolie, Diplothemium 
maritimum, the Wine Palm, the beauty of its 
graceful habit, heightened by the grey tinge on the 
under-surface of the leaf, are all represented by good 
specimens. 

Of trees, there are many not wanting in in- 
terest. Gleditschia horrida, with strong, stiff', often 
much-branched spines, 6 to 12 inches long, thickly 
encircling portions of the trunk, looks unpleasant 
to climb. Erythrina americana, considered by Mr. 
Soutter to be freer- flowering, and generally finer 
than E. indica, is noticeable by its rapid growth, 
proof of which may be seen in the remains of a 
garden-seat built round the trunk but a few years 
ago, now forced open, and well nigh destroyed. On 
its branches are some magnificent specimens of 
Platycerium alcicorne. Banksia actinophylla, one 
of the commonest trees in and around Brisbane, is 
represented by several specimens ; its deeply-lobed 
leaves are curious, and in themselves effective, but 
the whole plant is invariably so " sticky," as to be 
of little value for ornamental purposes. Havenala 
madagaecariensis (the Traveller's Joy) is good, but 
lacks the luxuriance and rapid growth which dis- 
tinguishes it in such islands as Ceylon and Penang. 
Poinciana regia, on the contrary, is certainly as fine 
as when only 3° north of the equator ; its spread of 
branches out of proportion to its height, foliage of the 
softest pale green, surmounted by immense branched 
panicles of rich scarlet flowers, or its 2-feet long 
massive brown pods, render it beyond question one 
of the sights of the tropical Old World. 

Ficus Roxburghii from the Himalaya does well, 
that is, till the advent of a hail-storm, which Mr. 
Soutter tells me sadly rends and tears its huge 
leaves, which are often 18 inches in diameter. Arto- 
carpus integrifolius is represented by a moderate- 
sized specimen, the true Bread-fruit not living at all, 
though I note in this morning's paper one at the 
Townsville Botanic Garden in the North is bearing 
freely this year. Randia Fitzalanii is very handsome 
—having a profusion of dark, large, leathery, glossy 
foliage. Some specimens of AraucariaCunningharaii 
and A. Bidwillii are also prominent features. 

Mr. Soutter is, at the present moment, much in- 
terested in two subjects : one is the planting of 
Coffee in the colony ; the other the introduction of 
the Fly Hiver Leaf Tobacco. 

At a recent meeting of the Society, Mr. Soutter 
announced he had received applications for 6000 
Coffee plants to be delivered between February and 
April, a sign that the industry is gaining ground. 
Mr. S. thinks this may become important in the near 
future ; and in his remarks before the meeting laid 
great stress on the advantages to be derived from the 
fact, that the most recent advices from European 
markets stated the berries received in the silver 
parchment or nkin were found to be superior to those 
cleaned. This obviates the expensive process of 
cleaning by the grower only to be accomplished by 
machinery, considerably adding to the cost and often 
proving a severe handicap. The husk or parchment 
is found to protect the bean from atmospheric in- 
fluence, and preserves the colour. 



The varieties it is proposed to plant are seedlings 
from the Arabian, several of which I saw in Bowen 
Park. One received by Mr. Soutter from Brazil, 
producing a berry of great size, promises especially 
well. 

The Fly River Leaf Tobacco was discovered by 
Sir Wm. Macgregor at a considerable elevation near 
the Fly River in New Guinea. Of some leaves Mr. 
Soutter sent home he received most favourable 
reports, and proposes pushing the planting of the 
variety. Its dried leaves are highly scented and 
moderate in size. J. H. Vcitch. 



The Rosary. 

— * — 

I wish to call attention to a few of the details in 
forming a rosary which do not receive enough con- 
sideration in many instances. It may be well to 
take them in due order, and so we will com- 
mence with the site. Hoses can be grown in many 
situations where few would try them ; too much 
attention is given to shelter. I know of Rose 
gardens entirely surrounded by trees, and of others 
which are no more than open fields, with the nearest 
trees of any size a mile away, and were I tied to one 
of these situations, my choice would go to the latter. 
Roses do not approve of the close sultry atmosphere 
in the small spot of ground closely surrounded with 
trees. The extremes are even greater here than in 
the open, during sultry weather scarcely any move- 
ment takes place in the air, and the Rose enjoys a 
free circulation. In this case, circulation is alto- 
gether distinct from draughts ; the latter is one of the 
most fruitful causes of mildew, whether in the open 
or under glass. I have instanced two extremes, and 
chosen between them ; but the ideal situation is one 
having the advantages of both, viz., an open aspect, 
with only sufficient shelter to break the force of 
rough winds from any quarter. 

Soil need not trouble us much, as a careful selec- 
tion of manure and Rose stocks, together with good 
drainage or none at all, according to circumstances, 
will make almost any soil fit for Roses. Of course, 
one would not plant upon pure clay, or a soil in- 
capable of supporting hardly any plant life ; but I 
contend that any ordinary soil can be made congenial 
to the Rose. We find them grown all over Great 
Britain and Ireland, and the various soils and con- 
ditions must be enormous. It is an interesting 
study to note the varying districts producing good 
Roses, which are exhibited year after year at the 
chief shows throughout the country. In a strongly- 
contested class one will sometimes find as many as 
ten or twelve counties represented ; even three 
countries — England, Scotland, and Ireland— are not 
unusual. If the exhibitors were questioned respect- 
ing their soil, &c, we should scarcely find two of 
them giving the same description. With this fact 
before us, there does not seem much force in recom- 
mending one soil over another ; all may be rendered 
satisfactory with a little rational treatment. I could 
not possibly go into the subject of soils closely and 
exhaustively within the limits of this paper, so will 
dismiss it with the advice that extremes should be 
remedied by a little judicious blending and culti- 
vation. Do not place too much reliance upon one 
grower's recommendation ot certain measures or 
manures, but bear in mind that his soil may be 
totally different to your own. For instance, because 
a close manure, such as cow or pig-dung, suits his, 
it may not yours, and vice verscl. A stiff and reten- 
tive soil requires opening fertilisers, the contrary 
being given to those already light and porous. Due 
attention to this is the secret of Roses from both 
meeting in such close rivalry upon the exhibition 
boards. A word must also be said about digging. 
Here, again, much depends upon circumstances. 
Trenching, deep-digging, and baatard- trenching, are 
all recommended without due consideration of 
varying Boils. A stiff soil of a naturally cold and 
wet character needs deep moving and draining; at 
the same time judgment must be brought to bear 
as to whether it Bhall be trenched or bastard- 
trenched. If alike in character for a depth of 1J to 
2 feet, 1 would trench, but if the better soil does not 



January 13, 1894] 



THE GA FDENE B S' CHR ONI GL E. 



39 



extern! «o deep, trenching would be folly. We do 
not want the worst soil on the surface, nor do we 
want the Rose roots to be into an uncongenial 
subsoil directly they make a fair start. In bastard- 
trenching we are afforded a splendid opportunity to 
enrich the subsoil, and success depends in a great 
measure npon this. There is a decided disadvantage in 
moving the soil deeply, and so encouraging the roots to 
penetrate into an unsatisfactory sub-soil, yet this is 
still the case in many a rosary. The roots go down 
into the loose soil too freely, and if sufficient nou- 
rishment does not exist they have grown to little 



has a decided preference for a light compost ; and 
although both will grow in either, there is a marked 
difference when their likes are considered or not. 
The Briar roots will go through the winter in a wet 
and cold soil — in fact, it is one of our hardiest native 
plants. But we get the Manetti from Italy, and its 
roots would perish where those of the Briar were 
unharmed. This question of stocks also touches the 
classes or sections to be cultivated ; Teas and Noi- 
settes preferring the Briar as a class. Even the hybrid 
Perpetuals and Bourbons have a decided preference 
for the Briar when growing in soil of a stiff natnre, 



£§£;V 




Fig. 5. — acacia podalybiifolia : greenhouse shrub, flowers yellow, (see p. 37 ) 
(Left-hand figure, real size; right-hand figure, reduced.) 



advantage. By all means move and enrich the sub- 
soil, bnt do not plant while Btill loose and "hover." 
The roots which live about a foot from the surface 
are the most valuable during an ordinary season, 
In connection with soils we must give considerable 
attention to stccks. 

It is true that the Briar and Manetti, to say 
nothing of various other stocks, will do fairly well in 
almost any soil ; but as they have their likes and dis- 
likes, we shall find it advantageous to study these as 
far as possible. In a natural Btate the Briar prefers 
stiff soil, and is seldom found growing vigorously 
npon any other. On the other hand, the Manetti 



but on the light soil Manetti has the preference. It 
may be well to point out a few exceptions, although 
they do not invariably hold good. Her Majesty, 
Reynolds Hole, and Marie Verdier, are three hybrid 
Perpetuals which are very distinct in growth, but 
they refuse to do well upon the Manetti, except in 
very rare instances. It has been stated that a touch 
of Tea or China blood gives the Rose a distaste 
for the Manetti, but there is none of this in the 
last-named variety — while it predominates in La 
France, Augustine Guinoisseau, Viscountess Folke- 
stone and others ; yet these all do equally well 
npon the Manetti, providing the soil be suitable. 



This question is further complicated by a glance at 
the true Teas and Noisettes, where we find many which 
do well npon either stock. We thus see how hopeless 
it is to attempt to lay down any hard and fast rules ; 
even with a small section of the Teas, Dijon Teas, 
we find great exceptions, therefore I will conclude 
this part of my paper with the advice that selection 
of stocks be left entirely to the nurseryman, simply 
giving him a guide by stating the class of soil they 
are to be grown in. 

Firm planting is advisable, as it prevents many 
roots being broken oft' from wind-swaying. This is 
very injurious and crippling, the young roots being 
brittle and easily broken. Protection during winter 
is a vexed question with many, and there is much to 
be said on both sides. Think of the vast difference 
existing between some Rose-gardens, and then con- 
sider if the same advice regarding protection is 
applicable to all. Various circumstances and con- 
ditions must be considered ; over-exposure or over- 
protection being almost equally bad. A slight pro- 
tection is very beneficial ; and if it does not exist 
naturally it should be afforded artificially, and in 
such a way that premature growth is not en- 
couraged. A. P. 



Colonial Notes. 



AUSTRALIAN FRUIT AND DAIRY PRODUCE 
FOR THE EAST. 

From a lengthy leading article in the Sydney 
Morning Herald of November 13, we glean par- 
ticulars of what is certainly an interesting, should 
it not prove a profitable, departure on the part of 
the Victorian Government. It has appointed a com- 
missioner to visit the principal Asiatic countries, with 
the object of creating a demand among the European 
residents and well-to-do natives for such Australian 
exports as butter, cheese, canned and dried fruits, 
preserved meats, and a variety of other articles. He 
is to be accompanied by a colleague, whose business 
will be purely and simply that of a commercial 
traveller. While the commissioner is acquiring 
materials for his report, his business colleague is to 
display samples entrusted to him by a number of 
firms having their head-quarters in Melbourne, 
and, where he can, to book orders. Among the 
countries to be visited by these two gentlemen are 
CeyloD, India, Burmab, the Straits Settlements, 
Java, British North Borneo, China, and Japan. 
New Zealand has, it appears from what our con- 
temporary tells, made an experiment on nearly 
similar lines, but hardly so thorough in matters cf 
detail. Various difficulties are foreseen and pointed 
out, but there is none the less a sanguine tone 
running through the Herald's article, and we Bhall 
watch the experiment with no little interest. Mean- 
while, if some of our smaller farmers and fruit-growers 
at home were to combine and employ their own tra- 
veller or travellers they might possibly find it better 
than to divide their profits between a series of middle- 
men. The Melbourne Argus also refers to "the mission," 
and in the course of its remarks, quotes a letter for- 
warded to the Victorian Minister of Agriculture by 
several of the colony's farmers. They evidently 
believe in the Tennysonian maxim, " Britons hold 
your own," as will be seen from the annexed excerpt 
from their sturdy letter to the Minister :— " There is 
not in our minds the shadow of a doubt that the 
time is ripe for us to follow in the footsteps of other 
producing and exporting countries for opening up 
other markets for our products, and we are certain 
that all producers are with us in commending your 
action in the highest terms, especially in grasping 
the question before the necessity begins to stifle us. 
Denmark, France, and the United States, and other 
large exporting countries, have men constantly 
abroad opening up fresh markets for their products, 
and strengthening their hold upon those already 
acquired." 

The energetic Antipodeansgo on to claim excellence 
for their butter, canned and dried fruits, but when 



40 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 13, 1894. 



hey come to their brandies and wines, they strike a 
still bolder and more British bull-dog-like note by 
saying, " The superiority of our brandies and wines 
is "such, that we feel sure all the producers of Vic- 
toria are with us, and confident there will be no 
difficulty in finding excellent markets for them in 
those countries which you now propose to explore." 
It is not for us to sit in judgment on our colonists. 
All we can say is, that we trust that the spirit of 
enterprise which they breathe forth in their letter to 
the Minister of Agriculture may have its reward in 
good results, and that Greater Britain's stalwart 
sons at the Antipodes may not regret the confidence 
they can place in their own energy and skill, and 
the natural resources of their colonies. We speak 
in a guarded manner, and that because, until the 
experiment now being made by our Victorian friends 
is justified by results, they will, we feel sure, not 
care for it to be so " written up " in this country as 
to cause a rush to the Antipodes. 



HAED-WOODED GEEENHOUSE 

PLANTS. 

(Continued from vol. xiv., p. 771.) 
Pimeleas. — These most useful and profuse-flower- 
ing plants are easily managed if kept in a good 
greenhouse. There are but a few species now in 
Cultivation. A well-known nursery firm this year 
catalogues seven varieties, all of which, with 
others, were included by the Bame firm twenty years 
back, so that no new introductions have been made 
during that time. They belong to a group termed 
New Holland plants, and some also coming from 
Tasmania, whilst a few are found in New Zealand. 
Paxton's Botanical Dictionary of 1840 includes 
twenty-eight varieties, the greater part of which have 
white flowers ; few of these, however, are now grown, 
as the coloured varieties have found most favour in 
gardens. They used to be exhibited frequently as 
specimens in the palmy days ot the old Chiswick 
shows, and at the early exhibitions at the Crystal 
Palace. At both of these resorts the Brothers May 
used to Btage them in splendid condition. Of late 
years, a few good examples have been shown by Mr. 
Cypher of Cheltenham. Why such beautiful varie- 
ties as P. Bpectabilis, P. Hendersoni, and P. decus- 
sata, are not now to be seen more frequently, can 
only be explained by the practice of cultivating so 
large a number of soft-wooded plants for the supply 
of cut flowers, and for producing an effect en masse. 
It is a matter to be deplored, however, for the beauty 
of these hard-wooded greenhouse plants can scarcely 
bs over-stated; they, too, are useful to Bupply cut 
flowers, more particularly P. spectabilis and P. spec- 
tabilis rosea, in both of which it would be possible 
to obtain a fairly good length of stem, and that with 
advantage to the plants themselves. Their season 
of flowering is April and May, it being also possible 
to have P. decuasata and P. mirabilis in June by a 
previous stopping early in the spring. The most 
useful variety for early flowering is P. spectabilis, 
which will bloom early in April if not retarded. It 
is the most free grower of any, making longer 
shoots, and disposed, if not well looked after, to get 
rather too tall. This, and the rose-coloured form 
previously alluded to, produce the largest trusses, 
and they last a good time in perfection. 

As soon as the flowering-period is passed, and 
when the plants are kept rather dry at the rootB, a 
moderate pruning should be given them. If it is 
desired to keep them medium-sized bushy plants, 
about two-thirds of the previous year'B growth may 
be taken off. Thus treated, they will take some few 
years to reachan ungainly siz». P. Hendersoni (known 
as P. rosea; is one of the prettiest species in culti- 
vation ; its neat heads of flower are very frtely pro- 
duced, acarcely a shoot failing to bloom. In colour 
it is a deep rosy-pink, quite distinct from any other 
variety. It blooms during the month of May, when 
it forms a very attractive object, either as a small 
decorative plant, or as a specimen. It should be 
pruned in the same way as P. apectabilia, but it will 



also bear cutting harder back than that variety, if 
needs be. P. decussataand P. diosmifoliaare given as 
synonyms in the Dictionary of Gardening, but I am 
disposed to differ in respect to this, the latter variety 
being decidedly more vigorous in growth, and at the 
same time not quite so bushy. P. mirabilis does 
not appear in the Dictionary of Gardening, nor in 
Paxton's Botanical Dictionary (1st edition), nor in 
Johnson's Gardeners' Dictionary (2nd edition) ; it is, 
however, catalogued, and has been for years past, by 
Messrs. Veitch, and formerly by Messrs. Eollison. 
The plant I grew under this name was a superior 
form of P. decussata and P. diosmifolia. The three 
may be included under one head, however, as regards 
culture, each of them being good varieties. Either 
of them being of slower growth, with care they will 
form into dense and shapely plants, almost without 
tying at all, whereas support is needful in the case 
of the rest. After flowering, the wood may be par- 
tially shortened, but there will not be nearly so much 
to cut away. P. mirabilis will make an excellent 
flowering plant for June or July by stopping the 
shoots early in the spring, merely pulling out the 
points, allowing about fourteen weeks from the time 
of stopping to that of flowering. It may also be 
flowered twice a year by merely pulling off the first 
flower-heads as soon as they fade, and the next 
flowers will be ready towards the end of August or 
early in September; but this plan would in most 
cases cause a sparsity of flower the following Bpring. 
P. Neippergiana is the prettiest of the white varieties, 
being a plant of neat, compact growth, and one 
which will take some years to get to an excessive 
size, hence but little pruning is needed in this 
instance. 

Insects. — The most troublesome of any is the red- 
Bpider, to which all the varieties alluded to are 
subject. It generally appears after flowering, and 
upon the young growths during warm weather. If 
the case be a bad one through oversight, the best 
remedy is to syringe the plants with sulphur and 
water, the former being well incorporated with the 
latter. As a preventive, a weak solution of soot- 
water will be found excellent ; this may be used two 
or three times a week. White scale is a trouble- 
some pest when it gets a foot-hold, but this does 
not often occur ; with a strong solution of a 
reliable insecticide it may be Btopped, the modus 
operandi being a small paint-brush, with the plant 
on its side. 

Soil, Potting, #c— Peat is usually recommended 
for Pimeleas, but; I prefer to add thereto about one- 
third or so of light fibrous loam, with a liberal supply 
of sand. The peat should be of the best quality, 
such as is suitable for Orchids or choice Ferns. 
Firm potting is most essential from the very com- 
mencement; in loose or careless potting, the stems 
will not always be firmly held in the soil. It should 
be done as soon as the young growth starts afresh 
after flowering and pruning. Large and frequent 
Bhifts are not at all desirable ; before each shift, the 
plants should have thoroughly laid hold of the pre- 
ceding one. After pruning or potting, it is well to 
keep the plants close for a week or two, bo as to 
encourage a start again. When this has resulted, 
then more air should be given until, in favourable 
localities, the plants can stand out-of-doors, where I 
much prefer to have them as long as possible. The 
position chosen should not be a shaded one by any 
means, and every afternoon the syringe may be used 
advantageously. It will be safer to house the plants 
by the middle of September, for fear of an early frost. 
In the case of a plant which is pot- bound, an 
occasional dose of weak liquid-manure will be of 
essential service, more particularly prior to flowering. 
The best, in my opinion, is a weak solution of reliable 
Peruvian guano, and next to this, Standen's Gar- 
deners' and Amateurs' Friend, which can be applied 
(but sparingly) as a powder, being afterwards watered 
in. Three or four such dressings would be ample for 
one Beason. Compared with the majority of hard- 
wooded plants,, the Pimeleas will take rather more 
water, but guard against erring in the opposite 
direction. James Hudson. 



WOOD PAVING. 

The subject of wood paving for the Btreets of our 
large towns referred to in vol. xiv., p. 780, of the 
Gardeners' Chronicle, has occupied so much attention 
of late that a few additional remarks on the subject 
may be useful. So long ago as 1889, the question 
of the superiority of Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata, 
not rostrata) over Karri (E. diversicolor) was con- 
tested by those who were interested in the woods of 
the respective species, the woods being adopted by 
the vestries of Islington, Chelsea, and Lambeth, and 
by the District Board of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 
The correspondence on this matter was published in 
the Kew Bulletin for September, 1890. Since that time 
the Vestry of St. Pancras has used Jarrah wood to 
some extent, and it has been adopted by other public 
bodies, notwithstanding its very high price in the 
first instance, as the wood arrives in this country 
already cut into the blocks fit for use. It is very 
necessary that these blocks should be cut from well 
seasoned and sound timber, for if they twist or warp 
on the voyage they lose much of their value fer a 
purpose where it iB required that they should form a 
close and compact body when laid. 

So recently as the 13th of last month (Decem- 
ber) a paper was read before the Society of Arts 
by Mr. Lewis H. Isaacs, surveyor to the Board of 
Works for the Holborn District, on " Carriage-way 
Pavements for Large Cities," in which the subject of 
wood pavement was treated of. Referring to the 
work of one large company interested in promoting 
the application of wood for paving purposes, it is 
stated that the company in question laid during the 
period from 1872 to 1889, 1,030,000 sq. yardi, equal 
to an average of 58,000 sq. yards per annum, and 
troml890 to 1893, 520,000 sq. yards, or an average of 
130,000 square yards per annum. Besides large 
areas in the Sirand, Hackney, and St. George's Dis- 
tricts, carried out during the present year, wood paving 
has also been adopted in the City, Kensington, 
Chiswick, Kilburn, and Hampatead. Leaving out 
of the question the subject of cost as one of a prac- 
tical character in which the readers of the Gardeners' 
Chronicle will not be specially interested, we quote 
Mr. Isaac's opinion on the relative value of Conife- 
rous woods, and those of species of Eucalyptus. 
"Taken all round," he sayB, "the best wood to use 
for this purpose is Baltic red timber or yellow deal, 
which must be thoroughly sound and well-seasoned, 
absolutely free from sap, shakes, knots, or other 
imperfections. Within the last few years there has 
been a strenuous endeavour to introduce denser 
and harder woods for paving purposes, notably Jarrah 
and Karri, but objection is taken to these woods that 
they are hard and slippery and also noisy. At a 
meeting of the Kensington Vestry on November 8 
last, a report was submitted Irom the Works Com- 
mittee stating that complaints had been received 
relative to the noise caused by the trial sections of 
Jarrah and Karri woods recently laid in theBrompton 
Koad, and the Works Committee recommended that 
the sections of hard wood in question be removed, 
and creosoted deal blocks substituted therefor, 
and after some discussion the recommenda- 
tion was agreed to. The expense of these woods 
is almost prohibitive, the comparison being 
£10 10s. for yellow deal as against £23 10a. 
for Jarrah, so that Jarrah would require to last 
seventeen to eighteen years to be equal in price to 
yellow deal creosoted." Another serious disadvan- 
tage possessed by wood paving is, that it absorb3 
dirt and street deposits more readily than any other 
pavement, and gives off a Bickening odour, espe- 
cially under a powerful Bun. So that taking all 
things into consideration, the future of wood blocks 
for paving purposes does not seem by any means 
ensured. In the paragraph in the Gardeners' 
Chronicle before referred to, it is stated that West 
Australian Red Gum is " coming to the front " for 
paving purposes. It would be interesting to know 
what species of Eucalyptua is here intended. The 
term Ked Gum is applied to several species in Aus- 
tralia, the best known being E. rostrata, the wood 
of which equals Jarrah in Btrength and durability, 



Jandahy 13, 1894.] 



THE &ARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



41 



but this species is not a West Australian one. The 
true Red Gum of West Australia is E. calophylla, 
but thia wood, though used for many above-ground 
purposes, has a bad reputation for underground 
work. 



ORCHIDS AND ORCHID 
CULTIVATORS IN ENGLAND AND 
BELGIUM. 

I have read with great interest the views expressed 
on the one hand by the nurserymen, and on the other 
by botanists, respecting Orchid culture in Belgium 
and in this country ; and as an Orchid grower I would 
contribute my experience. Having cultivated Orchids 
here and in Belgium, I may be excused for making 
a few remarks on the subject. M. Lucien Linden, in 
the Journal des Orchidias, shows that he has excel- 
lent ideas as to the natural requirements of Orchids, 
a practical knowledge of their cultivation, and of the 
beneficial results of scientific methods of ventilation 
of the house in which they are grown, affording 
water, and of the benefits of sunlight. I fully agree 
with him that open stages are better for the plants 
than closed stages covered with moisture-retaining 
materials. But in attempting to draw a compari- 
son between our own cultivators and the Belgians 
as regards the methods employed and general treat- 
ment, M. Lucien Linden treads on dangerous ground 
so far as Orchid growing is concerned, because 
there are really no comparisons to be drawn. How- 
ever, the result of his remarks was that Mr. W. 
Watson of the Royal Gardens, Kew, came to the 
rescue, and in an able letter, full of common sense, he 
depicted the Britisher in a more favourable position ; 
and when he says that " anyone who has had 
an opportunity of observing the horticulture of 
different countries, must admit that climatic and 
other conditions favour the cultivator of certain 
plants in one place more than in another," he says 
well, and everyone must agree with him. 

That the climatic and other conditions, not only 
of a country, but of a locality, greatly aid, or are 
inimical to, the cultivation of plants, is too well 
known to need further proof from me. Hundreds of 
instances could be quoted regarding all kinds of 
plants, and I am continually noticing that some 
species of Orchid do better in one part than 
in another, notwithstanding the careful cultivation 
bestowed on those which do not succeed. For in- 
stance, Odontoglo8sum Alexandra (crispum) suc- 
ceeds in Belgium better than it does in England. 

An English Orchid-grower may go to Belgium, 
and try to grow Odontoglossum Alexandra, and he 
will meet with universal success, and grow them 
better than he could at home. A Belgian grower 
may come to England, he may also know how to 
grow them in his own country, but he will 
not meet with uniform success, and will not 
grow this Bpecies so well as at home. This is a 
fact which I have proved, and seen proved. Too 
much importance should not be attributed to slight 
variations of methods and treatment, nor to the 
structure, nor to the size of the ventilators. The 
clever Orchid cultivator is he who grows the plants 
well under adverse climatic conditions, and in ill- 
adapted structures, with insufficient ventilation, bad 
light, &c. He will vary the treatment according to 
the prevailing conditions, and give the utmost 
amount of attention to the needs of the plants, and 
it follows that there is no secret in cultivating 
Orchid?, neither in England nor in Belgium — it is a 
simple matter of attention. 

I think that Orchids in general do as well 
in the one country as in the other, but Odonto- 
glossum Alexandra is an exception. Clearly, the 
Belgian has the advantage in the climatic and other 
conditions ; at the same time, I cannot say what 
those conditions exactly are, being merely a culti- 
vator of Orchids. It may be that the air is purer, 
or it may also be that it is less pure than in these 
islands. My opinion is, that the climate is better 
adapted for Orchids, the air containing some kind 
of nourishment for Odontoglossum Alexandra in 
Belgium which is lacking here. In the former 



country the atmosphere is charged with the gases 
arising from decaying animal and vegetable matter, 
and this is not so in England, at least to the 
same extent ; and in my humble opinion, and especi- 
ally in and near large towns, the air is impregnated 
to a high degree with chemical gases instead. 

The soil in that part of Belgium where I resided 
(Ghent) is pure sand, and it consequently absorbs 
and gives off moisture very rapidly. The gardens 
and fields must be manured for each crop, otherwise 
the returns will be small. The manure is thrown over 
the land in a liquid form, and is, of course, quick in 
its action on plants. The principal manure used is 
night-soil, which is collected at midnight by tens of 
thousands of caits kept for the purpose, and it is 
taken from the towns to all parts. The crops ob- 
tained are marvellous — better than any I have seen 
on the best English loams. The value of this fer- 
tilising agent is known in Belgium, and made use of; 
it is also known in England, but the system of 
drainage employed by us diverts it into the sewers, 
often to the enormous detriment of our streams. The 
question is, if our sewerage system will not eventually 
prove to be a costly blunder and a national calamity. 

I think the air in Belgium must be rich in 
nutritive matters which are good for vegetation, and 
perhaps for mankind. But what about the water? 
a plentiful supply of which is found to be a few feet 
from the surface, not hard, as ours often is, but 
quite as good and sometimes better for plants than 
rain-water. 

Nicotine, the poisonous property of tobacco, is 
generally acknowledged to be a useful agent in 
killing plant pests, and tobacco being cheap in 
Belgium, the leaves are strewn under the stages, and 
the fumes that arise from them effectually destroy 
thrips in a manner much more efficient than ours, 
which often ruins the plants of Odontoglossum 
Alexandra. I have also the notion that the vapour 
from these leaves impart vigour to the plants. 

Regarding the comparison drawn by M. Cahuzac 
between the English and Belgian gardener, I really 
fail to see any. There are gardeners and gardeners 
in both countries, and as regards trustworthiness, 
patient working, attentiveness, methods of culture, 
taste, &c, there is no appreciable difference, good 
and bad gardeners being found in both countries. 
It is so in manners and in education. No doubt 
the Englishman is better dressed, but it is only be- 
cause he is better paid, and gardeners in both 
countries must, as a rule, live up to their means. 
H. A, Burberry. 



The Apiary. 



EARLY BROOD REARING. 

Mr. Simmins, the author of A Modern Bee Farm, 
has issued a pamphlet descriptive of a fresh develop- 
ment in rapid brood-rearing, by which he claims that 
bees can be pushed forward so rapidly in spring that 
they will be ready to swarm in March or April. 
Bee-keepers scarcely want swarms in either of these 
months in this country, as the chances are, that if 
obtained so early they would have to be fed, and so 
carefully looked after, that a very questionable 
advantage would be gained. It may be taken for 
granted, however, that if the adoption of the system 
will have the effect of bringing stocks along in the 
spring so as to get the bees strong enough to store 
surplus honey from early fruit-blossoms, &c , it will 
be a valuable acquisition to any bee-keeper who 
could not by following ordinary methods of spring 
stimulation have his stocks ready in time to take 
advantage of such an early honey flow. The plan that 
Mr. Simmins recommends is to feed with syrup in 
conjunction with dry sugar, the syrup to be given in 
a frame feeder on one side of the bees, or above the 
frame, and the dry feeder on the opposite side ; but 
the most important adjunct in addition is to provide 
frames with starters only in the middle of the hive, 
between the old combs, it being claimed that the 
bees, under the effect of the combined stimulation of 



dry sugar and syrup feeding, will at once build new 
comb, which will be as quickly filled with eggs by 
the queen, and that each of these will be productive 
of more brood than two or three old frames of c< mb 
by reason of the fact that in early spring old stores, 
particularly pollen, are the greatest possible impe- 
diment to the rapid extension of the brood. This will 
probably be going far enough for bee-keepers who 
wish to try the experiment, and see how the plan 
works. But Mr. Simmins does not stop here. He 
advocates stimulating one hive out of three on the 
plan described, and robbing it of as many frames of 
hatching brood as soon as they are ready that can 
be cared for by the other two, so that they are really 
the ones pushed along without much effort on their 
part, and without unduly taxiDg the powers of their 
respective queens. Sweetened-water is the only 
thing recommended to be given to the last-men- 
tioned stocks, in order to prevent frequent flights for 
that commodity. 

New Ideas. — Bee-keepers who are in the mind to 
try experiments to determine the value of new ideas 
have plenty of material to work upon in the coming 
season. In addition to the one just described, there 
are self-hivers of various kinds which have not yet 
been tested to the extent required to satisfy the 
craft that they are really helpful appliances. This 
has been in a great measure owing to want of oppor- 
tunity through the scarceness of swarms. Then 
there is the " Porter " bee-escape for clearing supers 
of beea ; Abbott's new brood foundation, thick at 
top, and gradually thinned out as it reaches the 
bottom ; perforated zinc separators for sections ; and 
shallow frames for extracting, spaced 2 inches from 
centre to centre by means of the new metal ends. 
Last, but not least, there is the Wells' system of 
working two queens in one hive, and its develop- 
ments, such as the use of double nucleus hives for 
the more profitable rearing of young queens, and 
keeping them safely through the winter. Expert. 



CHINESE AND JAPANESE 
MATTING. 

The widely-extended use of rush matting, both in 
America and Europe, of late years, has given an 
impetus to the trade both in China and Japan, and 
has indeed brought into the market other manu- 
factures to compete with the oluer and better-known 
sources. As an illustration of the competition in 
China and Japan in these useful articles, the follow- 
ing extract frcm the Trade Report of Canton for the 
year 1892 will be instructive: — 

" The exports of matting from Canton during the 
year amounted to 155,399 rolls, showing the enormous 
decline of 53,426 rolls; on the other hand, however, 
Kowloon exported over 40,000 more rolls than in 
the previous year. Notwithstanding reports of bad 
crops of material and strikes, matting in China was, 
it is said, remarkably cheap, owing to the compe- 
tition of Japan, which reached such proportions that 
dealers were practically helpless, and American 
purchasers, for the first time on record, dictated their 
own terms. The total export from Japan for 1892 
was estimated at 105.000 rolls, as against 20,000 rolls 
in 1889. The opinion was current that the Canton 
matting trade would be unable to hold its own for 
long against this severe and rapidly-growing com- 
petition ; and the freedom from all taxation gives 
the Japanese product a great advantage over ita 
Chinese rival, which is taxed before shipment to the 
extent of 50 cents per roll. Japan matting is said 
to be flimsy, but is much more liked for its artistic 
appearance. Notwithstanding all this, it would be 
premature to conclude that the Canton matting trade 
is doomed. Low exchange, cheap freights, and the 
absence of an import duty in America have placed 
the article within the reach of all, and greatly 
extended its use." 

In connection with this trade, however, it is to be 
hoped that the introduction of aniline dyes for use 
amongst the people will not assist the doom of the 
matting trade, for in a report from Teuchuan for the 
same year the following appears: — "Amongst 



42 



1HE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 13, 1894. 



sundries, a steady demand is maintained for aniline 
dyes, which have almost entirely superseded those 
of native origin obtained by primitive processes from 
various trees and plants. The foreign dyes are very 
much cheaper, and though the colour is not so fast 
as that of the native product, this is rather an advan- 
tage than otherwise, as the rich can re-dye their 
clothing at will, and the poor can repeatedly alter 
and renew the colour of a single garment." There 
are, of course, two ways of looking at every question, 
but we must confess to a leaning to the old vegetable 
dyes. John S. JacJcson, Kew. 



VARIORUM. 



Large Chrysanthemums. — By the over- 
growth of Chrysanthemums it is seen that compe- 
titive horticulture does not always conduce to 
beauty. In miny flowers of fragrance sham art 
forgets Nature's most evident beauty, and cultivates 
colour; but in Chrysanthemums horticulture is being 
applied to produce flowers of pantomimic size. " Pot- 
hunting " threatens to spoil the magnificent autumn 
flower. Fault is laid at the doors of the committee 
who get up shows for fixing standards of size, and 
of judges who favour specimens of Brobdingnagian 
proportions. A reaction is at work amongst gar- 
deners against the inartistic flower as big as a 
dinner-plate — a monstrosity of no use for bouquets 
or ornamental purposes— in favour of the pretty 
single flower. Manchester Examiner. 



The Week's Work, 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By J. F. M'Leod, Gardener, Dover House, Roehampton. 
BEGONIAS. — If seed of these be sown now the 
plants may be expected to bloom about July. Use 
shallow pans and drain well. The soil should be as 
follows : two parts of loam, one part leaf-soil, one of 
sand, and a slight addition of ground crocks. The 
compost Bhould be passed through a J-inch sieve, and 
about i an inch of soil put on the Burface of the 
pans, that has been passed through a fine seed sieve. 
When the seed has been sown, plunge the pan into 
a bottom heat of about 80°. Cover them with a 
square of glass, and if the atmosphere of the house 
is likely to become at all dry, then place some 
brown paper over the glass, and this may be mois- 
tened frequently. The seed should germinate in 
about eighteen days. 

WATERING.— Of all seasons of the year the present 
is the time when this operation must be carried out 
with greatest care. Plants which are more or less in 
an inactive state if watered too freely will be ruined. 
Without going into the minor details respecting the 
uses and abuses of watering, I would emphasise the 
necessity of exercising the greatest caution in this 
matter. 

TEMPERATURES.— After a spell of unusually fine 
weather and bright sunshine, we suddenly expe- 
rienced a week ago one of the most severe storms of 
recent years ; fortunately, for outdoor vegetation, 
there was a considerable thickness of snow on the 
ground, which afforded some amount of protection. 
Such sadden change taking place externally, 
has a proportionate effect inside the plant-houses, 
and the question of temperature, which has not been 
important, owing to the favourable conditions of 
the weather, should be attended to in order to be 
prepared for any such future visitation. A good 
figure at which to keep plant-stoves is (i0° by night, 
allowing the mercury to fall to 65° towards morning. 
I am not an advocate for insistence upon an exact 
temperature being maintained, but at the same time 
I would advise the attention essential to maintaining 
a temperature suitable to the plants. The con- 
servatory in which there are various inmates of the 
stove may be kept at 47° ; and the greenhouse, 
if a cool one, containing growing Carnations, 
Cinerarias, Statice profusa, Mignonette, and green- 
house Rhododendrons, &c, may be kept as low as 
40°, with a dry atmosphere ; and the warm one con- 
taining Calla«, Primulas, fibrous-ronted Begonias, 
Cyclamens, and /V/.ileas, may have 4.5°, using as little 
water as will eullice to keep the plants in a healthy 
condition. The forcing-house Bhould be kept at 



65° at night, and the Croton-house, or Gardenia, or 
Ixora-house, at a like temperature. Heaths should be 
kept at about 35°, and a few degrees of frost do 
them no harm ; but if associated with such subjects 
as Phoenocomas, Aphelexis, and Darwinia then the 
frost must be excluded. Fern-houees should read 
47° in the warm one and 37° in the cool one, for day 
temperatures. It would be idle to lay down a 
stringent rule to be followed in regard to day tempe- 
ratures, so much depends on the position the different 
structures occupy, and the period at which the plants 
are required to be at their best, but from 2° to 5° 
would be a safe increase by fire-heat ; and if by sun, 
then the cultivator must be guided entirely by 
the external conditions. 

LILY OF THE VALLEY.— When there is not proper 
accommodation for forcing this sweet flower, a few 
pots may be plunged into boxes in moss or fibre, 
and placed over the pipes in the forcing-house, 
taking care that the pots are kept very well shaded 
until the spikes begin to appear, when they may be 
inured to more light, gradually giving more as the 
stem gets stronger. Cyclamens which were sown 
about the end of August, and which are in seed- 
boxes and pans, may be shifted into thumb-pots. 
They shouid have a compost of two parts loam, one 
leaf-mould, one sharp sand, and a slight addition of 
finely-broken charcoal, and the whole passed through 
a i-inch sieve. They may occupy a position near 
the glass, and a temperature of 50°. 

HIPPEASTRUM (AMARYLLIS).— These may now 
be entirely shaken out and repotted. Turfy loam, 
broken in pieces about the size of small Walnuts, 
may form two parts of the compost, and one part 
of each of the following may be added — leaf-mould, 
sand, and spent Mushroom dung, and half each of 
ground charcoal and lime rubbish. To every barrow- 
load of soil add a 9-inch potful of |-inch bones, 
and after being potted place them in batches 
in order to prolong their flowering season. The 
first batch should be plunged in a gentle bottom- 
heat and kept near the glass, to promote a robust 
leaf-growth ; the remaining lots may remain in any 
house free of frost, and kept free of water. 

GENERAL WORK.— A sharp look-out must be 
kept to see that plants do not get infested with 
vermin. Lilium Harrisii is a very troublesome 
subject at this stage of its growth, green- fly soon 
establishing itself if not taken in time. Tobacco- 
powder looks untidy in these ; I should therefore 
resort to soft-soap and chilled water in a weak state, 
the affected points to be dipped into this solution 
once a week. Show and fancy Pelargoniums and 
hybrid Calceolarias also require careful attention to 
prevent injury from green- fly, which may be done 
by a mild fumigating once a week. 



THE HARDY FRUIT OARDEN. 

By T. Turtos, Gardener, Maiden Erlegh, Reading. 
STRAWBERRIES. — During frosty weather, manure 
may be wheeled on to land intended for new planta- 
tions. My practice is to thoroughly prepare the 
land at this season by trenching and liberally 
manuring it, and then taking a crop of early or second 
Potatos, which being off the land by the beginning 
of August, ail that one has to do is to trample it all 
over when dry, and level it, to have perfect ground 
for Strawberry-planting, a decided saving of labour 
at that usually busy season. Should the land have 
been under a Strawberry crop within the last two or 
three years, afford it a heavy dressing of fresh soil 
as well as manure, and if turfy loam that has been 
stacked a year or longer cannot be afforded, Melon 
or Cucumber-bed soil, or that used for Chrysanthe- 
mums, will do instead, Place the soil just beneath 
the uppermost spit in the trenching, so that it will 
not be more than 1 foot below the surface. In this 
position it will get incorporated with staple in the 
earthing-up and lifting of Potatos. Where the 
practice obtains of making new plantations of Straw- 
berries in the spring from runners dibbled out in a 
somewhat shady border in the autumn, the land 
should aUo be prepared for these in the same 
manner as described above. 

THE FRUIT-ROOM. — Where precautions were 
taken early to remove to warmer quarter?, sufficient 
fruit for current consumption, the cool fruit-room 
may remain unopened, but well-protected, in the 
manner which I advised in a recent Calendar; 
but if the entry of frost is feared, the fruit should 
be allowed to gradually thaw in darkness. Apart 
from a suitable fruit- room, in which to keep Apples 
till late in the season, the finest- flavoured best- 



keeping varieties should be grown, and for continuing 
the supply from the present time, the following will 
be found excellent :— dessert : Braddick's Nonpareil, 
Claygate Pearmain, Cockle Pippin, and Sturmer 
Pippin ; culinary : Wellington should be grown in 
quantity, where it does well, no other sort cooking 
so well ; Annie Elizabeth and Norfolk Bearer, both 
good keepers ; French Crab, or, as it is called iu 
some localities, Ironsides, keeps quite firm till the 
menth of May, is also useful, and it, too, cooks well. 
The Pear season is practically over, the late varie- 
ties, EaBter Beurre, Beurre Rince, &c, having 
ripened during December. The best of the Pears 
now in use are Knight's Monarch and Olivier de 
Serres, the last-named being superior to that coarse 
sort, Ne Plus Ultra, also now in season. 



THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

By W. H. White, Orchid Grower, Burford Lodge, Dorking. 
HEATING THE HOUSES.— Owing to the hard 
weather recently experienced, it has been necessary 
to employ a considerable amount of fire-heat, 
especially by night, to maintain even the lowest 
temperatures given in last week's Calendar. To 
assist in keeping up the necessary degree of warmth, 
and at the same time economise fuel and avoid 
the dry air induced by water greatly warmer 
than usual, which is very injurious to the plants, 
stout Archangel mats have been used for covering 
the houseB. These mats are more convenient to use 
than blinds, being easily taken off at day-break, and 
dried during the day ready for use at sunset ; 
whereas, if the blinds are let down at night, they 
frequently get frozen so stiffly that they cannot be 
drawn up again for several hours after day-break, 
excluding much sun-light, to the detriment of the 
plants. 

EAST INDIAN HOUSE.— At this period plants of 
the graceful spring-flowering Platyclinis (Den- 
drochilum) glumaceum will have commenced pushing 
up new growths, and should be removed from their 
resting-quarters in the intermediate-house to the 
coolest part of this division, and stood on inverted 
pots, so as to bring them up as near to the light as 
possible. The proper time to repot these plants is 
either immediately they commence to grow, 
or within a short time after flowering. They 
will root freely in a compost of good fibrous 
peat and chopped sphagnum moss, to which 
a moderate quantity of broken crocks is added. 
From the present time until the pseudobulbs are 
thoroughly matured, afford the plants plenty of 
water at the roots; and on bright mornings well 
syringe the under parts of the leaves to keep them 
free from red-spider. Pachystoma Thompsonianum 
is a lovely little Orchid now starting into growth 
that requires the temperature of the warmest house, 
and, if necessary, it should have fresh material put 
about it in which to root. It succeeds admirably 
in small shallow pans suspended close to the roof- 
glass, the pans being well drained with crocks and 
charcoal up to within an inch of the rim ; and over 
this a thin layer of sphagnum should be placed, and 
pot the plant in a mixture of peat, good fibrous loam, 
and moss in equal proportions. Water sparingly 
until the young growths are well advanced and the 
new roots have a firm hold of the compost; even 
then much judgment is required in watering, as both 
roots and growth are very liable to damp off. Red- 
spider often appears on the under-surface of the 
leaves, and must be kept under with the usual re- 
medies. Such plants as Dendrobium Ainsworthii X, 
D. splendidissimum grandiflorum X, D. micans X, 
and the varieties of D. nobile that are prominently 
showing their flower-buds, will now require a few 
degrees more heat to bring them to perfection ; if 
placed in a light position in this house and well, 
elevated to the roof, their flowers, when open, will 
be clear and rich. 

INTERMEDIATE-HOU8E— In this division, which 
is a few degrees cooler than that in which Cattleyas 
and Lariias are cultivated, plants of the new Vanda 
Amesiana grow fairly well. Several of these are 
now in bloom, and at this season every care should 
be taken that moisture does not settle on the flowers, 
or they quickly become spotted. From the time the 
spikes are formed and the flower-buds well advanced, 
water at the root should be gradually lessened until 
the first flower opens, and then the supply should be 
reduced to a minimum. Treated in this manner, 
the blooms keep perfectly freeh, and free from spot 
for several weeks. Plants which had been supplied 
with more moisture Boon showed signs of premature 
decay in the bloom-buds. This desirable winter- 



JaNC-ART 13, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



43 



flowering Orchid will, no doubt, when its cultural 
requirements become better understood, be largely 
sought after in places where cut blooms are required 
for the dinner- table, or other room decorations 
generally. 

CYPRIPEDIUMS. — The following varieties of 
Cypripedium, viz., C. Leeanum X,C. purpuratum, 
C. Harrisianum X, C. Arthurianum X, C. insigne 
and its varieties, should, if they have become pot- 
bound, be given more pot-room. Strong, healthy 
plants may go into pots 2 inches more in diameter 
than those they are growing in. All of the above- 
mentioned plants are of comparatively easy culture, 
provided proper attention be afforded in the matter 
of watering, &c. Cypripedium Schlimii is a variety 
often seen in anything but a flourishing condition ; 
in many cases it is kept too warm, and becomes 
liable to the attacks of small yellow thrips, which 
dis6gnre the leaves, and ultimately cause the death 
of the plant. The best place for this pretty species 
is in a cool and shady part of the intermediate house, 
where it should be deluged with water the whole year 
round ; it will at no time stand the least clear sunshine. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By A. Coombes, Gardener, Himley Hall, Dudley. 
THE SOWING OF SEEDS.— This operation will 
soon claim attention, and in the meantime a seed- 
pan or two of Cauliflowers in variety may be sown. 
For early work, Snowball, Extra Early Forcing, or 
Perle, may be chosen. Seed of Lettuces Golden 
Queen or Paris Market, may also be sown. The 
seed-pans may be placed in a vinery or Peach- 
house now being started, subsequently transplant- 
ing the seedlings into frames standing npon a very 
mild hot-bed of leaves, and either grow them on 
to the finish there, or plant them out on a warm 
border duly hardened when the weather becomes 
suitable. Whichever course may be adopted, do 
not allow the young plants to become drawn or 
weakly, by affording too much heat or by coddling 
them in any way. Make up a mild hot-bed 
frame for growing the French Forcing, or the Paris 
Carrots ; the soil employed being light and rich 
with a free admixture of sand and wood-ashes — it 
should be from 6 to 8 inches in depth. Sow the 
seed, which should be separated by rubbing it together 
with sand, in shallow drills 10 inches apart ; and as 
it will be some time before the Carrots need the 
whole of the space, it will be economy to sow thinly 
between the rows, also in drills, French, breakfast, 
or other early Radishes, and Paris Cos Lettuce, to be 
transplanted later into frames before planting in 
the open. 

LEEKS, if Wanted early or of large size, may now 
be sown, two or three seeds in a patch, the patches 
to be thinned to one plant each when it is seen 
which is the strongest. For this sowing, thumb-pots 
are best, two-thirds filled with a compost consisting 
of three parts loam, one part old Mushroom-bed 
manure, and a little sand, which has all been passed 
through a sieve. Should the soil be damp, no water 
will be needed before the seeds germinate ; if dry, 
make up the pots, and water them one day before 
sowing. A temperature of 70° by day and 60° by 
night will bring them on, but they must be kept on 
n shelf near the glass ; and when the plants are 2 to 
3 inches high, the pots should be filled up with soil, 
and at the subsequent re-pottings the plants should 
be kept low dowD, with just a little new soil nnder 
the old balls, filling up the pots as the plants pro- 
gress ; this will help to increase the length of the 
blanched portion. 

EARLY CABBAGES.— Owing to the mildness of the 
autumn and early winter months, most Cabbages are 
hearting, and, in the event of hard frosts, the crop 
will be of short duration. It is desirable, therefore, 
to make preparations for obtaining strong, early 
plants by sowing in heat. Some early variety, as 
Veitch's Earliest of All, Ellam's Early or other, may 
be sown and treated like early Cauliflower. 

SALADS.— Place Dandelion and Chicory roots, 
ami plants of Endive, in the Mushroom-house. The 
first two to furnish blanched new leaves and the 
latter to merely blfnch itself. Sow Mustard and 
Cress in separate and Bhallow boxes, in soil made 
smooth and firm, sowing thickly, and cover each box 
with a piece of board or a slate, to be removed when 
the seed sprouts. If the supply of Lettuces is likely 
to fall short of the demand, seeds of Lettuces may 
be sown somewhat thickly in boxes, and either 
thinned out to grow larger, or be cut over like Mustard, 
these tender leaves being generally liked in salads. 
Onions, too, if deBired in the young Btate, may be 



grown in boxes. To insure these green salads being 
in the best condition, a brisk heat and as much mois- 
ture as they will stand without damping off, should 
be afforded them. 

TOMATOS for bearing in the early part of May 
may be eown, and I know of no better kind for this 
purpose than Early Ruby. Use a soil in the seed- 
pnts consisting of two-thirds loam, one-third old 
Mushroom-bed or hotbed manure, and leaf-mould 
sifted, to which add a little sand and wood-ashes. 
Sow thinly, and place in a temperature of 65° to 75° 
in a light position, and when the seedlings are ready 
to be pricked off, place them singly in thumbs, and 
return them to their old quarters. Repot when the 
roots fill the pots, using this time large 60's. Their 
next remove should be into 6-inch pots, employ- 
ing for that shift more loam and wood-ashes, and 
potting firmly. 

PREPARATIONS FOR 8EED SOWING.— Potting- 
bench soil passed through a ;V-inch sieve to remove 
the rubbish is an invaluable material for scattering 
over beds of small seeds in the open along the drills 
of Peas and Beans, and for placing about the roots 
of transplanted Peas, &c. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By Bailey Wadds, Gardener, Birdsall Gardens, York, 
FIGS. — The growing demand for this kind of 
fruit has brought their cultivation to the front con- 
siderably ; formerly the usual place assigned to them 
was the back wall of a Peach-house or a Vinery, 
where one crop of fruit a year could generally be 
obtained in fair condition, but the second and third 
crops were not to be depended on, owing to the shade 
from the Vines, &c, and the different treatment 
required. The most satisfactory way of securing 
crops of good fruits from May to November for a 
small establishment is to grow them in pots. A 
suitable house for growing pot Figs is a span-roof 
about 18 feet wide and 60 feet long, with two divi- 
sions, and a path running down the centre, with 
beds on each side, having two or three hot-water 
pipes under each. The pipes require to be laid on 
brick pillars, and the spaces between and up to 
about 9 inches above the pipes should be made strong 
and solid with broken stones ; ours are filled with 
flints, which hold the heat steady. The hot-water 
pipes are about 3 feet below the surface of the bed. 
For plunging material I have used coal-ashes for 
many years, and the Fig roots usually get into these 
during the summer, but they are lifted, and replunged 
every year. About two dozen good-sized bush-trees 
may be grown in each division of such a house, and one 
lot should be started at the beginning of the year, the 
other in March. Afford these pot Figs thorough soak- 
ings of clear water at about 80°, when they require it. 
A top- heat of 65° to 70° is a suitable one at starting. 
For Figs, in small-sized pots, good turfy loam 
and J-inch bones form a good compost in which 
to pot them ; drainage should be good, and they must 
not be afforded pots that are too large for the root?. 
A Fig tree will fruit well for many years in a 12 
or 14 inch pot. A space about 2 inches deep should 
be left between the soil and the rim of the pot. 
Not much can be done in the way of training Figs ; 
afford a tree one stont stake in the middle, and tie 
out the shoots thinly, letting them aeeime their 
natural shape as much as practicable. Dress the 
trees with Lemon-oil or petroleum emulsion to rid 
them of white-scale, an insect that increases very 
fast in the summer months, and when strong mea- 
sures cannot be taken with the plants owing to the 
crop of succession fruit, apply strong soap-suds with 
a soft painter's brush, and afterwards brush the trees 
with an insecticide. The early house for a time 
after starting should be kept at about 50° to 55° by 
night, 60° by day, with an increase of 10° with sun- 
heat and air. Cuttings of Figs will root quickly in 
bottom-heat ; and good plants may be quickly 
obtained from layers in the summer. Some varieties 
for pot- cultivation are Brown Turkey, Bourjasotte 
Grise, Negro Largo, Belton Purple, Early Violet, 
Brunswick, St John,Violette de Bordeaux, Violette 
Sepor, Pingo de Niel, Groese Verte. 

CHERRIES IN POT8, OR PLANTED OUT, will re- 
quire attentive care from the time of starting and 
till the trees come into bloom. A temperature of 
40° to 45° by night, 50° to 55° by day will be suffi- 
cient, and the night temperature should not 
be increased much till the fruit is set. The day 
temperature may be raised somewhat with sun-heat 
if a free circulation of air be afforded. Syringe the 
trees with quassia-water as a remedy for green or 



black-aphis. In repotting Cherries, the drainage 
should be attended to, and a compost employed 
consisting of turfy loam and crushed bones, potting 
them firmly. Old-established plants in pots or 
borders will require to be well looked after at 
starting. The varieties of Black Circassian, Black 
Eagle, May Duke, and Royal Duke are excellent for 
forcing. 

CUCUMBER SEEDS may now be sown, two in a 
small 60, UBing sifted loam and leaf-mould, and 
plunging the pots in a bottom- heat of 70° to 75°, 
a sheet of glass being pnt over the pots to keep mice 
from the seeds, but removing it when the plants are 
fairly above-ground. Reserve the stronger plant in 
each pot, and throw the other away. A small stick 
Bhould be put to each, and soot sprinkled round about 
to keep off slugs. Good varieties of Cucumbers are 
Sander's Telephone and Lockie's Perfection. Plants 
that have been in bearing to the present time will 
need to be top-dreaaed with soil and manure, and 
to have the roots kept in a moist state, but nothing 
more. Keep the bine thin, and avoid over-cropping 
the plants. The temperature should not be lower 
than 65° by night, nor 70° to 75° by day, the glass 
being covered with mats and litter on frosty nights. 
All soil needed for planting Cucumbers in should be 
well warmed and otherwise prepared some time 
before it is required. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By John Lambert, Gardener, Powis Castle, Welshpool. 
CARNATIONS. — Where beds and borders of this 
flower were planted in the autumn, and no protec- 
tion afforded, it may be advisable to mulch them if 
in a low damp situation, to protect them a little 
from severe weather, but in high dry situations, 
if the layers were strong, and early-rooted, 
and planted carefully, I found that they with- 
stood the past two winters of severe and pro- 
longed frost. Leaf-mould, or manure from a 
spent Mushroom-bed, makes a good mulch for this 
purpose, and it may be placed evenly around the 
pUnts. There should be a little soot mixed with the 
mulching material before putting it on the beds or 
borders. If plants in pots are plunged in coal- 
ashes in cold frames to stand the winter, as preferred 
by some, great care must be taken to remove the 
lights on all favourable occasions, and that the soil 
is not permitted to become too dry, else they would 
be better left outside to take their chance. 

PROPAGATING OF TENDER BEDDING PLANTS. 

— Commence to propagate Pelargoniums of all those 
varieties of which there is a short stock, as at bed- 
ding-out time we never aeem to have too many. 
Select strut shoots of a good dark-green colour, short- 
jointed, 3 inches will be about the best length; cut 
them through close below a joint, removing as few 
leaves as possible. I prefer 6 or 7-inch pots to 
boxes or pans, with \h inch of crocka at the bottom, 
and filling them up with a light soil that will cling 
to the roots of the cuttings, making this quite firm. 
In dibbling-in the cuttings, keep the dibber always 
in an upright position, taking care the cuttings are 
not rubbed or otherwise damaged, and be sure that 
the cutting rests on the soil at its lower end, and is 
well fastened there. This is of more consequence 
than making the surface look nice. Plunge the pots 
in a propasating- frame with a steady bottom-heat 
of about 75° to 80°, but keep the tops moderately 
cool, and admit air to prevent damping; no water 
need be afforded these cuttings at this time of 
the year before they are almost rooted. In a few 
weeks they will be ready for potting off singly, and 
will themselves produce shoots fit for cuttings ; but 
if these are not required, the points should be pinched 
out, so as to make bushy stuff. 

FUCHSIAS. — Inspect the stock of these plants 
selected last autumn for the purpose of supplying 
cuttings to make plants for next Bummer's bedding. 
Young plants with one good strong centre-shoot 
make the best for pot-plants, keeping the old stock 
plants for planting-out in beds or borders. Place 
the old plants in a genial warmth, and close to the 
glass, syringing them once or twice a day, instead 
of watering them till they begin to grow. Cuttings 
of Fuchsias Btruck last autumn, and kept cool through 
the winter, will also give a good supply of cuttings 
at this season, and will make nice plants if the 
green tops are removed, and put into a propagating- 
frame. A light sandy compost should be used in 
the cutting-pots, covering this with some coarae but 
clean silver-sand, and giving water sufficient to 
moisten the whole, and to render the cuttings firm in 
the aand. 



44 



THE GABD ENEB S ' CUB NI CL E. 



[January 13, 1894. 



EDITORIAL NOTICES. 



Local News.— Correspondents will greatly oblige by sending be 
the Editor early intelligence of local events likely to be of 
interest to our readers, or of any matters which it is 
desirable to bring under the notice of horticulturists. 

Newspapers. — Correspondents sending newspapers should to 
careful to mark the paragraphs they wish the Editor to see. 

Advertisements should be sent to the PUBLISHER. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 



SATURDAY, 
TUESDAY, 

WEDNESDAY, 
THURSDAY, 

TUESDAY, 



WEDNESDAY, Jan 



FRIDAY, 



MEETINGS. 

Jan. 13— Royal Botanic Society. 

( Royal Horticultural Society. Com- 
Jax. 16V mittees, at the Drill Hall, James 
( Street, Westminster. 

/"Royal Gardeners' Benevolent In- 
T , 7 J stitute, AnnualMeetingat3P.M. 
JAN. 17< at simpson ' B T3 tel, Strand. 

(. Dinner at six. 
Jan. 18— Linnean Society. 

SALES. 

/"Special Sale o£ Lilies, Tuberoses, 
, ..) Spiraeas, Gladioli. Greenhouse 
JAN. lb< FerDS| &0-i at p ro theroe & Morris' 

( Rooms. 

f Lilies from Japan, Roses. Be- 
| gonias, &c.,at Protheroe & Morris' 
.„) Rooms. 
' i Sale of the Orchids and Stove 
Plants at Eastnor House, Black- 
^ heath, by Protheroe & Morris. 

I Important Sale of Home-grown 
Lilies, Begonias, Dielytras, Car- 
nations, Picotees, &c, at Pro- 
theroe & Morris* Rooms. 
Orchids, at Protheroe & Morris' 
Rooms. 



CORRECTED AVERAGE TEMPERATURE FOR THE ENSU- 
ING WEEK, DEDUCED FROM THE OBSERVATIONS 
OF FORTY-THREE YEARS, AT CHISWICK.-36°.9. 



The notioes which we have lately 
Vltl1 *. published concerning this beau- 

Coignetise. r ° 

tif ul Vine have brought us much 
correspondence concerning it. In the first place 
we must accord a place of honour to the learned 
Direotor of the Jardin des Plantes, M. Maxims 
Cornu, who obligingly writes to us in the 
following terms : — 

" We have cultivated at the Museum for the last 
eight years the magnificent Vine to which you call 
the attention of your readers by an extract from the 
excellent American journal, Garden and Forest, 
edited by our reciprocal friend, Prof. Sabgent. Our 
plants were recognised and identified by another of 
our mutual friends, the ,late Professor Planchon. 
This Vine was brought from Japan in 1884, by a 
telegraph engineer, M. Deqron, who was specially 
commissioned by the French Government to collect 
specimens and seeds of this interesting Vine. Some 
yearB previously M. Maoee called the attention 
of the Minister of Agriculture to the importance, 
from a wine-grower's point of view, of a Vine 
growing at considerable elevation. He thought it 
probable that, owing to its hardiness and robust 
habit it might resist the attacks of the Phylloxera. 
I was officially consulted about that time as to the 
probable value of the Vine, and gave an unfavour- 
able opinion on account of its obviously close 
affinity with V. Labrusca. The bunch is slender, 
short, unbranched, the fruit-stalks being placed 
singly on the main axis without branching. The 
Vine in question does not appear to have been 
utilised in French vineyards. M. Deoron readily 
found the Vine, and sent home a considerable quan- 
tity of seed, which at my suggestion was distributed 
among various French scientific establishments, espe- 
cially the National School of Horticulture at Ver- 
sailles, the National School of Agriculture at Mont- 
pelier, and various other institutions where the plant 
must have grown as well as it has with us. We 
were soon struck with its great vigour, and the mag- 
nificent colour which it assumes in winter. Our 
foremen called the attention of the visitors to our 
nursery to the plant, and spoke of it on several 
occasions in their public lectureB (unpublished). 



" Two years ago it was placed against the wall of 
a house, where it has grown in a magnificent 
manner. This species was distributed from the 
Museum in 1889-90, as shown by the catalogue sent 
to you at the time, and of which I enclose a second 
copy. It was not sent to foreign botanic gardens 
by reason of the difficulties raised by the treaty of 
Berne as to the transport of Vines. Vitis Coignetife 
does not strike readily ; it must be layered, and this 
is an obstacle to its propagation. Professor Sargent 
sent us some seeds two years ago, which grew well. 
The plant, then, exists in Europe, where it shows all 
the meritorious qualities which have made it note- 
worthy in Japan. Maxime Cornu, Prof esseur Adminis- 
trateur, Musium, Paris." 

Mr. Burbidge writes on the same subject 
from Dublin : — 

" It is very satisfactory to hear from several 
quarters that there are several stocks of this splendid 
Vine in England, even although some difficulty seems 
inevitable in connection with its propagation. I 
have never seen the Vine which clambers over the 
Pine trees in Mr. Anthony Waterer's nursery at 
Knaphill, but I have often heard accounts of its vigour 
and beauty from visitors, who had seen it in the 
waning of the year. Seeds of this Vine have been 
obtained from Japan, by Mr. J. H. Veitch, and I 
believe there is some stock of it now at Coombe 
Wood, and there are fine examples in several private 
collections. As to the difficulty of its increase, it 
seems to resemble V. amurensis, or V. rugosa, which 
also refuses to grow from hard-wood cuttings or 
" eyes," although, as in the case of most species of 
Vitis, seeds grow freely. 

" Possibly, V. Coignetias does not fruit in this 
country in the open air, but it would be easy to fruit 
it under glass, and then raise it in quantity 
from seed. Nearly all the Vines, i.e., species of 
Vitis, are very handsome as ornamental climbers, 
but they have been sadly neglected by nearly all our 
landscape-gardeners. We may never get good 
Grapes in quantity from outdoor Vines, as in 
France and in Italy, but we can at least imitate the 
grace and beauty it gives in those lands, and in Italy 
more especially, to walls and railings, trees, palings, 
poles and pergolas, or covered walks in gardens 
everywhere in that sunny land. 

" Nothing could exceed in beauty of form and in 
lovely colouring the fine collection of Grape Vines 
I saw on the slopes around Poggio Gherardo in the 
month of September, 1892. Here the Vines are of 
many kinds — French, Italian, and American, and 
swing from tree to tree in the most elegant festoons 
imaginable, no two quite alike, but all affording 
variations in light, and shade, and colour, 
that a painter might delight in transferring to his 
canvas as a foil to the sleek white bullocks, and the 
picturesque contadina of sunny Italy. 

" I enclose a little sketch I made about 5.30 a.m. 
one morning when the mass bells were jangling all 
around, and the Btately Duomo and Giotto's bell- 
tower or campanile loomed up from a dense white 
misty curtain that hung over the Arno; but nothing 
but a good study in colour could tell half the won- 
derful beauty of these carelessly-cultured Vines, that 
seemingly will grow beautifully do what one may 
by %vay of training, provided they be in the open air. 
[Several similar illustrations were published in our 
columns, Aug. 15, in 1874. Ed,] 

" Here and there in the vineyards, both in France 
as well as in Italy, you may see dark patches or odd 
rows of the dark crimson-purple leaved 'claret' 
Grape, the fruit of which is said to be grown for 
colouring the wine. This would be a beautiful kind 
for sunny walls and gables, both in England and 
Ireland. Miller's Burgundy, or Black Miller, again, 
is a fine vigorous hardy Vine, that fruits freely, and 
its leaves colour well in autumn, but not so well, 
perhaps, as those of Barbarossa, which assume 
the most rich and lovely tints before they fall 
away in November. The wild American Vines 
are also well worth looking after as ornamental 
climbers, and some varieties colour better than 
others. V. vulpina, the Fox Grape, fruits abun- 



dantly, and is then very ornate, although its Grapes 
are not very tempting, being small, like Sloes, with 
a very strong musty aroma. V. aestivalis, the 
Summer Grape ; V. cordifolia, the Winter or Frost 
Grape ; V. Labrusca, or the Isabella Grape, which 
extends from Canada, over the Himalayas, into 
Japan ; and several other hardy species and varieties 
might also be more extensively planted in our 
gardens. Formerly there was a collection of these 
hardy American species, or wild Vines, in the Royal 
Horticultural Gardens at Chiswick, and some few of 
them are, I believe, still to be found there. Information 
about them may be found in Planchon's Les Vignes 
Amiricaines, published in 1875, and there is a useful 
Vine map of Europe, indicating the distribution of 
the main varieties, and the principal sources of 
the best wines. It is issued or published by Dr. W. 
Hamm, of Vienna. 

"Apart from varieties of Vines which colour 
more or less naturally in the autumn, the autumnal 
colouring may be more or less intensified by a judi- 
cious method of culture in well-drained soils to 
which an abundance of lime-rubble had been added 
before planting. It would be very welcome news to 
hear if there are good stocks of V. Coignetias either 
in Britain or on the Continent, as also to receive 
further information as to the handsomest of all the 
red, purple, or crimson-leaved forms of V. vinifera. 
F. W. Burbidge." 

Lastly, we cite a letter from Mr. Shingles, 
gr. to Earl Ducie, at Tortworth, who says : — 

" We have a very large surface covered with what 
we call Vitis polymorpha, but it is evidently the 
Vitis Coigneti-s described in your paper this week. 
No one appears to be able to find anything out about 
it, or where to buy it. It is difficult to propagate ; 
and after trying every conceivable method for years, 
we have, I think, got the right one at last, and I 
herewith send you one rooted last March, or rather 
put in at that time, and a piece of wood ; and if 
you think it is worthy of your notice, please to make 
what use you may think proper of it. Thomas 
Shingles." 

We have sent Mr. Shinglks' cutting to the 
Royal Horticultural Society's garden at Chiswick, 
and hope next season to be able to establish its 
identity. We learn that the plant is in cultiva- 
tion with Canon Ellacombe. By some, V. 
Coigneti;e is supposed to be synonymous with 
V. rugosa and V. amurensis. This is a point 
upon which we cannot venture to give an opinion. 
We can only refer to the extract from Professor 
Planchon's Monograph, given in our last issue. 



The first week of the year was 

The recent rem arkable in almost all parts of 
wintry weather. . 

the kingdom for heavy snow- 
storms and a rapid fall in the temperature. The 
mildness, whioh had lasted from the beginning 
of the winter, ended quite suddenly on the 
2nd inst., southerly and westerly winds giving 
place to bitterly cold north and north-east gales, 
and the frost increasing in intensity till the 
6th inst., sinoe which time milder weather has 
gradually approached, till, at the time of writing, 
snow and ioe have almost disappeared in the 
London area. Mr. Cordery, writing from Bit- 
terne, Southampton, records an almost unpre- 
cedented degree of cold for that part, com- 
mencing on January 2 with a sharp fall of snow 
about 4 p.m., and 10° of frost on the morning of 
the 3rd, with a maximum temperature during 
that day of 30°, or 2° below the freezing point. 
The next morning showed 12° of frost, a bitterly 
cold day, with a northerly wind ; and the highest 
reading that day, 26°, or 6° of frost. On 
Friday, the 5th inst., the oold had fallen to 12°, 
or 20° of frost, and the thermometer did not get 
higher than 16° the whole day; but on the 
morning of the 7th, it was found that a great 
rise of the temperature had taken plaoe, the 




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TEE GABDENEJRS' CEBONICLE. 



45 



glass showing but 3° of frost. Sunday night 
was again very cold, 12° of frost being regis- 
tered, but the day was warm and bright, the 
maximum degree of warmth being 1° above 
freezing-point, with a south and south-east wind 
blowing. There were 7° of frost on Monday 
morning, but the wind continuing southerly, the 
snow and ice soon disappeared. 

Mr. Lumsden, gardener at Bloxholme Hall, 
Lincoln, kindly furnishes a weather record for 
the same period, which indicates generally higher 
readings than the one above quoted, although 
the place is more than 200 miles further north. 
The greatest cold, however — 1°, or 31° of frost 
— was reached on the morning of January 6 ; 
and the rise has since been rapid and continuous, 
being on the 9th inst., 27° min., and 34° max., 
and the prevailing wind southerly. 

The reoordof Mr.CooMBES, of Himley Gardens, 
Dudley, is very similar to the others, the greatest 
degree of cold being experienced, viz. 26°, on 
the 6th inst., with a sharp rise on Monday and 
Tuesday, when the maximum reaohed was 33°, 
or 1° above freezing. 

In Northamptonshire, at Fineshade Abbey, 
Mr. H. Tubneb says that the frost on the morn- 
ing of the 6th inst. was only 1° above zero. It 
is as yet too early to estimate the damage 
occasioned by the sudden aocession of cold after 
a warm autumn and mild early winter ; but we 
may suppose that fruit tree growth was uncom- 
monly well-matured by the heat and drought of 
the summer, as regards, at the least, that which 
formed early; although the immature tips of 
shoots will have suffered on suoh trees as con- 
tinued to grow to a late period, but as bloom- 
buds are not found near the tips of shoots, the 
loss will not have any effect on the future orop. 
Broccoli and other rather tender things are 
likely to show considerable loss, as they do always 
when the cold approaches zero. 



Pavia macrostachya at Coombe Wood 

(aee Supplementary Illustration). — Among the ap- 
pointments for the coming year at the Royal 
Horticultural Society we note, with great satisfac- 
tion, a Conference upon Trees and Hardy Shrubs, 
to be held at Chiswick on September 25. This is 
well ; but it would hare been better if another Con- 
ference on the same subject could have been held in the 
early summer, to include what are technically called 
flowering shrubs and trees which are so unaccount- 
ably neglected now-a-days. Among these flowering 
shrubs or low trees there is none more attractive 
than the Pavia macrostachya, of which we give an 
illustration from a tree in the nurseries of Messrs. 
Veitch at Coombe Wood. The foliage has a close 
resemblance to that of the Horse- Chestnut. The 
flowers are white or pinkish, in long elegant clusters, 
and appear in July. Few of any low-growing trees 
are more ornamental than this, which has the ad- 
vantage, moreover, of being perfectly hardy. 

LlNNEAN SOCIETY.— At an evening meeting to 
be held on Thursday, January 18, 1894, at 8 p.m., 
the following paper will be read :— " On the Origin 
of the Structural Peculiarities of Climbing Stems 
by self-adaption in response to external mechanical 
forces." By the Rev. Geo. Henslow, M.A., 
F.L.S., &c. 

The Royal Horticultural Society.— The 
first meeting of the above for the present year will 
take place in the Drill Hall, James Street, West- 
minster, on January 16. The new committees will 
assemble at 12 noon. Special attention is directed 
to the Schedule of Arrangements for 1894, which 
contains several new features. The Report of the 
Council, Balance-sheet, and a complete list of 
Fellows of the Society have also been published, and 



may be obtained by non-Fellows on application 
at the Society's offices, 117, Victoria Street, 
Westminster. 

National Rose Society.— A meeting of the 

committee will be held, by the kind permission of the 
Horticultural Club, at their Rooms, Hotel Windsor, 
Victoria St., Westminster, on Tuesday, the 16th inst., 
at 3 p M , for the transaction of the following busi- 
ness : — 1. Appointment of a schedule sub-com- 
mittee ; 2. Windsor schedule ; 3. Printing list of 
awards in 1893 in next annual report ; 4. Different 
grades of awards to new seedling Roues ; 5. Special 
class in Crystal Palace schedule for new members ; 

6. Extending the radius for suburban-grown Roses ; 

7. Northern show in 1894; 8. Other business. 
H. Hontwood D'Ombrain and Edwaed Mawlet 
are the Hon. Sees. The following meetings, and 
matters to be discussed at them, has been received 
from the Secretary of the Society : — February 13. 
Crystal Palace schedule; March 13. Halifax 
schedule; April 10. Appointment of judges for 
Windsor show ; May 8. Appointment of judges for 
metropolitan show ; June 12. Revision of list of 
judges for metropolitan show ; October 9. Provincial 
show in 1895 ; November 13. House-list of com- 
mittee and officers for 1895 ; Annual general 
meeting, Thursday, December 6. Any member of 
the committee having resolutions to propose, is 
requested to forward them to Mr. E. Mawlet eight 
clear days before the next meeting, so that they 
may appear on the circular calling such meeting. 

United Horticultural Benefit and Pro- 
vident SOCIETY. — The quarterly meeting of this 
Society was held on Monday evening, January 8, at 
the Caledonian Hotel, Adelphi. Five new members 
were elected ; and there being a balance in the 
benefit fund, it was resolved that the same be added 
to the credit of members on all amounts above £1, 
at the rate of 4d. in the pound. This being the last 
meeting in the financial year, Messrs. Dixon, Gun- 
ner and Pozet were elected to audit the accounts. 
The annual meeting will take place at 8 o'clock in 
the evening of Monday, March 12, and Mr. B. 
Wynne has been invited to preside on that occasion. 
A vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Joseph 
Wheeler for presiding, and the meeting was brought 
to a close. 

Berkshire Flora.— Mr. G. C. Druce, 118, High 
Street, Oxford, is preparing a Flora of Berkshire, 
and would be very glad of any information on plant 
occurences in the county. Any record sent should give 
the precise locality, date, and collector's name. In 
the case of rare plants, care will be taken to prevent 
the information getting into the hands of plant- 
exterminators. The Flora will be not only a list 
of the county plants, but will give short biographies 
of the botanists connected with, or who have written 
upon, Berkshire plants. Brief descriptions of the 
county geology, meteorology, and river drainage will 
also be included. 

CALENDARS FOR 1894. — The new year always 
brings its quota of calendars, sheet, cardboard, and 
block, but few have better claims to be called 
artistic in design and colouring than those published 
by Sir Joseph Causton & Sons, of 9, Eastcheap, 
Southwark Street, and Portugal Street. The large 
cardboard calendar is not quite so good as last year 
in regard to its ornamentation, and the type is too 
small for all but the best eyes. The Birmingham 
and Midland Counties Weather Calendar contains 
the usual calendarial matter, together with Mr. 
Hugh Clement's weather predictions for every day 
in the year, a list of good books on gardening, 
a gardener's calendar suited to the midland counties, 
and the principal fairs in that part of the country. 
Calvert's Mechanics' Almanack contains in addition 
to the usual matter found in all almanacks 
much valuable information for artizans and handy- 
craftsmen, and is certainly cheap at id. 

XENIA ORCHIDACEA.— Dr. Kbanzlin, who is 
carrying on the work commenced under this name 
by the late Professor Reichenbach, has ; ust pub- 



lished the 7th part of the third volume, comprising 
plates 261 to 270. We have in a previous number 
registered the plants figured in our periodical list of 
plant portraits, but in this place it may be well to 
allude more at length to some of them. The beau- 
tiful Trichopilia Kienastiana, t. 2 61, is figured 
from the same plant in the collection of Consul Kie- 
nast, of Zurich, that supplied Reichenbach with 
the materials for his original description in the 
Gardeners' Chronicle, 1883, ii., 166. Maxillaria 
longipes is one of Hartweg's plants, with crimson 
flowers 7 to 8 cent, across, with very narrow lanceo- 
late spreading segments double the length of the 
oblong obtuse lip. Cojlogyne cuprea is a new species 
probably from Malacca, with pinkish fawn-coloured 
flowers. The outer segments are oblong, lanceolate ; 
the lateral petals linear, projecting beyond the sepals ; 
the lip deep salmon-pink, with three roundish lobes, 
two lateral, one anterior — it is supposed to be a native 
of Malacca. Spathoglottis Wrayi, t. 264, has flat pen- 
tagonal flowers with three oblong brownish sepals, two 
obovate oblong yellow petals, and a deeply three-lobed 
lip. The lobes narrowed at the baBe, curved, yellow 
with red spots at the base. A synopsis of the species 
of the genus is given. Cypripedium Roebelini was 
described in our columns in 1883, ii., 684. The upper 
sepal is greenish striped with purple, the lateral petals 
linear, very long, twisted, purplish, and with tufts of 
hairs at the edges; near the base the lip is greenish. 
The other species are not so interesting to gardeners. 
The illustrations are good, and will be very service- 
able to botanists. 

" GARDEN WORK." — This paper, intended chiefly 
for amateurs and allotment-holders, commenced 
with the present month the eleventh year of its 
existence. Much useful information is given, and 
several illustrations ; the two-fold object of the pub- 
lication being, as explained in the prospectus for 
1894, the diffusion of knowledge among the inex- 
perienced, and pleasure and guidance to amateurs. 
The price (a penny weekly) brings it within the 
reach of those whom it is intended to benefit. 

"Timber and Wood working Machinery." 
— The special issue of this periodical (for Dec. 30) 
is truly a large one, containing much technical and 
generally interesting information, together with 
many illustrations. It is further accompanied by 
three very large plates of portraits of authorities in 
timber — merchants, arbitrators, and salesmen. Alto- 
gether an important number for all specially inter- 
ested in the various branches of the subject of which 
it treats. 

Carnation and Picotee Society.— We have 
received the third annual report (for 1893), of the 
Midland Carnation and Picotee Society. The 
pamphlet contains an encouraging report of 
prosperous condition of the Society, a list of kindred 
societies, and some useful information as to the sorts 
of Carnations, See., which are best for exhibition in 
their respective classes. 

" GLENNY'S ALMANACK."— Glenny's Illustrated 
Garden Almanack and Florists' Directory for 1894, 
contains much useful information, including direc- 
tions for garden-work, catalogues of new flowers, 
a list of nurserymen in the United Kingdom, 
&c. Its price (one shilling) brings it within the 
reach of all gardeners. The publishers are Messrs. 
Ward, Lock & Bowden, Salisbury Square, E.C. 

" LAZY LAND." — We have received the first 
number of the new series of Lazy Land, one of 
the many modern penny papers. It is certainly 
higher in tone than some of its contemporaries, con- 
tains several tales, some more serious reading, and 
many illustrations. 

Widcombe Horticultural Society. — 
" Seeds and their Distribution " was the subject of 
a lecture delivered on the 12th ult. by Mr. J. W 
Morris to the members of the Widcombe Horticul- 
tural Society. The subject was elucidated by micro- 
scopical views of various kinds of seeds, facilities 
for inspecting which were given to the audience by the 



46 



THE GARDENERS 1 CHRONICLE. 



[Januaby 13, 1894. 



lecturer, and other friends of the Society. Daring 
the evening the annual report was presented by the 
Hon. Sec. It showed a trifling deficit. After its 
adoption, prizes and certificates won at the recent 
show were distributed. 

Chrysanthemum Society for Glasgow.— 

At a meeting held in Glasgow on the 5th inst., 
under the chairmanship of Mr. Alex. Cross, M.P., 
it was resolved on the proposition of the Chairman, 
seconded by Mr. Dewar, Curator of the Botanic 
Gardens, to constitute in Glasgow a Chrysanthe- 
mum Society, for such purposes as should afterwards 
be defined. Mr. Andrew Cunningham was appointed 
Hon. Secretary, and a committee was named for 
drawing a constitution and rules. The Horticul- 
tural Society was asked to take the initiative in the 
matter, but preferred not to enter upon this new 
field. 

The Birmingham Amateur Gardeners' 

ASSOCIATION.— From the first report of this Society 
we learn that 152 amateurs in horticulture have 
joined it. The meetings are generally held for the 
reading of papers, discussions amongst themselves, 
and the exhibition of products from their own 
gardens. Three excursions took place during the 
past year, viz., to Stoneleigh Abbey Gardens, near 
Kenilworth; to Canwell Hall Gardens, near Tam- 
worth ; and to Impney Hall Gardens, Droitwich ; 
and the Society is giving a great impulse to amateur 
gardening about Birmingham. Gardeners by pro- 
fession are not admitted as members. 

The Weather in Sussex for the Week 
ending January 7. — Mr. H. C. Peincep, 
gardener, Buxted Park, Uckfield, sends the follow- 
ing record of the weather: — "The new year com- 
menced with frost, for on the 1st the thermometer 
indicated 20° Fah., or 12° of cold ; and though the 
sun was bright during the day, the maximum tem- 
perature only reached 35°. On the 2nd, 27° was 
reached ; when, in the early part of the day, the sun 
shone it rose to 34°. Snow fell in the afternoon, 
which was followed at night by a considerable fall in 
the temperature, 22° being the point reached, and 
the highest during the day being 28°. This, with 
a cold north-east wind blowing, kept the houses 
down more than if there had been 40 degrees of frost. 
The minimum recorded on the 4th was 18°, and the 
maximum 20°; while on the 5th the thermometer 
fell to 6°, or 26° of frost, only rising as high as 15° 
during the day. On the morning of the 6th the 
minimum was 7°, rising about three in the afternoon 
to 3z°. On the 7th we registered 35 a l ° of frost, the 
thermometer falling to 3.j° below zero. The day was 
bright and clear, and though the sun shone bril- 
liantly all the time, the highest point reached was 
26°. Our thermometer is placed on a wooden post 
in the centre of the garden facing north, about 
3 feet from the ground. We have about 4 inches of 
snow." 

The Wolverhampton Horticultural So- 
ciety.— The date fixed by the committee for the 
18V4 exhibition of this Society is July 10, 11, and 
12, and liberal additions to the schedule o F prizes 
are being made. An additional sum of £20 has 
been added to the prizes for groups in the open 
class, and further prizes for groups of Hose blooms, 
collections of hardy flowers, Pansies, and Violas, 
and also more extended prizes for collections of 
vegetables. The Society, after having at various 
times given large sums of money for improvements 
in the public park where the exhibition is held, has 
still a reserve sum of £1800, and with the carrying 
on of such a large affair is a necessity, for wet days 
have to be guarded against. 

Stocktaking: December. — There was a 
decrease in the imports for the past month, amount- 
ing to £1,131,737, or something like 3 per cent., as 
compared with the month of December, 1892; this 
is easily accounted for by the fact that in the past 
month there were five Sundays, or one working day 
less than in the same month last year, and a pretty 
nearly all-round drop in prices; trade prospects have 



Imports. 


1892. 


1893. 


Difference. 


Total value for month 


£. 
£37.879,129 


£. 

£36,747,392 


£. 
—1,131,737 


511.— (A.) Articles of 
food and drink — 
duty free 


12,837.146 


12,549,337 


—287,809 


(B.) — do., dutiable 


2,355,531 


2,225,183 


—130,343 


§VI. — Raw materials 
for textile manufac- 
tures (including 
Flax, Hemp, and 
Jute) 


9,423,354 


8,715,330 


—708,024 


$VII. — Raw materials 
forsundry industries 
and manufactures 
(including wood and 
timber, hewn, sawn, 
split, dressed ; vege- 
table materials, for 
paper-making, &c.) 


2,S8S,872 


3,094,038 


+205,216 


$IX. — Miscellaneous 
articles (including 
Clover, Grass, Flax, 
Rape, Linseed) 


1,475,670 


1,811,972 


+336.302 


(B.)— Parcel Post ... 


41,261 


70,068 


+28,807 



Of course, one would prefer to see a very tangible 
increase, as there would have been, but for causes 
which we need not stay to enumerate here. The 
season has naturally had much to do with the excess 
figures in the "difference" colnmn in the figures 
extracted from the general mass relating to fruits, 
roots, and vegetables, as annexed : — ■ 



not in this case been at work. The following is our the face of a gradually rising internal carrying trade, 
usual excerpt from the " Summary " table of imports as shown by the weekly published railway train c 
in the last issued Board of Trade Returns : — returns. 

Primulas and Cyclamens at Reading.— 

We are asked by Messrs. Sutton & Sons to state 
that their Primulas and Cyclamens are now in bloom, 
and they will be happy to show them to any gar- 
deners or others interested who may happen to be in 
the neighbourhood during the next few weeks. 

Grand Yorkshire Gala.— The annual meet- 
ing of guarantors and life-members of the Grand 
Yorkshire Gala was held on the evening of the 5th inst. 
at Harker's Hotel, York. In the absence of Sir Joseph 
Terry, the Chairman of the Council, the chair was 
taken by Mr. Alderman Milward. In the course of 
his remarks, the chairman said that the committee 
had been successful in securing the use of the 
Bootham field on the same terms as in past years. 
The deputation appointed to wait upon the Lord 
Mayor (Mr. Alderman Clayton), and invite him to 
accept the office of president, had obtained his lord- 
ship's consent. He accordingly moved the election 
of the Lord Mayor as president for 1894. Mr. G. 
Balmford seconded the motion, which was carried 
unanimously. Sir Joseph Terry was elected Chair- 
man of the Council, Mr. E. Rooke, Vice-chairman ; 
Mr. J. Wilkinson, Hon. Sec. ; Mr. C. W. Simmons, 
secretary, and Messrs. Pearson and Taylor auditors. 
The voting then took place for twenty-three members 
on the Council. Grants were made for the various 
departments of the Gala as follows : — Floral Com- 
mittee, £600 ; music, £120 ; fireworks, £100 ; 
balloons, £75 ; amusements, £150. The Secretary 
announced that he had secured several special prizes. 
A hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Alderman Milward 
for presiding was passed at the close of the meeting. 

The Blackheath and Lewisham Horti- 
cultural SOCIETY.— The report for 1893 states, 
that notwithstanding the severe drought, the exhibits 
shown at the exhibition in July were of high-class 
quality, especially the vegetables. The exhibition 
of Roses far exceeded the most sanguine expecta- 
tions. The winter lectures, now in course of delivery, 
have had a good beginning, and been well attended. 
Several classes have been added to the schedule for 
1894, more especially in the cottagers' division. The 
annual meeting on the 8th was well attended. The 
balance-sheet shows over £62 in hand, £50 of which 
has been invested as a reserve fund. The dates fixed 
for the exhibition in 1894 are Wednesday and 
Thursday, July 4 and 5. Mrs. Penn and the Pre- 
sident, Mr. John Penn, M.P., have the unanimous 
thanks of the Society for all their kindness, and for 
the use of their grounds. 

Royal Agricultural and Botanical 
SOCIETY OF Ghent. — We have received a schedule 
of the 160th exhibition of the Societe Royale d'Agri- 
culture et de Botanique of Ghent, which will be held 
from November 11 to 13, 1894. There are in all 
some 117 classes ; Chrysanthemums take a pro- 
minent place, but there are also sections devoted to 
decorative plants, Orchids, and miscellaneous ex- 
hibits, It is evident, irom this programme, that the 
show will be even larger and more important than 
its predecessors. 

Emigration Prospects.— The following ex- 
tracts are from a circular recently issued from the 
Emigrants' Information Office, 31, Broadway, 
Westminster, S.W. It is too early in the year 
for emigrants without money — other than female 
servants — to seek work in Canada, unless they 
go to join friends : they should prepare to 
leave at the end of March. The bonuses, which 
were given last year to settlers who took 
up land in the North West and British Columbia, 
will be discontinued on March 1 next. Work in 
New South Wales, especially in towns, continues to 
be very scarce. In South Australia the local supply 
of labour is quite sufficient to meet all demands. 
In Queensland there is no demand for any kind of 
labour, whether mecbauical, pastoral, or agricultural, 
and many men. faaye been out of work ; no assistance 



Imports. 


1892. 


1893. 


Difference. 


Fruits, raw : — 










Apples 


bush. 


588,653 


447,530 


—141,123 


Cherries ... 


,, 


— 


_ 


_ 


Plums ... 


,, 


— 


90 


+90 


Pears 


. 


7,620 


14,075 


+6,455 


Grapes 


,, 


2,694 


13,328 


+10,634 


Unenumerated . 


,, 


27,898 


32,799 


+4,901 


Onions 


,, 


306.161 


412,697 


+ 106,536 


Potatos 


. cwt. 


305,715 


43,620 


—262,095 


Vegetables, unenume- 








rated, raw, 


value 


£52,405 


£39,248 


—£13,157 



We have omitted the figures devoted to Oranges 
and Lemons, but they are in excess of those given 
for last year; the " unenumerated " may be supplied 
by those who watched the stands in the Christmas 
markets. Turning now to the 

Exports 
for December, we are met by a decided falling off- 
some 10.} per cent. At first sight this looks as if 
things were going wrong with us — as if the 
foreigner had slipped in and was making hay 
whilst capital and labour were disputing over the 
" living wage," as it is termed, required by the coal- 
getters and others engaged with them in the mines. 
Nothing of the sort. The decline in the exports for 
December is given as £2,035,562. We certainly 
expected that the miners being at work, a full 
supply of coal would stimulate industry ; but the 
prices have not been sufficiently lowered to pro- 
duce the desired effect. So much of the reduced 
exportation of British and Irish manufactures 
is due to this. Then, again, our American 
customers are waiting for the alterations in 
the McKinley tariff before ordering or rather 
importing from this side ; this affected trade in 
December to the tune of nearly a million sterling. 
Then there was the one day lesB for working. The 
exports of goods other than British and Irish were 
reduced by some £2,232,782, and yet the tonnage 
employed was as in the month of December, 1892; 
here dear coal stepped in to help an impoverished 
foreign demand— vessels going out light to find coals 
in a cheaper market, merchants preferring also to 
hold on a little longer for a better market ; add also 
the two additional causes above mentioned, and the 
falling off in exports during the past month is all 
accounted for ! Possibly this state of things may 
exist for a muni., jr two more, but the revival will 
surely come, and there is no cause for despairing, in 



January 13, 1894.] 



THE GA RDENERS' GHR ONI GL E. 



47 



is now being given by the Colony to emigrants. More 
gold, however, was raised last year in the mining 
districts than in 1892, and the sugar industry, which 
employs mainly coloured labour, has been prosperous. 
In Western Australia more public works are in pro- 
gress than at any previous time in the history 
of the Colony, but some persons at Perth 
complain of want of work. Under the Homestead 
Act, which was passed last quarter, free grants of 
1(30 acres will be made to settlers on conditions of 
residence and cultivation. In Tasmania no change 
for the better seems to have taken place ; at Hobart 
and elsewhere many complain of inability to obtain 
work. In New Zealand unskilled labour seems 
everywhere plentiful or excessive. In Natal the 
assisted passages are withdrawn, and the free 
passages for domestic servants are temporarily sus- 
pended during revision of the regulations. The 
warnings against emigration to Brazil still hold 
good ; and it has been thought advisable to renew 
the caution against the farm-pupil system in Canada. 
Interesting reports have been received as to the 
arrival in Paraguay of the co-operative settlers from 
Australia. A valuable report on Chile as a field for 
emigration has just been issued by the Foreign 
Office, price Id. 



Notices of Books. 

— # 

The Orchid Seekers : A Story of Adventure 
IN BORNEO. By Ashmore Russan and Frederick 
Boyle. (Chapman & Hall.) 
About Orchids : A Chat. By Frederick Boyle. 
(Chapman & Hall.) 
We have bracketed these two books, because their 
object is, to a large extent, identical. The method 
of attaining the object is different, and the net result 
equally so. The first is a Robinson Crnsoe, Swiss 
Family Robinson, Sandford and Merton sort of pro- 
duction, of which we cannot read many pages with- 
out becoming bored ; the second is a bright lively 
chat which may secure to Mr. Boyle the post of 
historian of the Orchidomania. Truth is stranger 
and more attractive than fiction, and the truthful 
record set out with much literary skill in the second 
book, About Orchids, has charms which to our think- 
ing outweigh the romantic meanderings of The Orchid 
Seekers. 

Mr. Ashmore Russan it appears, desirous of 
writing a story on Orchid collecting, applied to 
Messrs. Sander for special information. They re- 
ferred him to Mr. Boyle as to one having special 
qualifications. He has travelled in Borneo and 
elsewhere, he is bitten with the Orchid fever, he 
grows Orchids well, and has acquired a large stock 
of information concerning them. The story begins 
with the record of a conversation in one of the Orchid- 
houses at St. Albans. A consuming desire to 
collect Orchids fills the breasts of two of the sons of 
the proprietor, who are fired by the tales of an old 
sailor, and incited by the zeal of a veteran collector, 
whom everyone who knows recognises as Benedict 
Roezl. They find their way to Borneo, and travel in 
that paradise for the plant-lover ; they meet with 
all sorts of adventures, run no end of risks, but they 
do not find the blue Orchid of which they went in 
search. The story of adventure, of hair's-breadth 
'scapes, and Chinese secret societies is] oddly ar.d 
unpleasantly varied with botanical dissertations in 
broken English, which one would think must have 
been as tiresome to write as they are tedious to read. 
It will not be very entertaining to fiction readers to 
be told that " Orchids are a family of monocotyle- 
donous phanerogams mit albuminous (sic) seeds and 
an undivided embryo." The botanist will find some 
fiction in this pronouncement, but the story-reader 
will not, we imagine, derive much entertainment 
from it. Bat the collector was not a common man. 
This is what he says, on witnessing a struggle 
between Chinese and Malays :— " When at the critical 
moment, just as the Chinese wavered, as the Malays 
and Dyaks were crouching for the final rush, the youths 
saw all the maidens push steadily but swiltly through 



the surging mob of Chinamen." They sang a shrill 
chorus as they struggled to the front, clapping 
their hands in unison, and under these exciting cir- 
cumstances Hertz is reported to have said :— " Vhat's 
dis ? " Hertz muttered to himself, " Can idt be ? 
Himmel it ish. Ach ! de brave young maids ! You 
see what dey're doing, Yack? Dey show de men de 
vay ! Ve read of dis in old stories ; now we see 
dey're true." 

It is a relief to pass to the product of Mr. Boyle's 
unassisted pen. Here we have a genuine account 
of the author's early attempts at gardening, and of 
his final success. Then we are treated to a life-like 
picture of an Orchid sale-room and its denizens, 
and an equally accurate account of Messrs. Sanders' 
Orchid farm. Between these articles are others 
relating to cool Orchids, warm Orchids, and hot 
Orchids, to the lost Orchid (Cattleya labiata), and 
the book winds up with a chapter on hybridisation. 
These sections originally formed separate news- 
paper articles, but they are so agreeably written, 
and contain so much information not readily acces- 
sible even to Orchid lovers, that their gratitude to 
Mr. Boyle for collecting the heretofore dispersed 
fragments between two covers will be great. The 
great object of the author is to show that, barring 
exceptional cases, Orchid culture need not be beyond 
the means nor outside the capacity of the average 
plant lover. In this he fully succeeds. Orchids 
are all so strange and quaint, some so gorgeously 
beautiful, most so full of interest, that novices are 
apt to think their cultivation involves some special 
mystery. It is no such thing. A knowledge of 
general principles, intelligence, and watchful care, 
are all that are needed, and these also are requisite 
in the cultivation of a Cabbage. Again, the large 
prices obtained for a few exceptional plantB and 
rarities are not to be taken as indicative that a cor- 
responding price is asked for the rank and file. So 
far is that from being the case, that the expen- 
diture of a comparatively small amount will put the 
novice into possession of Orchids of easy culture and 
lovely blossom. As for interest begotten of know- 
ledge, that keenest of all pleasures, happily cannot 
be measured by a money standard in any case where 
plants are concerned. Wherefore let the novices 
endeavour not only to admire beauty, which may be 
bought and sold, but to cultivate knowledge, which 
they will find priceless One very useful feature of 
Mr. Boyle's book consists in the historical sketches 
he gives of certain Orchids, of those who introduced 
them, and of the circumstances attendant on their 
introduction. Information of this character has 
heretofore been handed down mostly by tradition, 
or it is contained in books or journals not easy of 
access, and not too well indexed. Sometimes Mr. 
Boyle is not quite correct as to his facts. Thus it 
is scarcely accurate to say that the Royal Horticul- 
tural Society was first in the field in the importation 
of Orchids ; still less so to say that Weir and Fortune 
were their " earliest employes." 

Mr. Boyle could write, and we hope he will, a 
fascinating book on the history of plant-collectors 
and their doings ; he could make out, he tells us, " a 
startling list of the martyrs of orchidology." Among 
Mr. Sander's collectors alone, Falkenberg perished 
at Panama, Klaboch in Mexico, Endres at Rio 
Hacha, Wallis in Ecuador, Schroeder in Sierra Leone, 
Arnold on the Orinoco, Digance in Brazil, Brown in 
Madagascar." The wanderings of Mr. Linden have 
never been fully narrated, but they were of no 
ordinary character. The achievements of these 
meD, and of many more, should be recorded. Had 
they been at liberty to have worked a little more for 
the cause of science as well as of trade, their reputa- 
tion would have been better perpetuated than it is 
likely to be ; and yet indirectly, if not directly, 
their services have been so valuable that it would 
be an ungrateful omission if their services were not 
recorded. The search for Orchids, indeed, has re- 
sulted not only in a vast extension of our knowledge 
of this particular family and its geographical diffu- 
sion, but also in the discovery and introduction of 
other fine plants, such as the species of Eucharis. 
Of E. grandiflora only one importation, according to 



Mr. Boyle, has been made, and from this the tens of 
thousands of bulbs have been propagated. We 
rather doubt the correctness of this statement. 

The history of the discovery of certain species of 
Orchid is often very interesting ; take, for example, 
the history of Cypripedium Spicerianum. We will 
not cite it here, for we do not wish to take the cream 
off Mr. Boyle's book. The reader should seek it for 
himself at p. 84 of the volume. The authentic 
history of many of these plants is, indeed, so very 
remarkable that there is no need to indulge, as some 
have done, in wild flights of imagination, rather than 
in sober prose. Even as advertisements, such state- 
ments are apt to defeat their object, and to prove 
'' bad business." 

The story of the famous " blue Orchid," which 
forms the basis of The Orchid Seekers, is told again 
in this volume. Mr. Boyle did not see it, but he 
visited some one who had. Unfortunately, no one 
has since had the opportunity of seeing it again, 
either in Borneo or in Europe. We may, however, 
confidently live in hope. Hardly anything in the 
Orchid way is too remarkable to be beyond belief. 

There are many passages in Mr. Boyle's book 
which we had marked for comment or citation, but 
the limits of our space forbid further extract. All 
Orchid-lovers will feel bound to possess it, and read 
it for themselves. A second edition is almost sure 
to be called for, and this will give an opportunity for 
more careful proof-reading. Phalceoopsis should be 
Phalsenopsis, Ccelogene, as printed throughout, 
should give place to Ccelogyne ; D'Albertesii should 
be D'Albertisii ; a new Brassia (p. 207) cannot have 
been just named by Professor Reichenbach ; Triana 
— not Trian — was the name of the botanist com- 
memorated by Cattleya Trianasi, and he was too 
much of a man of science to be an " excellent man 
of business," or to think of establishing 'a corner." 
The generic names are indicated in abbreviated 
form, sometimes by the initial letter, sometimes by 
the initial syllable. Custom rules that the initial 
letter suffices, but it is of no great consequence, 
further than that diversity of practice is apt to 
puzz'e the reader gratuitously. 

We mention these minor matters, not by any 
means with a view to detract from the merits of the 
book, but simply to enable the future proof-reader to 
look out for "literals." As we have already said, 
all Orchid-lovers will want to peruse this book, and, 
having perused it, they will want to have it within 
reach on the most accessible shelf of their garden- 
library. 



SALFORD PUBLIC PARKS. 

The season of 1893 is likely to be long remembered 
about manufacturing districts and popular centres 
for the singular clearness of the atmosphere from 
smoke impurities, and the comparative immunity of 
tree and shrub life from such dire visitations. 
True, the thousand-and-one chimneys have been 
belching forth their normal quantity of black smoke, 
but the absence of fogs and the limited rainfall per- 
mitted the sulphurous acid and other pernicious 
emanations to get better away from local centres 
and thus our city parks and pleasure grounds have 
profited accordingly. This is very conspicuous indeed 
in the Salford district, where public works abound, 
and where the fight between life and death is of the 
most pronounced character. The crop returns, now 
that we are at the end of the season, in the shape of 
young wood made, have not been so favourable for 
years, and even such as have been living on the 
" struggle for existence " principle have not only shown 
convalescence but a disposition to health and vigour. It 
is particularly marked in the Oxyacantha division of 
the Crataegus family. The wood of the common 
Thorn, taking it at what I call a crop return, does 
not seem one whit behind its Plum-leaved congener, 
which is looked upon, and it undoubtedly is, one 
of the best enduring of ornamental town trees ; and 
as it is with Thorns, so it is with Ash, the Wych 
Elm, the Ontario and Black Italian Poplars, and the 
Service Tree, which has profited immensely by the 
diminution of smoke and smut condensations. Even 



48 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 13, 1894. 



when one examines the Rhododendron family in these 
parks at this season, what a wonderful difference in 
skin-coating from almost any other year within our 
remembrance! The upper portions of the leaves, 
usually black and grim in December, have a polish 
about them that would rival many of their country 
compeers. This is particularly striking in R. 
Catawbiense, and the hybrids of that most useful 
evergreen shrub ; and so it is also with the Cunning- 
ham's white division — two representatives, by the way, 
that cannot be matched for town ornamentation and 
town endurance. The ponticums in some of the better 
broad-leaved seedlings are also good, and do not, 
take them on the whole, seem to have been infected 
with the " scald " of chemical impurities along the 
margins of the leaves. 

I am just reminded by a man of great experience 
and a thinker, that I ought to discount the coal strike 
and its effects in northern England in limiting the 
out-put of smoke, and thus favouring vegetation. 
That is so, for stoking has been carried on with due 
regard to minimum waste ; and then the "million" 
in small houses have taken to oil and other stoves, 
rendering coal combustion therefore not so much of a 
necessity. All things lumped together have unques- 
tionably relieved the burdens that plant life has had 
to bear in towns, and as it is in Salford and about 
Manchester generally, so it must be wherever a like 
set of circumstances prevails. 

There are four public parks in Salford, the oldest 
and most important of them is 

Peel Park. 

It covers an area of about 38 acres, and has physical 
advantages over the other parks in respect of its 
natural position, rendering the task of the landscape 
gardener comparatively easy. It is a popular place 
of resort because of the excellence of its museum 
and library, and upon the whole is a great ornament 
in the centre of a dense population. It was visited 
by Her Majesty the Queen and the Prince Consort 
in 1851, and statues of Her Majesty and the Prince 
Consort confront the museum. The tablet on the 
pedestal of the statue has the following inscription : 
" To commemorate the visit of Her Most Gracious 
Majesty Queen Victoria to the Park, October 10, 
1851, and her reception by more than 80,000 Sunday- 
school Teachers and Scholars. Inaugurated by 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort, May 6, 1857." Between 
that time and now, I am told, that it has been used 
as a great resort of " trippers." The museum, which 
will in a Bhort time have the magnificent technical 
school as an adjunct, stands on high ground, and 
commands an imposing view about and around it. 
A series of imposing terraces recede into somewhat 
low-lying ground, where breadths of grass abound. 
In truth, grass forms, as it ought to do in all parks, 
a leading feature, and ought to be as carefully catered 
for in the way of pabulum as the most promising of 
agricultural crops, else the standard grasses die out, 
and Couch and Plantain and Daisies assert place and 
position. There is, therefore, often a quiet irony 
in the printed reminder to the promenader — " Keep 
off the grass." No grass seems so suitable for town 
work as perennial Rye-grass, and wherever it is well 
laid down and afterwards cared for, it bears its mark 
conspicuously. Mr. Wilsher, the recently-appointed 
Superintendent of the Parks, showed ns a remarkable 
example of this, both at Cheetham and at the Whit- 
worth Parks, and he has his work before him in a 
district even more hostile to plant life than either 
of these parks. 

Next to the well-being of the lawns, come the 
selection and disposition of the Bhmbs. The two 
kinds of planting adopted in all our parks are here — 
the one Bingle-tree planting, the other grouping. 
The more one Bees of individual planting in exposed 
sites and Bmoky localities the more decided one 
becomes against it. It is a well-known fact in 
forestry that all young plantations want nursep, and 
it may be said that park trees want perpetual 
nursing to have anything like a satisfactory outcome. 
Wherever grouping in the deciduous trees is 
adopted, there the advantages in the shape of growth 
and health are apparent. The Ash seems to have 



bulked most, and has clean healthy boles. The 
Elms and the Thorns are fairly well to do, and if a 
continuation of good seasons were to be counted 
upon, the face of the parks in the height of greenery 
would soon improve. There is an occasional Lime 
and a few Service-trees, but both the Oriental and 
Occidental Planes are conspicuous by their absence. 
The Poplars when pollarded are amongst the most 
useful, but without being kept down in that way, 
the bole! become aplit-up and festered-looking. For 
leaf-beauty they cannot be touched as trees. Of 
course the Golden, and Silver, and Common Elders 
are the very scavengers of bush-tree life, and the 
Golden Elder, in particular, this Beason has retained 
its golden leafage till late on in the season. Grouped 
as they are here in Rhododendron-beds, trained on 
the Standard Rose principle, they have been highly 
effective. Closely pollarded, they respond to each 
year's returning growth and ornament. 

If anything, this park is too sparsely covered with 
trees, particularly along the line of the inky river 
Irwell, with its sinuous bends on the low boundary 
of the park. The gravel promenades are neither too 
plentiful nor too wide for an increasing population. 
The gymnasiums form a feature for the youth of the 
district, but are rather going down. There is a well- 
appointed range of glass for husbanding and pro- 
pagating bedding-out subjects. There is no doubt 
that a little more of the "needful" in the shape of 
funds could be very well invested in the reformation 
and enhancement of this many-featured park. 

Seedley Paek 
covers an area of about 14 acres, and is situated in 
the extreme division of the borough. It undoubtedly 
is the beat locality for tree and shrnb growth of any 
of the open spaces under the corporation. Although 
little more than a mile from Peel Park, we see plants 
which cannot live in the principal park. It is 
astonishing what short distances inthe manufacturing 
centres show in this way. There is scarcely a 
deciduous tree but would live respectably in this 
small enclosed parallelogram. And then the ever- 
greens make one Btare. There is not a vestige of a 
healthy Holly bush in Peel Park ; but here even the 
Milkmaid Holly with its golden and Bilver blotches 
is in excellent health, and the small-leaved Laurel 
Holly is 12 feet high, and a proportionate pyramid. 
The whole of the Aquifolium varieties including 
Hodgin'8, are as good as can be found miles out into 
the country. A few Pines raise their heads, the best 
being the Austrian, and then there is a miscellaneous 
assortment of American shrubs, all doing well. Here 
the individuality of the specimenson the grassy plats is 
prominent, and exception can be taken to none, their 
general health and outline is so good. The Box, the 
Privet — which is good everywhere, only it loses its 
leaves in winter in grimy districts — has been effec- 
tively put down ; and so have the groups of Rhodo- 
dendrons which captivate the eye, particularly the 
commoner hybrids, with their crowds of green leaves 
thickly studded with buda. There is, of course, ex- 
cessive formality everywhere in these limited areas ; 
the lopping of the trees, the close cropping of many 
of the deciduous bushep, and the " knifing " of the 
evergreen fraternity ; but we cannot have wild nature 
in a strictly artificial paddock. Even the improvised 
lakes are a little overdone — a too great straining for 
anake-like bends and sinuosities which are often as 
formal and as easily aeen from any stand-point as 
the thread of a corkscrew. A little less of this, and 
a little more regard to the ground itself in walk- 
formation, would be generally more eye- pleasing. 

One was much struck at seeing in a locality such 
as this a goodly Mulberry tree growing in the garden 
of Mr. Redhead in the park boundary ; it must have 
been planted at least twenty- fivejyears, and is/although 
an ugly example of a tree, in great exuberance. 
This clearly demonstrates what a killing influence 
amoke charged with chemical combinations has upon 
every description of vegetable life, and how impor- 
tant it is to get such things reduced to the lowest 
possible injury -limit. One would have thought 
where many things are doing well that the Lawson 
Cypress would have put on vigour, but no ; and it 
is an ugly object when not in health. 



Bowling-green, gymnasium, and promenades 
generally make this park much used. How soon 
these parks add to the value of surrounding property, 
is clearly manifested, and it is a great boon to the 
occupier to look out upon a pretty park of this kind 
within a two-penny ride from town. Viator. 



Home Correspondence. 



THE INTERNATIONAL HORTICULTURAL EXHI- 
BITION IN 1866 — I have in my possession a copy 
of the photograph alluded to by "A. D." at p. 21 
in the Gardeners' Chronicle for January 6, It was 
presented to me by the veteran, Mr. John Lee, at 
the time, and I need scarcely say how much I prize 
it. It has been much admired by numberless gar- 
deners in France, Scotland, England, and here in 
Belgium. One horticulturist here lately said to me 
he would give almost any sum to possess a copy ; 
but I presume there will be few in existence. Mine 
is well preserved, as it is protected in a glass frame. 
K., Laeken, January 8. 

VITIS COIGNETI/C.— At p. S08, of the issue of the 
Gardeners' Chronicle for December 30, Mr. Burbidge 
enquires where plants or eyes of this splendid Japa- 
nese Vine, recently several times written about, can 
be obtained ? It is possible that Mr. Thompson, of 
Ipswich, could supply plants or seed. The young 
plants I have were from seed supplied by him. They 
seem to make but slow progress in the early stage of 
existence, if. J. Lynch, Botanic Garden, Cambridge. 
|"The Rev. Canon Ellacombe, Bitton Vicarage, 
Bristol, informs us that he will be happy to send 
cuttings, he having plenty of it. Ed.] 

THE CROSSE8 OF ANTHURIUM8 AT HIQHBURY, 
BIRMINGHAM. — Seeing " W. D.'s" comment on the 
Anthuriums in Mr. Chamberlain's garden at High- 
bury, I may say, for " W. D.'s " information, that the 
history of the seedling Anthuriums at that place is 
known, the writer having crossed them whilst 
working there, and I have now in my possession a 
detailed account of the Anthuriums in question, 
and many other interesting crosses carried out whilst 
I was with the late Mr. Cooper, which we shall 
doubtless hear more of as time goes on. The Anthu- 
rium Chamberlainianum was not, as stated, success- 
fully crossed with A. Andreanum, although a cross 
was attempted many times with A. Leodense and 
A. Lindeni, the two latter being the seed-parents. 
Many attempts were made to fertilise A. Chamber- 
lainianum, but unsuccessfully, although its own 
pollen was used, and that of A. Leodense, A. Lin- 
deni, A. Scherzerianum, and others. J. Lee, Gopsall 
Gardens. 

HARDY ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS.— 

I was much pleased with the article on the above sub- 
ject by your correapondent, Mr. Harrison (vol. xiv., 
p. 652), for, as he remarks, it is true " that but few 
gardeners are proficient in this branch of their pro- 
fession." I fear Mr. Harrison's remarks on this 
lamentable ignorance are not undeserved, and that 
many young gardeners are sadly wanting in a know- 
ledge of theee things. Many a garden contains 
only the commoner ehrubs and treea, and per- 
haps Rhododendrons, and this renders the acquire- 
ment of a knowledge of the form, colour, height, 
&c, of the finer species difficult to obtain. 
What may be done with the finer species in a smoky 
dietrict in the heart of the Black Country, may be 
seen in the park at Wednesbury. Your correspon- 
dent names a goodly number, but still there are many 
left out, as he tells us, which would be found in a 
complete collection. But if all gardens of any 
pretension were furnished according to the list he 
gives, there would be an almost endless varietv of 
autumn tints and forms of growth during summer, 
as well as a bountiful supply of flowers for the greater 
part of the year. Though much may be done by 
way of beautifying our woodland walks and shrub- 
bery borders by a judicious use of these, much 
more could be done by cultivating a taste 
for them if able gardeners would inform those 
less acquainted with them, as your correspon- 
dent, Mr. Harrison, haa done. Many thanks are 
due to him for bringing this Bubject before 
your readers. Who has not admired the beautiful 
tints of the fading foliage of the common Viburnum 
that grows wild in our woods, or the peculiar shades 
of the Rhamnus Frangula? Yet these are not to be 
compared with the Kolreuteria paniculata leaves 
when they put on their autumn tints, Then, again, 



Januaby 13, 1894.] 



TEE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



49 



tnost country folks know well the native CeraBus 
padus, the flowers of which cover our hedges iu 
spring with their snowy whiteness, but their beauty 
is lost in comparison with the Halesia tetraptera, 
whose Snowdrop-like flowers are produced in euch 
profusion all along the shoots of the previous year. 
Every gardener has much to learn if he would make 
himself master of the many plants which may be 
placed under his care, and ill- paid as many of them 
are, that can scarcely be a reason for a man not 
knowing so essential a part of hia business. 
When attending shows it is not the hardy trees 
and shrubs which attract the attention of the 
younger men, but some monstrosity in the way of 
some unnaturally - grown fruit, or the artificial 
dressing of a flower. In order to form accurate ideas 
of the shape, size, habit, and other peculiarities of 
trees and Bhrubs, they should be seen in a growing 
state, as for instance at Kew, or some of our large 
nurseries, bat above all in gardens where they are 
to be found of mature age, otherwise a very vague 
idea of their beauty will be gained. Arborea. 

HARD WEATHER IN LINCOLNSHIRE.— We are 
having very severe weather in this part of Lincoln- 
shire (but less snow has fallen than in the south), 
with strong winds, which frequently change. On 
Friday, the 5th, we had 22° of frost,' also on Satur- 
day, and on Sunday morning the thermometer regis- 
tered 24° of frost ; to-day, with a south wind, we 
have signs of a thaw, although at the time of writing 
(6 p.m.) the thermometer shows 2° of frost. This 
is the keenest frost we have had for ten years. We 
are situated between Grimsby and Hull. James 
Smith. 

EXPANDING CHRYSANTHEMUM BOARDS. — I 
can but think that Mr. Shea is rather hard on Mr. 
Cannell in practically accusing him of plagiarism in 
regard to his expanding show-board. I Baw both 
Mr. Shea's and Mr. Cannell's boards at the recent 
Aquarium show, and noted, that whilst in Mr. Shea's 
board the openings or interstices of from 1 inch to 
1J inch broad, produced when the board was ex- 
panded, were in Mr. Cannell's board filled with 
movable strips of wood of the desired breadth. That 
certainly was a great improvement, as the gaps on 
the other show- board were very objectionable. But 
then, suggestions with respect to the formation of 
some sort of expanding boards to fit old carrying- 
boxes have long been in the air, and myriads of 
minds, Mr. Cannell's amongst others, have been 
exercised to produce something which would meet the 
difficulty. I am not at all sure that any of the 
present expanding boards will do so, and that only 
the construction of larger carrying boxes will 
answer. If the blooms are too large for an ordinary 
board, they would, stood in a box for transit, be 
most unduly crowded on an expanding board closed 
up to fit the box. If it be not intended to carry the 
blooms in that way, then the larger boards may be 
carried as a separate parcel. I noticed last November 
that Mr. Mease, of Downside, had constructed for 
the transit of all his Japanese, boxes of enlarged size, 
and larger boards. These, too, had on either side 
3-inch ledges fitted, on which to rest ; and what 
with 2 inches of space back and front, the largest of 
blooms had ample room. There was no crowding, 
and no injury by friction to the petals. Expanding 
boards would have to be firmly secured in place 
when open, to prevent a catastrophe, should judges 
or others require to carry a board of flowers any- 
where for comparison or other purpose. Mr. 
Cannell realised that in using strips of wood to fill 
the interstices when open, and advised that some 
means of securing of the Btripsto the board should be 
adopted in the shape of a tiny hinge, so as to keep 
the strips in their places should the boards have to 
be removed. A. D, 

ENLARGED BOARDS FOR JAPANE8E CHRYSAN- 
THEMUMS. — The matter of the enlargement of the 
boards or stands for the exhibition of blooms of 
Japanese Chrysanthemums is by no means to be 
allowed to sleep. Although the committee of the 
National Chrysanthemum Society found themselves 
unable last year to take action in regard thereto, 
deeming it expedient for the present to adhere to 
their regulations now in force, that the stands for 
twelve incurved blooms shall be 24 inches long and 
18 inches in depth from front to back ; but that the 
dimensions of those for Japanese blooms should be 
left to the option of the exhibitor. The result is, 
that at the exhibitions of the National Society the 
boards generally employed are of the dimensions above 
stated, and where only the more compact growing 
flowers were shown, but little undue crowding was 



noticeable. It is the employment of what may be 
termed spreading-petalled varieties that causes 
the boards to appear inconveniently crowded. 
By spreading-petalled flowers is meant such as 
have long spreading florets which only slightly 
incurve at the points, and some not at all, are seen 
to advantage only when at their entire length. As 
illustrations of this type of flower, mention may be 
made of Etoile de Lyon, Stanstead White, Vivian 
Morel, Mrs. C. Harman Payne, Mdlle. Marie Hoste, 
Princess May, Beauty of Castlewood, Colonel W. B. 
Smith, W. W. Coles, Charles Davis, Sunflower, 
E. Molyneux, and Lilian Bird. On the other hand 
certain of the newer flowers appear to have attained 
to increased size through cultivation, and really, as 
far as experience goes, require more room to dis- 
play themselves to the best advantage. As illus- 
trations of this group, mention may be made of 
J. Stanborough Dibbins, Gaspard Eozain, Lord 
Brooke, Madame Baco, Robert Owen, Pearl Beauty, 
La Verseau, W. H. Lincoln, and others. A close 
inspection of the stands of blooms staged at the 
recent December exhibition of the National Chrys- 
anthemum Society at the Royal Aquarium — where 
one could scarcely have expected to see blooms as 
finely developed as at the November show — ap- 
peared to indicate conclusively that unless some limit 
can be placed on size, which appears to be imprac- 
ticable, an extension of the stands is absolutely 
necessary. That the National Society should hesi- 
tate to adopt and insist upon a larger stand is not 
to be wondered at, for if an increase in the 
dimensions of the board at present in use were 
made absolute, it would also mean an increase 
in the sizes of the boxes in which the show- 
boards are conveyed, which would mean a con- 
siderable outlay. It is this latter consideration 
which is causing some to turn their attention 
to the provision of some mechanical arrangement 
by which the ordinary board can be extended if 
necessary. Mr. C. E. Shea has produced a design 
which is a great improvement upon his early efforts, 
and was recently highly commended by the Floral 
Committee of the National Society as an ingenious 
attempt to utilize ordinary stands and ordinary boxes. 
Originally Mr. Shea divided his twelve stands into 
four sections of three blooms each, distinct from 
each other, but forming a twelve stand when placed 
side by side. These sections could be spread out so 
as to give a greater space to large blooms, and they 
could also be extended laterally so as to afford a 
greater depth from front to back. The great defect 
was that the four separate sections could not be 
lifted as a whole without danger of one of 
them dropping out, and so it was necessary 
to stand them upon a board. Now, by means 
of a mechanical contrivance, Mr. Shea has made 
a compact whole of his sections, the improve- 
ment being effected by means of cross-pieces and 
pins, which any ordinary carpenter could fix. Such 
a board will fit into an ordinary box, but may be ex- 
tended to suit the sizes of the blooms when placed 
upon the exhibition table. Mr. Shea is to be com- 
mended upon the production of his ingenious con- 
trivance, and there is no doubt that suggestions 
in the way of still further improvement will be made 
until the " Elwes Expanding Show Board " supplies 
an acceptable solution of the difficulty. B. B. 

8EVERE STRIPPING OF VINE STEMS.— Although 
I do not practice, as some do, the severe peeling of 
the Vines, I do not agree with the remarks of Mr. 
Divers, in last volume, p. 746, in his article on the 
shanking of Graphs. He remarks : " The rods under 
this treatment cease to increase in size, and then 
there is no longer any prospect of first-class Grapes 
from them." I have in my mind a house of Muscat 
of Alexandria Vines, which have never failed to 
produce an excellent crop of Grapes for the last 
fourteen years. Only the last season, the pro- 
duce from these same Vines won first prizes in 
good company, beating several of our best exhi- 
bitors. One of the stems at 2 feet from the 
ground measures at the present time 8J inches 
circumference ; another, 1 foot above the ground- 
level, measures 8 inches. Considering that these 
same rods have been scraped and peeled, sometimes 
very hard, I may almost say annually for ten years 
past, it cannot be said that they " have ceased to 
increase," nor can it be said that there is " no 
longer any prospect of first-class Grapes from them." 
The last season's crop was decidedly the best yet 
obtained, which, in my opinion, is a direct contra- 
diction to Mr. Divers' statement, for Vines with 
stems of the size given cannot be said to be other 
than satisfactory at sixtesn years old. In another 



vinery in the same garden are still larger stems 
of other varieties of Vines, but the Muscat 
Vines under notice struck me as being fairly good 
evidence of the non-dangerous effects of hard peel- 
ing. When these Vines were being planted, another 
vinery in another part of the country was also being 
planted, and from the latter there have perhaps been 
more prize bunches cut than from this Muscat Vine. 
The former has, however, been replanted within the 
last three years, while those peeled Vines do not 
appear hall-worn out as yet in spite of the hard 
stripping that has been practiced. Whether severe 
stripping has anything to do with shanking is a moot 
point, there are many other contributory causes for 
it, and which Mr. Divers has ably dealt with. iS. 

SHOWS AND GARDEN CHARITIE8.— I have been 
reading the reports furnished in the Gardeners' 
Chronicle of January 6 of the proceedings of the 
Gardeners' Orphan Fund Committee, and also the 
financial position of the Shropshire Horticultural 
Society, apparently the wealthiest or most pros- 
perous of the horticultural societies in the kingdom. 
Reading of the Orphan Fund, and of its approaching 
orphan election, I learn that there will certainly be 
sixteen, and possibly eighteen, candidates for elec- 
tion, and no doubt all very necessitous cases. But 
it was recently stated that the income of the year 
would permit of the election of but five orphans 
out of this large number of applicants. More's the 
pity ! Who in congratulating the successful few 
can help thinking with sorrow of those who have 
been disappointed? The Shropshire Horticultural 
Society is pleased to parade its remarkable financial 
successes. I presume no one envies that success, 
but the publication of it does just now compel the 
inference that if as a thank-offering the Shropshire 
committee would but vote at once to the Orphan 
Fund the sum of, say, £250 for the express purpose, 
two more orphans could be put on to the fund at 
the ensuing election. Possibly the locality of 
Shrewsbury has some claim on the Society's funds, 
but certainly gardeners' orphans have some claim 
also. If such a sum could be voted as suggested, it 
would come at a most critical time, and be produc- 
tive of great good. The Gardeners' Benevolent Fund 
is also troubled with many more applicants for 
pensions than it can elect on the Fund. That 
charity, too, might another year be permitted to 
share in the Shrewsbury bounty. True charity does 
not always begin at home. Horticulture may well 
prove a fitting field for gardening generosity. A. I). 

HOW TO IMPROVE CHRYSANTHEMUM EXHI- 
BITIONS. — Exhibitions of Chrysanthemums are 
certainly in need of great improvement, and recent 
interesting letters in the Gardeners' Chronicle show 
that the matter is arousing attention. There is 
room for radical alterations and the introduction 
of variety in the arrangements, to prevent the pain- 
fully monotonous aspect of even the best Chrysan- 
themum shows, where one gets row upon row of boxes 
in which the flowers are placed flat on the surface, 
or nearly so, preventing absolutely the individual 
beauty of the flowers being seen. It is absurd to talk 
about the present boxes being sufficiently large, as a 
glance at any exhibition will convince one that the 
monster flowers of the present day are crowded together 
in a horribly inartistic way. The rows of boxes are 
not broken up with foliage plants to attempt making 
a pleasing exhibition to the eye. The classes for 
other than trained specimens, formal groups, or big 
cut blooms are very few, usually absent at the 
majority of exhibitions ; but the " not for compe- 
tition " display by Mr. Jones of Lewisham at the 
recent Royal Aquarium exhibition was a good omen 
for the future. Mr. Hayler (vol.xiv., p. 660) does well 
to draw attention to this, and expresses the hope that 
the Society will encourage such displays by offering 
prizes. Surely out of the large sum of money ex- 
pended upon great single blooms, a small sum could be 
set apart to encourage a feature that shows the 
Chrysanthemum in a pleasing aspect, or its useful- 
ness in large arrangements. Even the big incurved 
blooms, when boldly bunched with their own 
or suitable other foliage, are strikingly handsome, 
if arranged in vases of corresponding proportion. 
This was the case at the Royal Aquarium, and the 
effect was remarkably good. Few types of exhibition 
are more monotonous than that of the Chrysanthe- 
mum. Schedules are practically the same, and 
innovations very rare. The innovation at tbe 
National Chrysanthemum Society's show came from 
outside, but perhaps may now become a permanent 
feature. Some classes might well be removed from 
schedules of most societies, as one finds often very 



50 



THE CAR BE NEBS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 13, 1834, 



little competition for reflexed varieties for instance, 
at some places, yet tbe class is still adhered to, 
simply, I suppose, because it has always had a 
place in the schedule. Why not offer a prize, as 
suggested by your correspondent, for a table of 
Chrysanthemum flowers, to see and encourage the 
flower for decorations, and for the table ? Lady 
visitors, and they are a large proportion of those 
who attend flower-shows of any kind, rarely care for 
the big blooms, but delight in seeing the flower as if 
for their own drawing-room. The same classes are 
included for groups, specimen-plants, and cut flowers, 
year after year. The groups are painfully formal, 
and no prize is offered for an arrangement consist- 
ing, say, ot such specimens as one sees at Kew, and 
recently noticed in the Gardeners' Chronicle. A 
good group of these, smothered with flowers, would 
create as much interest as the winner of the 
award for " forty-eight Japanese or incurved," 
which seem to monopolise the attention of a few 
ardent gardeners. The abolition of the present lead- 
ing classes is not advocated, but rather more thought 
given to showing the Chrysanthemum more naturally 
grown. A class or classes could be formed for a 
certain number of both incurved and Japanese 
flowers in bunches, cut with sufficient length of stem 
to get plenty of foliage. This is done now, but not 
enough, in the case of the reflexed pompon, 
anemone pompon, and single varieties, all of which 
are absurd when shown in bunches of threp, stuck 
on to a board, with no leafage of any kind as a 
relief. The exhibits of "singles" at the recent 
Aquarium show were very stiff and unnatural, and 
ibe plants had been so disbudded that the flowers 
had Jost all their characteristic grace and beauty. 
It is carrying the big bloom craze too far, when 
even the beautiful single kinds cannot be 
left alone. The stereotyped classes for the "best 
arrangement of bouquets, &c," might be varied by 
classes for ball 7ases, bowls, and similar things. The 
shows would then be different to those of the summer 
in which table decorations are occasionally a con- 
spicuous feature. Why not vary the groups with 
foliage plants, as one sees at Hull ? The flat mass 
or surface of bloom at southern exhibitions is net 
interesting, every plant placed as close as possible to 
its neighbour. The effect would be still better if 
foliage plants were used as an edging as well as in 
tbe group itself, then one would see less of the bare 
stems of the plants. The present discussion does not 
enter upon the size of the later flowers. There is 
nothing beautiful to my mind in a flower a foot 
across, without a trace of the free graceful beauty of 
the earlier introductions. From what one can see 
of the novelties this year, the Chrysanthemum flower 
of the near future will not be smaller, but still larger, 
coarse, and ungraceful. V. 



where he has been ever Bince. His geological 
knowledge enabled him to effect a great change for 
the better in a naturally unpropitious soil, and to 
select the kinds of fruit trees most suitable to the not 
too favourable climatic conditions at Belvoir. His 
knowledge of botany and love of plants enabled him 
to appreciate the value for decorative purposes of a 
host of plants at one time much neglected by gar- 
deners in general, and especially by owners and gar- 
deners who expended their chiefest efforts in produc- 
ing a brilliant display at one season only, leaving their 
beds bare and uninteresting for the rest of the year. 
If one had to choose a spot where spring gardening, 
as it is now called, could be well carried out, 
Belvoir would most decidedly not be that spot, yet 
the knowledge and taste of Ingram triumphed over 
all obstacles, and furnished a proof of the exceeding 
value of a knowledge of general principles judiciously 
applied to practice. Ingram was one of the best 
informed gardeners of the time, and his practice was 
equally noteworthy. Those who had the pleasure 
of his acquaintance, will remember the refined kind- 
liness of the man, his sympathy with whatever was 
good, and his appreciation of anything that tended 



William Ingram. — We deeply regret to have to 
announce the death of Mr. William Ingram, the 
Garden Manager at Belvoir Castle, on the 9th inst. 
Mr. Ingram was seventy-three years of age, 
and died after a painful illness. The funeral 
takes place to-day (Saturday) at 3 p m , at Knipton, 
near Belvoir. This is no common loss to ourselves 
or to horticulture. For ourselves, we have lost one 
of our oldest friends and contributors, one on whose 
judgment and intelligence we as well as our pre- 
decessors could always rely ; whilst those only who 
have visited Belvoir are capable of estimating fully the 
lose to horticulture. Our portrait was taken several 
yeare since, when he was still in his prime, but it will 
still convey some idea of his appearance to those 
even who have only known him recently. William 
Ingram was born in 1820, at Frogmore, where his 
father had charge of the Koyal Gardens. As a youth 
he had the management of the great Vine at Cumber- 
land Lodge. In 1846 he went to France for the 
sake of learning the language, and of attending 
the lectures of Milne Edwards, Brongniart, 
and Adren de Jussieu, and here no doubt he 
laid the foundations of that knowledge of botany 
and geology which he was to tuin to such 
good account in future years. Practical knowledge 
was gained from M. Laffay, the celebrated Rose- 
grower, and M. Dauvease of Orleans. On his return 
to England, he was appointed to take charge of the 
gardens at Hatfield, on the recommendation of Dr. 
Lindley ; and in 1853 he proceeded to Belvoir Castle^ 




f, ssti, c CL^yi^ 



C/l, CC^^J 1-^> 



to the progress of his art. These qualities endeared 
him to his associates, and caused his advice to be 
sought, and his judgment to be relied on in many 
matters of public as well as of private interest. 



Florists' Flowers. 

« 

THE HOLLYHOCK. 
I was recently asked whether seed of the Holly- 
hock could be sown, and the plants raised from it 
flower the same year. From my own experience, 
this can certainly be done, and the plants will give 
very handsome spikes. The seed was sown on 
February 1, and the young plantB were grown-on 
under glaBS until they were strong enough to plant 
out where they were to flower early in May. I put 
each of the seedlings into flower-pots, but this is 
no great matter, and in gardens where pits or frames 
are available, the plants can be so well inured to the 
open-air that they may be planted out in May with- 
out any check to their growth. A good rich border 
must be prepared for them to take deep root into. 
I trench the ground 2 feet deep, and put in two 
good layers of rich manure, one at the bottom of the 
trench, and another about 9 or 10 inches below the 
surface. If this can be done in the autumn, so as 
to expose the surface to the winter's frost, so much 
the better. 



Another method of raising seedling Hollyhocks is 
to sow in May or early in June. It can be sown 
out-of-doors in May, or, if it is left until June, it is 
better to start it with a little bottom-heat on a hot- 
bed. The plants will be strong enough to be planted 
in September where they are to flower. Seedlings 
will pass unscathed through the winter, when named 
varieties, under same conditions, become badly 
injured. If seed has been saved from the best 
varieties, the progeny will, to the extent of 30 to 
50 per cent., be as good as the parent, and nearly 
true to colour. This is my own experience, but it 
differs considerably from that of some other raisers 
and growers. 

It is now time to take cuttings of the named varie- 
ties. Each cutting should be planted singly in a small 
flower-pot. They require a little bottom heat, and 
should be planted in moist soil, for I do not 
care to give them any water until roots are formed. 
All the growths may be taken from the stools 
with one exception, and that allowed to remain, in 
order that it may form a plant to go out with 
the others in May. The experienced amateur, 
if he is an exhibitor, will not trust altogether to 
old stools, nor to spring-struck cuttings, or 
propagation from root-grafts. Plants raised thus 
generally produce their flowers about one time, and 
rather late in the season. Other plants are obtained 
from eyes propagated during the previous summer. 
When long handsome spikes are desired, all 
the lateral shoots should be cnt off. These 
laterals usually have a number of flower-buds 
formed in the axils of the leaves nearer the points. 
The buds nearer the base of the laterals are leaf- 
buds, and if these are taken off, and the eyes 
planted much the same as Vine eyes, each one 
will form a gocd plant to flower early next year. 
The eyes should be planted singly in small flower- 
pots, with the leaf-stalk attached, but not the leaf. 
Place them in a frame over a Bpent hot-bed. The 
plants obtained from these eyes are wintered in 
frames; they are usually very hardy, and are ready to 
plant out before those that have been obtained from 
spring cuttings or grafts. 

The Hippeasteum. 
These plants should be repotted in the earlier part 
of January. I like to have the soil prepared, and 
expose it to the air for some weeks, before it is 
required for potting, but protected from rain. It 
should be sufficiently moist when used to start the 
plants into free growth without affording any water 
for six weeks afterwards. The compost may consist 
of two parts of yellow loam, and one of good fibrous 
peat, with an almost equal quantity of leaf-mould, 
and one-fifth part of rotten manure and sharp sand. 
If many Hippeastrums are grown, the pots holding 
them should be plunged in a bed of tanners' bark. 
If a tan-bed has been previously used, sift out of it 
all the fine particles, and with the coarser parts 
remaining mix fresh tan in sufficient quantity to 
afford a genial warmth to the bulbs when plunged, 
the heat at the time being not higher than 85°. 
The bulbs being in the pots in which they flowered 
or grew last year should have the soil shaken off 
entirely, and decayed roots and loose skin at the 
bottom of the bulbs removed, the tips of the long 
roots which have run over the rim of the pot and 
entered the tan being likewise cut back to a con- 
siderable distance. The roots of the bulb issue from 
a ring round the central point. The soil for the 
bulb to rest upon Bhould form a cone, and this must 
be made tolerably firm ; place the bulb in position, 
and, holding it with one hand, spread out the roots 
with the other, arranging them down the sides of 
the cone of soil, pressing the mould firmly about 
the roots and round the base of the bulbs, leaving 
the bulb, when the potting is finished, half its depth 
above the soil. It may be thought that this method 
of potting is a slow one, but in reality it is not so. 
All offsets are removed from the plants at the time 
of repotting, plunging them altogether by themselves 
in the bed. Be careful not to use unnecessarily 
large pots, those about inches diameter inside- 



Januaby 13, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



51 



measurement are the best for strong flowering 
bulbs, and 7 or 8-inch pots for very large ones. It 
is a great mistake to overpot these bulbs. 

" Stopping " Chrysanthemums. 
My good friend, Mr. E. Molyneux, need have no 
diffidence at all in calling in question anything I 
have written or may write upon the Chrysanthemum. 
I may have grown prize Chrysanthemums when he 
was a baby in arms. I certainly did when he was a 
boy at school ; but since that time he has produced 
far better blooms than I ever did. I fancy I judged 
the first and the last blooms he exhibited in the 
metropolitan area ; and few growers have equalled 
him, not only in growing the blooms well, but in 
placing them before the public in good form, and 
on that account he has a right to place bis views 
upon culture before the readers of the Gardeners' 
Chronicle. Still, I have grown good blooms and won 
several 1st prizes, and I certainly did no more than 
record my own methods of culture. I might easily 
take exception to several remarks in Mr. Moly- 
neux's reply to my paper ; in fact, my good friend 
rather contradicts himself. He asks in one place, 
" Why should two members of one family require 
different treatment ? " My experience compels ma 
to say, that nearly all sports are the exact counter- 
part of their parents in the manner of their growth. 
The " manner of growth " must be different, or how 
comes it that there is so much difference in the 
flowers? as Mr. Molyneux admits further on. He 
mentions five sports from Princess of Teck. The 
first, Hero of Stoke Newington, he says, is the largest 
of the family, and is often large enough for a 
back-row flower; then he tells us Charles Gibson, 
Lady Dorothy, and Mrs. Norman Davis are often 
found in the middle row, Lord Eversleigh and the 
original Princess Teck occupying the front row. 
Why, my good friend ? Sarely, not because they are 
" exact counterparts " of each other. Sports are in my 
opinion not the exact counterparts of their parents ; 
either in growth or anything else. As I sat down to 
write this reply, the postman brought in one of the 
best descriptive Chrysanthemum catalogues I have 
yet seen, that of Mr, H. J. Jones of Lewisham, and as 
I tore off the cover I thought I would see what he had 
to say about The Queen family, and I turned to 
Alfred Salter. Hare is an extract from the catalogue. 
' Alfred Salter, lilac-pink, sport from Queen of Eng- 
land. The most difficult of the Queen family, grow 
it strongly, with two shoots only, aad take the second 
crown bud, or strike the plant in February, grow on 
to an 8-inch pot, and secure the first crown bud." 
John Doughty, another sport, requires different 
treatment from Empress of India. 

I will now quote what Mr. Jones says about 
Empress of India, the white sport. " This is a mag- 
nificent flower, and will be referred to when writing 
of other members of the Queen family. Gro v the 
plant in a pot not smaller than a nine-inch, and 
Becure the first crown bud. The flowers are finest if 
the buds be not taken till the last week in August. 
A good plan to adopt is to pinch out the tips of half 
the plants (the earliest) when in the cold frames 
during March, and let them go on with one shoot to 
the first break, as with the others. The stopping 
will retard this last condition, and oftentimes bring 
the crown bud at a capital date." Mr. Jones then 
recommends stopping for exhibition blooms. 

Messrs. Drover, of Fareham are good growers, 
and at p. 56 of their book on the Chrysanthemum, 
I find they also recommend stopping about April 8 
for the Qaeen family. I read the best books on 
the Chrysanthemum, including that written by 
Mr. Molyneux, but I do not follow implicitly any- 
body. No gardener will ever take a leading position 
unless he strikes out an original line of procedure. 
We found that Empress of India and Lord Alcester 
might have their buds taken a week earlier than the 
rest of the family — say, August 20. It is certain 
that the buds of Alfred Salter, John Doughty, and 
Mrs. Robinson King, taken at that date, did not open 
well, but those buds taken the last days of August 
or firBt week in September, produced admirable 
flowers. Queen of England and Golden EmpreBs 



produce handsome flowers if not taken before 
August 26. I have not any hesitation to say, writing 
from my experience at this place, that John Doughty 
and Alfred Salter make stronger growth than others 
of the Queen family — I cultivate them all. If the 
plants are too early supplied with manure-water, 
small buds form in the centre in clusters, and even 
when these are removed the flowers themselves 
are, never perfect in form. As regards stopping, 
doubtless it is best to act upon the principle of 
having two strings to one's bow. In a wet cold season 
the plants that have been stopped may not be the 
best, but in a warm dry season the " stopped " plants 
may produce the better flowers. The main object of 
stopping is to get the buds to form at the right time, 
and remarkably deep, solid, and well- coloured 
flowers are obtained for exhibition from such plants. 
I judged the incurved blooms at the Kingston and 
Surbiton exhibition with Mr. Molyneux, and we 
awarded the 1st prize in the class for twenty-four 
blooms to Mr. Higgs, of Fetcham Park, a good 
grower, who had fine blooms of all varieties of the 
Queen family, and I am informed that most of his 
plants were stopped. He had specially good blooms 
of Jeanne dArc from stopped plants. I have not 
said the largest blooms are obtained from such plants 
— probably they are not; but size is not everything; 
in fact, mere size counts for nothing, if good form is 
wanting. 

I stated at p. 717 of the last volume of the Gar- 
deners' Chronicle that it was useless to lay down a 
hard-and-fast line ; that the best growers had to give 
daily consideration to their work in all its details ; 
and it is only fair to myself that what I have written 
is the result of thirty-five years' experience of culti- 
vating the Chrysanthemum, during which time not a 
year has passed in which I have not grown the 
plants. I ought to know something about the 
" Teck family," as I saw Princess of Teck flowering 
in the late Mr. Salter's nursery the year it was 
Bent out. I bought it at once, and exhibited it in 
my prize stands the next year. I also know some- 
thing about ita sports, as I grow many plants of 
them all. 

Mr. Molyneux and I need not apologise to each 
other. Our one end and aim is to write for the 
instruction of others. I was writing about exhibition 
blooms, and ali I can say is this, that the best results 
have followed from treating the plants as I have 
stated, and I would like growers to follow out my 
instructions carefully, even if it is only to a limited 
extent, before questioning their correctness. James 
Douglas. 

LIST OF GARDENING 

PERIODICALS, So. 

In England. 

1787— Botanical Magazine. Monthly. Editor, Sir 
J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. (L. Reeve & Co., C, 
Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C ) 

1804— Royal Horticultural Society's Journal. 
Editor, Rev. W. Wilks. 

1841 — Gardeners' Chronicle. Friday. Editor, Dr. 
Masters, F.R S. Publisher, A. G. Martin, 41, 
Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London, 
W.C. Price 3d. 

1842— Gardeners' Magazine, Friday. Editor, George 
Gordon, Esq. Publisher, W. H. L. Colling- 
ridge, 148 and 149, Aldersgate Street, E.C. 

1848 — Journal of Horticulture. Thursday. Editor, 
Dr. Hogg, F.L.S. Publisher, E. H. May, 171, 
Fleet Street, London, E.C. 

1871— The Garden. Friday. Editor, W. Robinson, 
F.L.S. Publisher, W. Robinson, 37, South- 
ampton Street, W.C. 

1886— Horticultural Times, 127, Strand, W.C. 

1879— Gardening Illustrated. Editor and Publisher, 
W. Robinson, 37, Southampton Street, W.C. 

1884— Amateur Gardening. Editor, T. W. Sanders, 
Publisher, W. H. & C. Collingridge, 148 and 
149, Aldersgate Street, E.C. 

Garden Work. Editor, J. Wright. Publisher, E. H. 
May, 171, Fleet Street, E.C. 

1884— Gardening World. Editor and Publisher, 
B. Wynne, Clement's Inn, W.C. 

1887 — Royal Gardens, Kew, Bulletin of Miscel- 
laneous Information. Monthly. Eyre & 



Spottiswoode, East Harding Street, Fleet 

Street, E.C. 
British Gardening, 12, Brown Street, Manchester. 

Weekly. Id. 
Reichenbachia, devoted to the Illustration of Orchids, 

Monthly. F. Sander, St. Albans. 
Orchid Album, Monthly. Henry Williams, and 

others, Upper Holloway, London, N, 
The Orchid Review. Editors, various. West, 

Newman, & Co., 54, Hatton Garden, E.C. 
Rosarians' Year Book. Annually. Bemrose & Sons. 
Garden Annual. Annually. Garden Office, 37, 

Southampton Street, Stiand, W.C. 
Garden Oracle. Annually. By 

London. Gardeners' Magazine Office, 4 and 5, 

Ave Maria Lane, EC. 
Horticultural Directory. Annually. Journal of Hor- 
ticulture Office, 171, Fleet Street, E.C. 



PRINCIPAL FOREIGN and COLONIAL HOR- 
TICULTURAL PUBLICATIONS. 



America. 



New 



The American Garden. Editor, 

York. 
American Florist. New York and Chicago. 
Orchard and Garlen. Published by J. T. Lovett, 

Little Silver, New Jersey. 
Florists' Exchaiige, New York. 
American Pomological Society's Reports. 
American Agriculturist, Broadway, New York. 
Meehan's Monthly, T. Meehan, Germantown. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society's Reports, 

Boston, Mass. 
Garden and Forest. Editor, Professor Sargent, 

Tribune Buildings, New York. 
The Trade Journal and International Horticulturist. 

New York. 

Austria. 

Wiener Illuatrierte Garten Zeitung. Editor, Ritter 

Beck von Managhetta. (Journal of the Imperial 

Horticultural Society, Vienna.) 
Casopis ceBkych zahradniku, Prague. Editor, J. T. 

Thomayer. 
Mittheilungen D. K. K. Gartenbau GeselUchaft in 

Steiermark. Editor, L. Kristof, Graz. 
Oisterreichisch ungarische Garten Borse, Ilabsburger 

gasse 12, Vienna. 

Bavaria. 

Illustrierte Monatshefte (ur des Gesammt-Interessen 
des Gartenbaues. Editor, Max. Kolb, Munich. 

Dr. Neubert's Garten Magazin. Munich, Kfinig- 
strasse No. 55. 

Untersuchungen, a. d., Forst. Bot. Institut zu 
Miinchen. Editor Prof. Hartig, Munich. 

Belgium. 

Journal des OrchidSes. Editor, Lucien Linden, 

Brussels. 
La Belgique Horticole, &c. Brussels, Rue de la 

Liniere 3. 
Lindenia. MM. Linden and Rodigas, Brussels. 
L'lllustration Horticole. MM. Linden and Rodigas 

Brussels. 
L'Horticulteur, Mons. Editor, J. Wanavre. 
Revue de l'Horticulture Beige. Count de Kerchove 

and others, Ghent. 
Bulletin d'Arboriculture, &c. Editors, M. Pynaert 

and others, Ghent. 

Canada. 

Canadian Horticulturist. Ottawa. 

Cape Town, 
Agricultural Journal. 

Ceylon. 
Tropical Agriculturist. Colombo. Ferguson. 

France. 

Revue Horticole. Editors, MM. Carriere et Andie\ 
Rue Jacob, 26, Paris. 

Le Jardin. Editor, M, Godefroy. Publisher, A. 
Picard, Argenteuil. 

L'Orchidophile. Editor, M. Godefroy - Lebeuf, 
Argenteuil. 

Journal des Roses. Editor, M. Bernardin. Pub- 
lisher, M. Goin, Paris. 

Journal de l'Horticulture Pratique. Paris. 

Lyon Horticole. Editor, M. Viviand-Morel. Lyon, 

Journal de la Soci&e' Nationale d'Horticulture. Rue 
de Grenelle, 84, Paris. 

Le Moniteur d'Horticulture. Editor, M. J. Chaur<5, 
Rue de Sevres, 14, Paris. Bi-monthly. 



52 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januaby 13, 1894. 



Bulletin de la Soci&ti d'Acclimatation de France, 
Paris. 

Germany. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Gartner Zeitang. Editor, Paul 

Abraham. Berlin, Weissenburgerstrasse, 66. 
Deutsche Gartner Zeitung. Erfurt. Editor, Herr 

Moller. 
Garten8ora. Berlin. Editor, Professer Wittmack. 

(Paul Parey, Berlin.) 
Monatsscbrift dee Gartenbauvereins zu Darmstadt. 
Rosen Zeitung. Frankfort-on-the-Maine. 
Deutsche Gartenzeitung. Editor, Dr. Gofze 

(Hamburg). 
Lebl lllustrierte Gartenzeitung. 
Zeitschrift liir bildende Gartenkunst. Editor, C. 

Hampel, Treptow, near Berlin. 
Handelsblatt liir den Deiitschen Gartenbau, &c, 

Berlin, C. von der Smissen. 

Bbitish Guiana. 
Garden, Field, and Forest. Demerara. 

Holland. 

Sempervirens, Gronewegen. Amsterdam. 

Het Neederlandsche Tuinboublad. Editor, Dr. 

H. Van Hall. Arnhem. 
Weekblad voor Bloembollencultuur. Editor, J. Da 

Break. Publishers, De Erven Loonjes, Haarlem. 

. . New South Wales. 
The Horticulturist. 
INDIA:— 

Calcutta. 

Journal of the Agri- Horticultural Society of India. 

Lahore. 
Journal of the Agri-Horticultural Society. 

Madras. 
Journal of the Agri-Horticultural Society. 

Rangoon. 
Journal of the Agri-Horticultural Society. 

Italy. 

Bulletino della Societa Toscana d'Horticultura. 
Florence. 

Java. 

Annates da Jardin Botanique de Baitenzorg. Dr. 
Treub. 

Japan. 

Journal of the Japanese Horticultural Society. S, 
Yoshida, Tokio. 

Pcland. 
OgrodDik Polski. Warsaw. 

Portugal. 
Journal de Horticultura Practica. Oporto. 
Switzerland. 

Der Schweizerische Garten Ban. Editor, Proftsaor 
Mti'ler-Thurgau. Zurich. 



Out Flowers.— Average Wholesale Prices. 



Markets. 

•■■ 
COVEN'l GARDEN, January 11. 
[We cannot accept any editorial responsibility for the Bub- 
joined reports. They are furnished to us regularly every 
Thursday, by the kindness of several of the principal 
salesmen, who revise the list, and who are responsible 
for the quotations. It must be remembered that these 
quotations do not represent the prices on any particular 
day, but only the general averages for the week preceding 
the date of our report. The prices depend upon the 
quality of the samples, the supply in the market, and the 
demand ; and they fluctuate, not only from day to day, 
but often several times in one day. Ed.1 



Plabtth iw Pom- 

i, 

Adiantum, per doe. 6 

Aspidistra, per doz. 15 

— specimen, each 7 
Azalea, per doz. ...24 
Chrysanthemums.doz 8 
Oyperus, per dozen 4 
Dracsena, each ... 1 
Erica, various, p.dz. 9 
Evergreen Shrubs, in 

var., per dozen ... 6 
Ferna, various, dor. 4 

— small, per 100 4 
Ficus elastica, eaoh 1 



-Average Wholesale Pbioes. 

d.t.d. t.d. 

0-12 Foliage plants, doz. 12 0- 

0-30 Hyacinths, p. doz.... t) 0- 

«-21 Lily of the Valley, p. 

0-33 doz. pots 15 0- 

0-9 Marguerites, perdoz. 6 0- 

0-10 Mignonette, doz. potB tt 0- 

0- 5 Palms, various, each 2 0- 

0-24 — specimens, eachlO H- 
Poinsettias, per doz. 12 

0-21 Primulas, per dozen 4 

0-9 Solanums, perdoz.... 9 0- 

0-6 Tulips p. doz. pots , C 0- 
6-7 6 



r, 


i. 


42 





9 





21 





12 II 


9 





10 





84 


n 


1ft 





6 





12 


(1 


8 






FBUIT.— AVEBAGE WHOLESALE PBIOIC8. 



Apples, per bush. 
Cobs, per 100 lb. 
Grapes, per lb. 



t.d. M.d. 
. i 0-10 
,.45 0- ... 

,10-30 



t.d. t.d. 

Pine-apples. St. Mi- 
ohae), each ...26-76 



t.d. t.d. 
Arum, perdoz. bl. ... 3 0-60 
Azalea, p. 12 sprays 9-10 
Bouvardias. per bun. 6-10 
Camellias,, doz. blnn. 10-26 
Carnations, 12 blms. 16-26 
Chrysanthemums, 12 

bunches ... 2 0-60 

— doz. blooms ...06-30 
Eucharis, per dozen 4 0-60 
Gardenia, per dozen 3 0-60 
Hyacinth, Roman 

12 sprays 

Lilac (Fr.), per bun 
Lilium Harrisii, doz 
Lily of the Valley. 

per dozen sprays... 10-20 
Maiden Hair Fern , 

12 bunches ... 4 0-60 

Marguerite, 12 bun. 16-30 
Mignonette, 12 bun. 2 0-40 
Primula, dble. p. bun. 6-10 



t.d. 

Narciss, French, white, 

12 bunches ... 2 0- 

— yellow, 12 bun. , 1 6- 
Orchids : — 

Cattleya, 12 blms. 6 0- 
Odontoglossum 
crispum,12blms. 2 0- 
Pelargoniums, soar- 
let, p. 12 bun. 4 0- 

— 12 sprays ... 6- 
Poinsettia, 12 blooms 4 0- 
Roses, French, p. doz, 9- 

— — p. boxof 100 3 0- 

— Tea, per dozen 6- 

— ooloured, dozen 2 0- 

— yellow (Mare- 
chals),perdoz. 3 0- 

— red, perdozen... 1 0- 
Tuberose, 12 blms. 4- 
Violets, Parme, p. bn. 3 0- 

— Czar, per bun. 2 0- 

— English, per doz. 1 6- 
Orohid-bloom in variety. 



6-09 
4 0-60 
6 0-12 



3 
2 6' 



6 

9 

1 

6 

1 6 
6 

2 

4 

6 

1 6 

6 

5 

3 
'2 



Vegetables. — Avebagb Betall Pbioes. 



t. d. t. d. i, d. 

Lettuces, perdoz. ... 1 3 
Mushrooms, punnet 1 3 
Mustard and Cress, 

punnet 

Parsley, per bunch... 
Shallots, per lb. ... 
Tomatos, per lb: ... 
Turnips, per bunoh... 



. 4- 

. 1 0- 

. 1 0- 

. 1 3- 

. 3- 

. 3- 



2 

6 

6 

1 3 

1 6 
1 6 

1 



t.d. 
2 
2 



2- 
6- 

3- 

1 0- 
4- 



6 



Beans, Frenoh, lb. ... 1 
Beet, red, per dozen 1 
Carrots, per bunch... 4 
Cauliflowers, eaoh 
Celery, bundle 
Cucumbers, each 
Endive, per dozen 
Herbs, per bunch 
Leeks, per bunch . 

POTATOS. 

The late severe weather having stopped supplies, euabled all 
London salesmen and dealers to clear off old stock, which will 
have a tendency to freshen the demand for new arrivals free 
from frost. Prices for best samples hava advanced from 5s. to 
7s. 6^. per ton. J. B. Thomas. 






SEEDS. 



London : Jan. 10,— Messrs. John Shaw & Sons, Seed Mer- 
chants, of Great Maze Pond, Borough, London, S.E., write 
that the most interesting feature of the last few days has been 
a sudden and strong demand for Trefoil seed, under which 
values advanced quite £3 per ton ; existing stocks will prove 
altogether inadequate to meet this spring's requirements. 
American cables for Cloverseed come Is. higher. Perennial 
and Italian Rye-grasses are neglected. For spring Tares 
there is a good inquiry. Canary seed exhibits a strong 
undertone; supplies are getting into a very narrow com- 
pass. There is no change in Hempseed. Peas and Hari- 
cots show some improvement. Linseed is dull. The 
Board of Trade Returns give the imports of Clover and 
grass seeds into the United Kingdom for the past year as 
333,412 cwt., value £790,061, as against 297,321 cwt., value 
£^35,135 for 1892. 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, 

Borough : Jan. 9.— Quotations : Savoys, 4s. to 7s. ; Cauli- 
flowers, 8s. to 10s. per tally ; Turnips. Is, tid. to 2s. ; Carrots, 
2s. to 3s. ; Parsley, Is. §d. to Is. 9d. per dozen bunches ; 
Onions. 5s. ijd, to 6s. 6^. per bag; Engli&h do., 6s. 6d. to 7s. 
per cwt. ; Apples, Is. 6d. to 8s. per bushel. 

Stratford: Jan. 9.— There has been an excellent supply 
of all kinds of produce at. this market during the past week, 
and a brisk trade ; has been done as under :— Cabbages, 2s. 
to 5s. per tally; Savoys, 3s. to 6s. 6rf."do.*"; Greens, 2s. to 
5s. per dozen bunches ; Turnips, 2s. Qd; to 3s. per dozen bunches ; 
do., 40s. to 45s. per ton ; Carrots, household, 50s. to 60s. 
per ton ; do., cattle-feeding, 30s. to 40s. per ton ; Parsnips, 
9<f. to Is. per score; Mangels, 18s. to 25s. per ton; Swedes, 
25s, to 30s. per ton ; Onions. English, 180s. to 240s. per ton ; 
do., Spanish, 10s. to 12s. per ca^e ; Apples, English, 3s. to 4s. 
per bushel. 

Farringdon: Jan. 11— Quotations :— Celery, 9s. to 12s. 
per dozen ; Parsnips, 3s. per cwt. ; Carrots, 2s. 6d. do. ; Parsley, 
4s. per dozen ; Onions, 10s. to 12s. per cwt. (English); do., 
foreign, 7s. per bag ; Turnips, 2s. $d. per bag; Apples, 4». to 
6s. per bushel; Grapes, lis. per birrel. 



-Quotations ranged 



POTATOS. 

Borough and sJpitaefields : ■/'" 
between 35s. and 95s. per tou. 

Stratford : Jan. ".—Quotations:— Magnums, black-land, 
408. to 60s.; do , upland, 55s. to 85s.; Hebron, 70s. to 80s. 
per ton. 

Farringdon : Jan. 11.— Quotations : — Hebrons, 80s. to 
100s. ; Regents, (10s. to 80s. ; Dunbars, 80s. to 90s. ; Magnums, 
45s. to 65s. ; Snowdrops. 60s. tl 8Js. ; Ma'ii Crop, 60s. to 
80s. ; black-land, 45s to 55s. per ton. 



CORN. 



Averages. —Official statement of the average prices of British 
corn, imperial measure (qr.), for the week ending January 6, 
and for the corresponding period in last year:— 1891 : Wheat, 
26s. Id. ; Barley, 28s. id. ; Oats, 17s. M. ; 1893 : Wheat, 
26s. V)d. ; Barley, 24s. M. ; Oats, 18s. id. 



HAY. 

Averages.— The following are the averages of the prices at 
the principal metropolitan markets during the past week :— 
Clover, prime,140s. to 154s. ; new, do., 126s. to 145s. ; inferior, 
do., 100s. to 128s.; hay, best, 145s. to 170s.; inferior, do.. 80s. 
to 100s.; new mixture, 115s. to 130s.; and straw, 35s. to 
58s. per load. 



The Weather. 



[B7 the term " accumulated temperature" is meant the 
aggregate amount, as well as the duration, of degrees ol 
temperature above or below 42° Fahr. for the period 
named; and this combined result is expressed in Day- 
degrees — a "Day-degree" signifying 1° continued for 
twenty-four hours, or any other number of degrees for 
an inversely proportional number of hours. J 



Temperature. 



Accumulated. 



2* b 



5 — 

5 — 

10 — 

11 — 

12 — 

6 — 

8 — 

12 — 

8 — 

10 — 

10 — 



S 






3^S 

> ° 3 



Day- 

deg. 


Day- 
deg. 





57 





71 





74 





101 





104 





99 





62 





75 





95 





64 





70 





41 



Day- 
deg. 



— 6 

— 6 

— 9 

— 10 

— 11 

— 8 

— 9 

— 14 

— 14 

— 20 

— 23 






Rainfall. 



Es 



O 



si 



Day 
deg. 


lOths 
Inch. 




Ins. 




+ 27 


9 — 


3 


02 


15 


+ 30 


4 — 


3 


03 


9 


+ 37 


1 — 


6 


04 


16 


+ 58 


2 — 


5 


03 


12 


+ 60 


5 — 


4 


0-1 


19 


+ 70 


5 — 


3 


0-2 


27 


+ 32 


12 - 


2 


01 


14 


+ « 


7 — 


2 


o-i 


19 


+ J3 


3 — 


2 


02 


30 


+ « 


6 — 


2 


0-2 


15 


+ 55 


7 — 


3 


02 


21 


+ 32 


5 — 


1 


0-4 


33 



Bright 

Sun. 



O « 

a b 

2E 



16 
12 
19 
27 
14 
19 
30 
IS 
21 
33 



The districts indicated by number in the first column are 
the following : — 

0, Scotland, N. Principal Wheat-producing Districts — 
1. Scotland, E.; 2, England, N.E. ; 3. England. E. ; 
4. Midland Counties; 5, England, including London, S. 
Principal Grazing, 6;c., Districts— «. Sootland, W. ; 7 
England, N.W. ; 8, England. S.W. ; 8, Ireland, N. 
10. Ireland. S. ; " Channel Islands. 



THE PAST WEEK. 

The following summary record of the weather for 
the week ending January 0, is furnished from the 
Meteorological Office : — 

'The weather during the week was exceedingly 
cold and wintry. Squalls and showers of snow were 
of frequent occurrence in all parts of the kingdom, 
but excepting over some of our eastern and south- 
eastern counties the amounts were inconsiderable. 

" The temperature decreased steadily from the 
commencement of the week, and towards its close 
had become extremely low, the deficit ranging from 
5° in ' Scotland, N., and E.,' to 10° in ' England, E..' 
' Ireland, S.,' and the ' Channel Islands,' and to 12° 
in 'England, S., and S.W.' The highest readings 
were recorded on December 31, and ranged from 
53° in ' Scotland, E.,' to 42° in ' Eogland, E., and 
S,' but during the latter half of the period, the 
daily maxima oyer England were nearly all below 
30°. The absolute minima were very low, and were 
recorded on January 6. They ranged from — 4° in 
'Scotland, E.' (at Braemar) C (zero) in the 'Mid- 
land Counties ' (at Bawtry), and 5° or 0° over the 
central parts of Ireland, to between 8° and 12° in 
nearly all the other districts. In the Channel 
Islands the lowest reading was 16°. At an addi- 
tional station from the Midland Counties (Work- 
sop), a minimum of — 4°.4 was recorded. The 
lowest grass minima reported were — 9° at Braemar, 
and 0° (zero) at Edgeworthstown. 

" The rainfall (consisting almost entirely of melted 
snow) was less than the mean in all districts. 

" The bright sunshine exceeded the mean in most 
parts of England, and equalled it over Ireland and 
' Scotland, W.'; while in ' Scotland, E ' there was a 
considerable deficit. The percentage of the possible 
duration ranged from 33 in the ' Midland Counties,' 
30 in ' England, S.W.,' and 29 in ' England, S.' to 
12 in ' England, E.' and 9 in ' Scotland, E.' " 



January 13, 1894] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



53 




Qm\fc/m 

Mr 

orrcjpondcnh 




A Variable Flowered Camellia : Subscriber, 
Withington. The Camellia is often inconstant, 
bringing flowers of different hues on the same 
plant, as for instance, Countess of Derby, Doncke- 
laari, and Caryophylloides, which bring white or 
pink selfs, when they ought to have pink blotches 
or stripes, as the case may be, on a white ground. 
This is owing probably to the unmixing of 
characters previously mixed as a result of cross- 
ing. Your variety, our authority tells us, is 
Pr incipessa Rospigliosi, a little out of character. 

Canary Islands ; Dried Figs : Thomas. If the 
quality of the products and the packing are as good 
as those from the Levant, these Figs would pro- 
bably fetch as good prices. 

Carnation Disease : F. Far too common, and often 
figured and described in these columns. We fear 
there is no cure save to burn the plants. If you 
see the disease early enough, you might try spray- 
ing with Bordeaux Mixture or a solution of 
sulphide of potassium, used cautiously. 

Climbers fob a Conservatory : D. Brown. You 
may plant, as you suggest, the climbing Aspa- 
ragus in the lees well-lighted parts. Other plants 
may consist of Abutilon in variety, including the 
pretty A. vexillarium, Acacia dealbata, A.longifolia, 
Tecoma Ja9minoides, T. Smithi might also be 
grown as a pillar plant ; Plumbago capensis, 
Fuchsias of strong habit, including the fine old 
Corallina. Tacsonia exoniensis, T. molliesima, 
T. Van Volxemi, Solanum Jasminoides, Mande- 
villa auaveolens, Hibbertia volubilis, H. dentata, 
Bignonia Cherere, Lapageria rosea, L. r. alba, 
Clematis indivisa, Cobceiscandens, C. s. variegata. 
If you have space, Beaumontia grandiflora is well 
worth a place. To cover the lower parts of wall?, 
the Lemon, Orange, Camellia, Myrtle, Ficua 
indica, and Scarlet Pelargoniums are excellent, 
but they must not be shaded from the sun. 

Correction. — Fruits under Glass : Calendar, in 
our last isBue. The front of house facing east 
should rest on pillars only — no wall. The wires 
should be 16 inches from the glass, not G inches. 

Gas Tar: Argus. If you do not clear out the gas- 
tarred wooden staging, the Tea Roses will be 
killed by the fumes of the tar. Use anti-corrosion 
paint if you are looking out for a cheap material. 
It is not very smooth or nice-looking, but it is 
lasting, and not dangerous to plant life. There 
are several shades of colour to be obtained. 

Names of Fruits : W. tt. Your Apple is no doubt 
the true Blenheim Orange. — Neve Bros. Glout 
Morceau. 

Names of Plants : W. M.. Devon. 1, Nephrolepis 
davallioides furcans ; 2, Davallia hireuta cristata ; 
3, Gymnogramma ochracea ; 4. Adiactum de- 
corum; 5, Croton trilobus; 6, C. angustifolius 
aureo-maculatus. 

Overgrown Shrubs : V. A. If you do not object 
to sacrifice their blooms, you may cut the Rhodo- 
dendrons back in early spring, i.e., after the hard 
frosts have gone. In doing so, it is always better 
to leave a few weak shoots furnished with leaves, 
and you may cut the branches back into all but the 
oldest wood, those of 6 feet high being pruned to 
3 and 4 feet, and those of 8 feet high to 5 and G 
feet. Never cut back named Rhododendrons to a 
point near the ground, that is, below the scion. 
Yews are not so amenable to pruning, and should 
not be cut very hard ; and, as a rule, their leading 
shoots — they usually have several — ought not to 
be cut unless they are unduly slender, and the 
trees are ill-furnished with branches. The beauty 
of a Yew tree lies in its sweeping, rather pendent 
branches, and these, if encroaching on other 
plants, may be cut back several feet. Above all 
things, do not err by cutting the trees into formal 
or regular pyramids. The overgrown Box bushes 
cannot be cut into the old wood, as they will take 
years to break, or may refuse to do so, and will die 
out. The one, two, and three-year-old shoots 
break freely, and for the pruning of these you may 
use a pair of hedging-shears. Common and Por- 
tugal Laurels may be cut back to any exteLt 



without iDJury, or the longer lower branches may 
be layered. In doing this, make a hole of a basin- 
shape, at least 9 inches deep, bend a branch into 
this hole, making it fast with a stout hook 2 feet 
long, or with two stout wooden pegs driven into 
the soil, and crossing each other over the branch. 
Fill in the soil, and trample it firmly. Rooting 
will take place in a year. If the branch is stub- 
born, cut it half-way through with a bill-hook. 
Hollies may be cut into the green younger wood ; 
if cut into the old wood they are long in breaking. 
They are striking objects as columns or pyramids 
for garden decoration, but the natural form, that 
of a round-headed tree, is best. If you would 
remove evergreens safely, perform the job in May, 
June, and July, affording the moved bushes heavy 
syringings overhead after warm days, and heavy 
waterings when the soil is getting dry. Never 
practice daily dribbles, these being seldom suffi- 
cient to wet the soil far from the surface, but they 
are sufficient to keep it too cool, thus hindering 
new root-growth. If the soil is light, use a heavy 
mulch of strawy litter ; if heavy, keep the surface 
over the roots crumbly, and put on no mulch. 
The land under the shrubs is doubtless very poor, 
and a heavy dressing of farmyard or stable-dung 
will favour a good break in the cut- down subjects. 
Laurel and Holly may be cut during the winter either 
in frosty or mild weather. It is a good practice to 
prune the same year as the removal, unless the 
pruning is very severe, when it is prudent to wait 
till the following year before removing the bushes, 
&c. We believe that the smaller feeding-roots 
of all shrubs and trees that are severely pruned 
back, die for lack of foliage to 'supply nutriment 
to them; there is, therefore, no need to supply 
manure at very wide distances from the stems. 

Rowan Tree : J. D. The Mountain Ash — Pyrus 
aucuparia. 

Schedule Difficulty : Dahlia. " For stand of 
thirty-six Dahlias, each different " is not clear. 
It may mean thirty-six blooms of any section of 
Dahlias, so long as different varieties are shown. 
The obvious meaning it is intended to carry is 
thirty-six show or fancy varieties, it being usual 
to specify other sections distinctly. 

Seeds of Kentias : Western. You might obtain 
seeds or plants just germinated, from Mr. Iceton, 
nurseries, Putney Park Lane. Sometimes Palm 
Beeds can be obtained at the Sale Rooms of Mr. 
Stevens, King Street, W.C., or those of Messrp. 
Protheroe & Morris, Cheapside, E.C., and others. 
Prices vary considerably. 



Communications Received.— H. Correvon, Geneva. — G. M. 
— W. B. H.— F. W. B.— L. K. & Co.— H. C. P.— J. K. H.— 
J. B. — W. W\— D. Bois, Paris. — Professor Cornu, Pari?. — 
Professor Bertrand, Lille.— J. E. J.— C. Baltet, Troyes.— 
M. D.— G. C D.— F. S. & Co.— Dr. A. B. Dennis.— A. D.— 
J. A.--M. T.— H. G. G— B. W.—W. H.— W. K.— T. T — 
M. C. C— J. W.-W. C.-J. Barry.— A. F. H.— W. B, H. 
— F. Q. C. — J. E.— R. W. A., Transvaal.— A. P. B. — 
A, Y. — J. T. R. (we should like full name and address, if you 
please).— H., Edinburgh. -J. R. J.— A. Peake.— J. M.— 
R. D.— W. J. G.— Chas. De Bosschere.— J. D.— B.— S., The 
Woods.— C. L.— T. F.— Viator. 

Photogriphs Received, with Thanks.— W. W.— C. F.— 
D. T. F.— J. A. 



CON1INUED INCREASE in the CIRCULATION of the 
" GARDENERS' CHRONICLE." 

Important to Advertisers. — The Publisher has the satis- 
faction of announcing that the circulation of the •* Gar- 
deners' Chronicle " has, since the reduction in the price of 
the -payer. 

Increased to the extent of 75 per cent. 

Advertisers are reminded that the "Chronicle" circulates 
among country gentlemen, and all classes of 
gardeners and garden-lovers at home, that it has a 
specially large foreign and colonial circulation, and 
that it u preserved for reference in all the principal 
Libraries. 



BOULTON & PAUL, 



HORTICULTURAL 
BUILDERS, 



NORWICH. 




WALL FRUIT-TREE PROTECTORS. 




MADE IN AMY LENGTH. EASILY FIXED. 
No. 65a, 24 feet by 2 feet, £2. 

BOILERS of ALL MAKES and SIZES. 

VALVES, PIPES and FITTINGS always in Stock. 

ESTIMATES ON APPLICATION. 

CATALOGUES of all our Manufactures FREE. 



BQULTON & PAUL, NORWICH. 
PICTURES QUE NATURALISTIC 
ROCK FORM ATION , ,•)>. 

WINTER GARDENS AND . CjJ^S. V»T 
FERNERIES; ^«V^<. . Sep- 



VASES, 




WATERFALLS 

STREAMS, 
LAKES, <*ZS' ftf, 



FOUNTAINS, 

^ K E R B I N G, 

BALUSTRADES, 

TERRACES, *o., 

ts Stone-like and Red 

TERRA COTTA. 

Durability Guaranteed. 



W. ROBM/^Om 



REVISED 
PRICES 
KraK.FREE 




CARSON'S PAINT 

Patronised by 20,000 of the Nobility, Gentry, 
and Clergy, for all kinds of 

OUTDOOR WORK, CONSERVATORIES, 

Greenhouses, Frames, &c. 
1 Cwt.. and Oil Mixture, Free to all Stations. 

Liquid Non-Poisonous Paint for Inside of Conservatories, &e. 
Prices. Patterns, and Testimonials, Post-free. 

Grove Works, Lombard Road, Battersea, 
London, S.W. ; 

and BACHELOR'S WALE, DUBLIN. 



54 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 13, 1894. 



Telegrams—" CONSERVATORIES, LONDON." Telephone, No. 4652. 

NOTICE to Builders, Nurserymen, Market Gardeners, Timber Merchants, 

AND THE TRADE GENERALLY. 



REL I A BLE 
BARGAINS. 



WM. COOPER'S 



NOT SECOND-HAND 
GOODS. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CLEARANCE SALE. 

Office: 755. OLD KENT ROAD, LONDON, S.E. 
Works ( the % g 6 ^ s s ^ a tS e H w?r 1 1 c a ultural ): 747 to 755, OLD KENT BOAD, LONDON, S.E. 



Show Ground : DEVONSHIRE GROVE (adjoining). 



Being the end of the Season, I am again induced to offer my Stock on hand at ridiculously Low Prices, to make room for my 
SPRING STOCK, for SIX WEEKS ONLY, COMMENCING DEC. 4. LAST DAY of SALE, SATURDAY, JAN. 13, 1894. 



CONDITIONS OF SALE. 

Goods are offered subject to being on hand on receipt of reply. Cash to accompany 
all orders, and prices to be strictly nett. All orders will be executed in rotation, 
and carefully packed and put on rail, except those otherwise stated. 

P. 0.0. payable at 794, Old Kent Road; Cheques crossed " L. and S. W. Bank." 

GREENHOUSE DEPARTMENT. 

THE AMATEUR FORCING HOUSE. TENANT'S FIXTURE (Span-roof). 

These houses are offered at an 
exceedingly low rate, and should 
be readily approved by both ama- 
teur and professional gardeners, as 
brickwork, which is very expensive 
to a small house, ie entirely dis- 
pensed with. 

The utility of such a house for 
forcing or cultivating Cucumbers, 
Tomato*, Melons, &c , will be per- 
ceived at a glance, it being a struc- 
ture constantly in request but 
almost hitherto unknown. 
Specification. — Framework substantially constructed of red deal; the whole of sides, and 
2 ft. 6 in. of ends, boarded with well-seasoned tongued and grcoved matchboards. Half-gla*s 
door, complete with rim lock and brass fittings, in one end ; gla&s 16 oz. throughout. English 
cut. Ventilators supplied according to size of home, and stays necessary for opening same; 
stages for plants each side of house, all woodwork painted one coat of good oil paint, and the 
whole (structure securely packed and placed on rail. Usual Price. Sale Price. 




Lot. 


Length. 


Width. 


Height. 


Packed on rail. 


Packed on rail. 


1 to 7 . 


7 ft. . 


5 ft. 


.. 7 ft. 


... • £2 10 





... £2 


8 to 10 . 


8 ft. . 


5 ft. 


... 7 ft. 


3 





2 5 


] 1 to 12 . 


9 ft. . 


6 ft. 


... 7 ft. 3 in. 


3 10 





2 10 


13 to 22 . 


10 ft. . 


7 ft. 


... 7 ft. 6 in. 


4 10 





3 10 


23 to 29 . 


12 ft. . 


8 ft. 


... 8 ft. 


5 10 


n 


3 15 


30 to 41 . 


15 ft. . 


. 10 ft. 


... 8 ft. 6 in. 


7 15 





5 10 


42 to 48 . 


20 ft. . 


. 10 ft. 


... 9 ft. 


... 10 15 





7 10 


49 to 51 . 


S5 ft. . 


. 10 ft. 


... 9 ft. 


... 15 5 





... 10 


52 to 54 . 


50 ft. . 


. 10 ft. 


... 9 ft. 


... 27 





... 20 


55 to 56 . 


.. 100 ft. . 


.. 10 ft. 


... 9 ft. 


... 45 





... 25 



SPAN-ROOF VILLA CONSERVATORIES. 

Adaptable for the lawn of a villa residence, being well and substantially-built, constructed 

of the best materials, and artisti- 
cally finished, with diagonal panels 
and barge-boards. The framework is 
composed of 2 in. by 3£ in. red deal, 
the lower part doubly-lined with 
tongued and grooved matchboards, 
and the roof properly fitted with 
sashes, which facilitates fixing or re- 
moving of same without disturbing 
glass. 

The houses are fitted with a half- 
glass door, complete with rim lock, 
I rass fittings and key, and is supplied 
with lattice staging for each aide, 
footpath the entire length; gutters, 
r down pipes, suitable ventilators, and 
necessary ironwork for opening same. 

All woodwork painted two coats of 
, glass cut to eizes, and all parts securely packed on rail. Prices : — 




good oil paint 



Lot. 
343 to 361 
352 to 358 
359 to 383 

381 to 371 
372 to 374 



Long. 
9 ft. 
12 ft. 
16 ft. 
21) ft. 
25 ft. 



Wide. 
6 ft. 
8 ft. 

8 ft. 

9 ft. 
9 ft. 



High. 

7 ft. 

8 ft. 

8 ft. ( 
Oft. 

9 ft. 



To Eaves. 
4 ft. 6 in. 
6 ft 6 in. 
6 ft. 6 in. 
6 ft. 
6 ft. 



sual Price. 


Sale Price 


Packed 


Packed 


on rail. 


on rail. 


£7 10 .. 


... £5 10 








8 10 











"AMATEUR" SPAN-ROOF AND LEAN-TO GREENHOUSES. Tenant's Fixtures. 

Made especially for Amateurs 

SPAN- |}^\A\A\WA/'/'.',^A'.*A/ ^ L /u\AA/vWVWj 

KOOF. 



at a nominal figure, thereby coming 
within reach of tho3e who require 
a strong but inexpensive structure, 
and being constructed in complete 
sections, are erectable by any 
handy-man or gardener in a few 
hours. Framework is substantially 
constructed of red deal, the lower 
pirt being filled in with well- 
seasoned tongued and grooved 
matchboards. The house is fitted 
with roor complete, with rim lock 
and brass furniture, painted one coat 
of good oil colour, supplied with all 
necessary ironwork and stages for 
each side, and good 16oz. glass throughout 




All parts securely packed, and put on 




LEAN-TO. 



Lot 
67 to 71 
72 to 76 
77 to 108 
109 to 121 
122 to 149 
150 to 170 
171 to 176 
177 to 184 
185 to 189 
190 to 197 
198 to 201 
202 to 211 
212 to 221 
222 to 225 
226 to 228 



Span- roof 



Long. Wide. 



7ft. 

8ft. 

9ft. 
]0ft. 
12ft. 
15ft. 
20ft. 
25ft. 
50ft. 
100ft. 
30ft. 

7ft. 

9ft. 
12ft. 
15ft. 



5(t. 

5ft. 

6ft. 

7ft. 

8ft. 
10ft. 
10ft. 
10ft. 
10ft. 
10ft. 
10ft. 

5ft. 

6ft. 

8ft. 
10ft. 



High. 
7 ft. 
7ft. 
7ft. 3 
7ft. 6 
8ft. 
8ft. 6 
9ft. 
9ft. 
9ft. 
9ft. 
8ft. 6 
7ft. 
7ft. 3 
8ft. 
8ft. 6 



To Eaves. 

4ft. 

4ft. 
in. 4ft. 
in. 4ft. 6 in. 

5ft. ... 
in. 5ft. ... 

5ft. 6 in. 

5ft. 6 in. 

5ft. 6 in. 

5ft. 6 in, 
in. 5ft. ... 

4ft. ... 
in. 4ft. ... 

5ft. ... 
in. 5ft. ... 



Usual Price. 

Packed on rail. 

£2 16 

3 10 

4 

5 

6 
8 10 

12 
17 
30 







Sale Price. 
Packed on rail. 



£2 

2 15 

3 

4 
4 10 
6 10 
9 



50 
20 



3 10 
5 10 
8 



2 15 

4 

5 15 



m 



21 oz. for Roof 5 per cent, extra. 



SPAN-ROOF FORCING HOUSE. 

£T*fe^ The illustration shown will convince 
^s all practical minds of the importance 
§: and utility of this class of house for 
O^al'i I Gentlemen, Nurserymen, Market Gar- 
deners, and all t hose who require a cheap 
strong House for Forcing, or growing 
Cucumbers, Tomatos, Melons, &c. 
Specification.— Built for brickwork, 3 feet high, of thoroughly well-seasoned red deal ; roof 
ventilation according to size ; door at one end ; all 21-oz. glass ; painted one coat. 




Carefully Packed on Rail. 

LOT 229 to 235 2) b 7 9 

236 to 242 20 by 12 

243 to 240 20 by 14 

247 to 250 40 by 9 

251 to 255 40 by 12 

256 to 257 40 by 14 

258 to 260 100 by 9 

261 to 267 100 by 12 

268 to 281 100 by 14 



Usual Price. Sale Price. 



£9 
11 
14 10 
17 



21 
25 
40 
48 
55 



282 to 342 Ventilating boxes for Side Walls 



For full Specification of Sale, see three-page advertisement in the Gardeners' Chronicle of December 2. 
SALE CATALOGUE POST-FREE. 

WILLIAM COOPER, 747 to 755, OLD KENT ROAD LONDON, S.E. 



Januabt 13, 1894.] 



THE GAB DENE BS' CHRONICLE. 



55 



HORTICULTURAL BUILDER. 

Every description of GREENHOUSES, LIGHTS, &0. 



PIT LIGHTS. 

Best quality and workmanship, 2 inches thick, 6 ft. by 4 ft., 
iron bar across, and very strong, As. 6d. each, 50s. doz., £10 for 
50 lights, free on rail in London. Cash or reference with order. 



CUCUMBER HOUSES. 

Timber sufficient to build 100 feet by 12 feet house. Roof 
Ventilators, Door, &c. Put on rail in London. Price, £9 108, 
Send for detailed specification, to — 



W. DUNCAN TUCKER, HORTICULTURAL WORKS, TOTTENHAM. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, just issued. 



THE ABERC RAVE COLLIERIES CO ., SWANSEA. 

BEST BIG VEIN ANTHRACITE COALS, 

As used at the General Post Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand ; the Victualling Yard, Deptford ; H.M. 

Small Arms Factory, Birmingham, &o. 

FOR STEAM MALTINC, HOP DRYING, AND HORTICULTURAL PURPOSES. 



REPRESENTATIVE FOR LONDOA AND DISTRICT— 

JNO. BOWDEN, 24, LAMBOURN ROAD, CLAPHAM, S.W. 



n 



GardenPoi 



Messrs. DiCkSOIlS, Limited, Chester, write : — " The Flower Pots ; ou have so largely supplied us with are light, strong, 
and well made, and iu every respect highly satisfactory." 

Messrs. Richard Smith & CO., Worcester, write :— i( We beg to say that we are highly satisfied with your ' Garden 
Pots ; ' ihey are well made, light, yet strong, and we like them better than any other we have ever used." 

Mr, William Bull, 536. King's Road. Chelsea, London, writes:— "For nearly thirty years I have been using your 
' Harden Pots,' and still rind them the best and cheapest." 

Largest Manufacturers in the World. No Waiting. Millions in Stock. Carriage and Breakage Free on £10 

Orders. Naif Carriage on £5 Ord-rs. Samples Free. 




MESSENGER & CO.'S New CATALOGUE of Greenhouses and Heating Apparatus, 

Will be found the most complete, practical, and reliable guide to all about to build, alter, or heat Greenhouses. Illustrations 
of every description of Glasshouse, from the largest range of Winter Gardens to the simplest forms of Portable Greenhouses, 
Plant Protectors, and Garden Frames ; also of all the best fcinds of Boilers, Hot^water Pipes, and all appliances for heating. This 
Catalogue, possessing hundreds of illustrations of all the latest improvements in greenhouse building and heating, is on a scale 
never before attempted. It should be in the hands of every one interested in gardening, as it contains many practical hints on the 
subjects of which it treats, the result of many years' experience. Price, 2s. pDSt-free, 

A large number of the illustrations are taken from greenhouses erected by us in various parts of the country ; an inspection 
of this Catalogue shows, therefore, buildings the efficiency of which has been well tested by actual use. The advantages possessed 
by us enable us to carry out work with the utmost promptness, and in the very best style, at prices which defy competition. 
Surveys made, and gentlemen waited on in any part of the country. Plane and Estimates free on application. 

MESSENGER & COMPANY, LOUGHBOROUGH. 

London Office :— 163, Palmerston Buildings, old Broad Street, E.C. 



ANDERSON'S RUSSIA MATS 

Are the Best and Cheapest. 

CARDEN SUNDRIES OF EVERY KIND. 

Illustrated CATALOGUE post-free on application. 



JAMES T. ANDERSON, 

135 & 137, COMMERCIAL ST., LONDON, E. 

SAVE YOUR FRUIT CROP 

BY USING 




CHEAPEST MADE 

AND THOROUGHLY STRONG, 

' 2 feet wide, Is. lOd per foot run. 
3 feet wide, 25. 6rf. per foot run. 
Carriage paid for Orders over £5. 

PRICE LISTS of Wall-tree Protectors 
Glasshouses, Heating Apparatus, &c, free 

W. RICHARDSON & CO., 

Horticultural Builders and Hot-water Engineers 

DARLINGTON. 

MeMeWcTiONinFRAIVIES 

OUR WELL-KNOWN MAKE. 




PORTABLE CUCUMBER FRAMES. 

These Frames are made of the Best Materials, and can be put 
together and taken apart in a few minutes by anyone. 

Sizes and Prices, Glazed and Painted. £ *. d. 



l-iight, 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 



4 ft. by 6ft.. 

8 ft. by 6 ft. . 
12 ft. by 6 ft.. 
16 ft. by 6 ft.. 
20 ft. by 6ft.. 
24 ft. by 6ft.. 



\ 



CASH 

PRICES, 

CARRIAGE 

PAID. 

Larger sizes at proportionate prices. 







2 6 

5 

7 6 



X io o 



R. HALLIDAY & CO., 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL WORKS, 

MIDDLETON, MANCHESTER. 

London ^s^n£,Mr.H.SKKLTON,Seedaman,&c.,3,Holloway Rd.,N. 




2l-«.*ni1^o: FOREIGN, of AtJC'e Bi:es, in bores of 100 fcrt*. 200 f eet SBptK 

ENGLISH G1a*s, cut to buyers' sizes , o-t lowes't -prices 

c££.2Ltr&red free f^Jourtd in the country , iTi quantity. 







GEQR0E FAKMILOE&SONS 

l.E^O,GLA6S. Oil., aJlU COLOU^KERCHANTa. " 

J* S^e^OHNStrcetV/fcSTSMITHFlELD.TjDWQpN '"C 
Stoculi&M find prises en application. Plesie quate VKrontcle. 



56 



THE GARDENERS 1 CHRONICLE. 



[January 13, 1894. 



NATIVE GUANO.— Best and Cheapest 
Manure for Garden Use. Price £3 10s. per ton, in bags. 
Lots under 10 cwr., 4s. per cwt. ; I cwt. Sample Bag sent 
Carriage paid to any Station ia England, on receipt of P. O. 
for os. 

Extracts from ISth Annual Collection of Reports :— 
NATIVE GUANO FOR POTATOS, VEGETABLES, &c. 
H. Brinkworth, Potato Grower. Reading, used for Potatos, 
Onions, and Carrots; results: — "Very good; never had better 

crops." A. J. Allsop, Gardener to Lord Portman ;— *' A 

better crop of Onions I don't wish to have. I can thoroughly 
recommend it as a valuable manure for vegetables." 
NATIVE GUANO FOR FRUIT, ROSES, TOMATOS, &c 
R. MclNTOSH, Gardener to F. T. Cobbold. Esq , Felixstowe : 
— " For Cucumbers, Melons, Peaches, and Vines, it is my fa- 
vourite manure. For Violets in frames. Chrysanthemums, and 
nearly all kinds of plants, we use it with excellent results." 

G. Hickman, Gordon Road Nursery, S. Woodford :— " Used 
for some years, and am satisfied it is the best manure at the 
price I ever had. Specially good for CueumbersandTomatos." 
Orders to the Native Guano Co. Ltd... 29, New Bridge 
Street, Blackfriars, London, where Pamphlet of Testi monials, 
&c, may be obtained. AGENTS WANTED. 

BONES ! BONES ! ! EONEs ! ! !— Any size 
from dust to 1 inch, at 10s. per cwt. Carriage Paid on 
1 cwt. Special quotations to large buyers. 
Terms. Cash with Order. 
E. S. WILES and LE WIS. Bone Crushers, St. Albans. 

REAL MANURE. 



To make up for the loss 
from drought, it is absolutely 
necessary all should uBe the 
above immediately. Its effect 
is marvellous. Just one 
powerful ingredient makes it 
fir superior to all others. 
Mr. NOAH KNELLER, 
Malsnanger Pk. , Basingstoke 

Has had his fuiply, and says: 
"The exact dimensions of one 
Onion, 7 inches across, 19 inches 
round, weight 2 lb. 9 oz. ; twelve 
Onions weighing 34 lb., which I 
exhibited at Reading. Grown 
solely by the use of Cannell's 
Real Manure. A farmer said 
that he wished his Swedes were 
as big as my Onions." 




H. CANNELL & SONS, 

SWANLEY, KENT. 

ECONOMIOAUAFE^LASTING 

CLAY'S 
MANURES 



4i London'^ 

trade: mark. 



Are used by the - 

Leading Growers 

Royal Botanic * f CLAV* 

Society, S - V •$ 

Royal Horticul- 
tural Society, i-nviwISMOR 

Royal Parks, 1 

London County ^=C '"-- --■ ff^- 

Council, 

throughout the 

United Kingdom 

and in 



THADE MARK. 



EVERY QUARTER OF THE GLOBE, FOR 

ALL HORTICULTURAL ^PURPOSES. 

SOLD by SEEDSMEN, FLORISTS, and NURSERYMEN, 
In 6d. and is. Packtta, and SEALED BAGS;- 
7 lb. 14 lb. 28 lb. 56 lb. 112 lb. 

23. 6d. 4s. 6d. 7s. 6d. 12s. 6d. 20s. 

Or direct from the Works, Carriage Paid in the United 
Kingdom for Cash with order (except 6d. Packets). 

The respective Trade Mark la printed on 

every Packet and Bag. and also lmpre-aed 

on the lead Seal attached to the mouth 

of each Bag. which la 

THE ONLY GUARANTEE OF GENUINENESS. 



Prices of CRUSHED BONES in Various 
Sizes on Application. 

CLAY & SON, 

Manure Manufacturers, Bone Crushers, &c, 
TEMPLE MILL LANE, STRATFORD, LONDON, E. 



AGENTS "WANTEDfortheSALEof NATIVE 
GUANO, The Best and Cheapest Manure for all Farm 
and Garden Crops. — The NATIVE GUANO COMPANY, 
LIMITED. 29. New Bridge Street. Bl-ickfriars, London. E.C. 

p BEESON'S MANUKE. — Composed of 

V_y» Blood and Bone. The Best Fertiliser for all purposes 
Sold in tins. Is., 2s. tid., and 5s. §d. ; also in air-tight bag?, 
£ cwt., 6s. ; 1 cwt., 10s, Full directions for use sent with each 
tin and bag. 1 cwt, and above sent carriage paid, cash with 
order. 0. BEESON, Bone Mills, St. Neot's, Hunt?. 

" 12, Kuowle Road, Brixton, London, 
"I have tried this fertiliser on various garden crops, and I 
am able to say that it is an excellent Manure for Vegetables, 
Flowers, Vines, and Fruit Trees. 

"A. B. GRIFFITHS, Ph.D., F.K.S.E..F.C.S." 

COMPLETE ERADICATION of all 
INSECT PESTS in GREENHOUSES 
and FRAMES is thoroughly insured 
by using the 



LETHORION 




(VAPOUR 

(PATENT) CONES). 

They are now univer- 
sallyadmitted to be the only 
reliable Fuinigator, being 
thoroughly uniform in 
strength, and are not liable 
todeteriorationfiom atmos- 
pheric changes. They can- 
not injure the most delicate 
■ flower or plant. Scale and 
mealy - bug may be com- 
'je.-I pletely eradicated by using 
the Cones double strength. 

Pricks: — For framesof 50 
to 100 cubic feet, No. 1 coiie, 
6d. each ; 500 It. to 700 ft., 
No. 2, Is. ; 1000 feet to 
1500 feet, No. 3. Is. 6d. 
To be had from the Seed and Nursery Trade throughout 
the Kingdom, 

Manufacturers :— CORRY & CO., 

LIMITED, 

13, 15, & 16, Finsbury Street, London, E.C. 

EXTERMINATE ALL INSECT PESTS 

Without Injury to Foliage, 
No HOT COKES. 

Vastly Superior to Tobacco 
Paper, 

And Adopted by — 
Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bt. ; Baron 
Schroder; Rt. Hon. Jos. Cham- 
berlain; Sir Leopold Rothschild, 
Bart.; Messrs. Veitch, Chelsea; 
Sutton, Reading; Carters', Holborn 

Easy, Certain, Safe, and Cheap. 
Sheets, 9d. (for 1000 cubic feet in parcels \ 9s. per Dozen, 

of 1 dozen, also \, £, and 1 gross. J at 13 to Doz. 

McDougalls' Liquid Insecticide.— For Use under Glass. 
„ Garden and Fruit Tree Wash.— For Outdoor Use. 
„ Plant Food or Manure.— For Vines, Fruits, & Plants. 
Wasp and Vermin " Chokers." — For exterminating 
Wasps and Ants, Rats. Rabbits, Mice, Moles, &c, 
and all Vermin that Burrow. 
No. 1 at 2s. per dozen, or 22S. 6d. per gross ; No. 2 at 5s. per 
dozen, or 57S. 6d. per gross. 
All Free from Poison. Patented and Sole Makers — 

M C DQUGALL BROS. , SmSS;^ m^^sL*. 

■ II UUUUHLL UIIUUl | Glasgow . 70to78,KingStreet. 
FROM NURSERYMEN AND SEEDSMEN. 




r pilE "PERFECT" FUMIGATOR. — Quite 

JL Safe, no Scorching, Smoke COOL, Effectual and Most 

Economical. Testimonials. 

Mr. LEACH, Gr. to the Duke of Northumberland, Albury 
Paik, siys, Dec. 15, 1883 :— After nearly 40 yeais' experience, 
this is the best Fumigator I have ever seen, in fact all that 
can be desired. The Al Tobacco Cloth I like very much. Send 
on 15 lb. more. 

From Mr. F. Cornish, Gr. to Dowager Lady Bowman, 
Joldwynds, near Dorking, Dec. 9, 1893 : — I consider it the best 
Fumigator I have ever uaed. Also your Al Cloth requires very 
little attention : most economical, no injurious effects upon the 
foliage, certain death to green and black-fly. 

Fumigator^, 10*. %d. each. Al Tobacco Cloth, f-pecially 
prepared. Is. Qd. per lb. Full particulars, with copy of other 
testimonials, on application to JAS. IVERY and SON, 
Nurserymen, &c, Dorking and Reigate, Surrey. 

FIR-TREE OIL 

SOLUBLE INSECTICIDE. 

The most pleasant and reliable of all insecticides for destroy- 
ing insects on plants, animals, and birds. Thousands of 
testimonials received from all parts of the world. Bottles, 
Is. Qd., 2s. Qd. t is. 6d. r 7s. tid., and 12s. Qd. \ in bulk, lis. per 
gallon, with full directions for uso. 

Wholesale from all Horticultural Dealers. 

E. GRIFFITHS HUGHES. Victoria St., MANCHESTER. 

NEW YORK-ROLKER and SONS. 





JERSEY GUANO.— As used by every Jersey 
farmer for early crops of Potatos and all kinds of 
agricultural produce. £13 10s. per ton delivered. A tiial 
solicited. 

J. D. HAMON, Jamaica Row, Birmingham. 

SAVE HALF THE COST. 



BEDFORDSHIRE 
COARSE AND FINE 



Is admitted by the 
leadingNurserymen 

to be the Best 

Quality obtainable 
in the Trade. 

Consumers should Buy Direct from the Owner of these 
Celebrated and Extensive Pits, which contain a practically in- 
exhaustible supply of Splendid Sand, and thus save half the 
ordinary cost. NO TRAVELLERS OR AGENTS. 

Apply direct to the Proprietor for Samples and Price 

free on Rail or Canal. All Orders executed with the utmost 
promptness and under personal supervision. Special Rail- 
way Rates in force to all parts. All kinds of PEAT supplied 
at lowest possible prices. Sample Bag sent on application to 
GEO. GARSIDE, Jun., F.R.H.S., Leighton Buzzard, Beds. 

GISHURST COMPOUND, used since 1859 
for Red Spider, Mildew, Thrips, Greenfly, and other 
blight ; 2 ounces to the gallon of soft water, 4 to 16 ounces as 
a winter dressing for Vines and Orchard-house trees, in lather 
from cake, for American blight, and as an emulsion when 
paraffin is used. Has outlived many preparations intended to 
supersede it. Boxes, 1*., 3s., and 10s. 6d, 

GISHURSTINE keeps Boots dry and soft on 
wet ground. Boxes, Qd. and Is , from the Trade. 
Wholesale from PRICE'S PATENT CaNDLE COMPANY 
(Limited), London. 

ORCHID PEAT. 

PREPARED, ready for use, all fibre, 10s. per sack ; B tor 47-5. id. 
SELECTED, in blocks, very fibrous, 8s. per sack; B for 
37s. ed. SECOND QUALITY, 5s. per sack ; 5 for 22s. ed. 

BROWN FIBROUS PEAT, for Azaleas, Rhododendrons, and 
Ferns, 4s. per sack, 5 for 18s. ; and 3s. per sack, 5 for 12s. 6d. 

PEAT-MOULD, LEAF-MOULD, and FIBROUS LOAM, each 
2s. 6d. per sack ; 5 for 10s. PREPARED POTTING COM- 
POST, 4s. per sack ; 5 for 18s. All sacks included. 
Send Postal Order for Sample Sack. 
Special terms to the Trade. For Price List apply to 

THE forester, Joyd en Wood, near Bexley, Kent. 

RICHARDS' NOTED PEAT. 

(Trade supplied on best terms). 

VERY CHOICE SELECTED FOR ORCHIDS. 
For Slove and Greenhouse Plants. Ferns, Rhododendrons, &c. 
By the sack, cubic yard, ton or truck load, A large stock at 
London Wharf. Immediate despatch by any Bail or Steamer. 
Prompt and Special Quotations for delivery to any Station. 

G. H. RICHARDS, Old Shot Tower Wharf, Lambeth, 
London, S.E. ; Peat Grounds and Depots, Ringwoodand Ware- 
ham. Address all letters to London Wharf. 

EPPS'S •*** PEAT, 

For ORCHIDS, STOVE and HARDWOOD PLANTS, FERNS, 

and RHODODENDRONS, by sack, yard, ton, or truckload. 

SPECIAL ORCHID PEAT, in sacks or casks only. 

Richfibrous LOAM, excellent LEAF-MOULD. Coarse and Fine 

SAND, CHARCOAL, COCOA FIBRE and SPHAGNUM. 
All kinds of Patent MANURES, and GARDEN REQUISI1ES. 

PEAT MOSS LITTER. 
The Original Peat Dep ot, RINGWOOD, HANTS. 

JAS. BOYD & SONS, 

Horticultural Builders 
and Heating Engineekb, 

PAISLEY. 

HORTICULTURAL 
STRUCTURES 

of every description, 

In either Wood or Iron, 

or both combined. 



Wooden Chapels, 

Shooting Lodgea, 

Tennis Courts, 

Cottages, &c. 

Hot - water Apparatus 

for warming 

Buildings of every 

description. 

Illustrated Circulars 

Post-free. 

Complete Catalogue, 3b. 



HE FRUIT GARDEN of the UNIVERSE. 





(Chaffey Brothers), established and regulated by Government, 
OFFER an enjoyable Life and OCCUPATION, a aunny and 
salubrious Climate, and most highly remunerative returns to 
Cultivators with small or large Capital. Pamphlet free. 

CHAFFEY BROTHERS, Limited, 35, Queen Victoria Street 
London, E.C. J. E. M. Vincent, Chief Commissioner. 



January 13, I894J 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



57 



HILL & SMITH, 

EKIERLEY HILL, 
STAFFORDSHIRE, 

And 118, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, LONDON. B.C. 




{NEW PATTERN 

TREE GUARD, 

"The Porcupine" 

The maximum of utility and 
the minimum of cost. 

Constructed of strong Iron Up- 
rights and Galvanised Barbed Steel 
Wire. 

Price 10s. 6d. 

TESTIMONIAL. 

"The Whittern, Herefordshire. 
" Dec. 28, 1887. 
" Dear Sirs,— I have now had 
an opportunity of trying 
your Porcupine Tree 
Guards, and they seem 
quite to answer my pur- 
pose, so you may send me 
50 more, as before. I en- 
close cheque for youi 
account. 

Yours truly, 
RICHD. GREEN. 
Messrs. Hill & Smith. 



GLASS I CHEAP GLASS I 



16-or.,per 100 ft., 8s. 6* 
21-oz., „ lis. 9d. 



In Stock Sizes. 
12X10, 18X12, 18X14, 24X14 
14X12,20X12, 18X16,24X16 
16x12, 16X14,20X16, 24X18, Ac 
1| X 3 Prepared Sash Bar at 5s. per 100 feet. 
Paints ami Varnishes at Low Prices. Flooring, 5/9 per square ; 
Matching, 4/9 ; 2 X 4, at id. per foot run j 2 X 7 at Id. 
Horticultural Work of all descriptions, Ironmongery, &o. 
CATALOGUES Free. THE CHEAP WOOD COMPANY, 

72. B1SHOP8GATE STREET WITHIN, LONDON, E.O. 




ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FREE. 

W. Jones' Treatise, " Heating by Hot-water," 

Second Edition, 2'.6 pages and 96 Engravings, 
2s. 6d. nett, per post, 2s. 9d. 



JONEf'& T Twood 

r^<: .._:■ -.■■-: AThiio RDihr. r "... 



ORCHID BASKETS, 
RAFTS, BOATS, AND CYLINDERS, 

AND ALL GARDEN SUNDRIES. 

BENS FOB A 

PRICE LIST 

from the Largest Manufacturer in the Trad. . 

H. G. SMYTH, 

21. GOLDSMITH STREET, 

DR1TRY LANE. W.n 

HORTICULTURAL *« ™ ANTHRACITE 

COAL. 

LONG LASTING and ABSOLUTELY SMOKELESS. 

AMMANFORD COLLIERY, 

AMMANFORD R.S.O., CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

A small Trial Truck, direct from Colliery, to any Station. 

Apply to ThOB. FENARD, Agent, LLANELLY, South Wales. 



ORCHID PEAT; Best Quality; BROWN 
FIBROUS PEAT for Stove and Greenhouse use. RHO- 
DODENDRON and AZALEA PEAT. SampleB and Prices of 
WALKER AND CO.. Farnhorough. Hants. 

ROBERTS'S (IMPROVED) PATENT 

STOVES 

Terra-cotta i Portable I For Coal I 

Pure and ample heat, 24 hours for about lCl. 9 
without attention. 

For Greenhouses, Bedrooms, &c. 

GREENHOUSES Heated 24 Hours for about One Penny. 

Pamphlets, Drawings, and authenticated Testimonials sent. 

See in use at Patentee's, 
THOMAS ROBERTS. 34, Victoria St., Westminster. 

WARE and SONS' 
abe the flowER POTS BE8T 

THE SUSSEX POTTEEY WORKS, UCKFIELD. 

Quotations given for quantities. Carriage paid to any 

The Best Railway station. are Cheapest. 

SAMPLES and LISTS FREE. Crates packed. 



Railway Passengers' Assurance 

COMPANY insures against 

RAILWAY ACCIDENTS, 

PERSONAL ACCIDENTS, 
EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY. 

Capital £1,000,000. Established 1849. 



64, CORNHILL, LONDON. 
A.VIAN, '\ Secretaries. 

Establishes 1851. 

BIRKBECK BANK, 

Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

TWO- AND- A- HALF per Cent. INTEREST allowed on 
DEPOSITS, repayable on demand. 

TWO per Cent, on CURRENT ACCOUNTS, on the minimum 
monthly balances, when not drawn below £100. 

STOCKS and SHARES purchased and sold. 

SAVINGS DEPARTMENT. 

For the encouragement of Thrift the Bank receives small 
Bums on deposit, and allows interest, at the rate of TWO- 
AND-A-HALF PER CENT, per annum, on each completed £1. 

BIRKBECK BUILDING SOCIETT. 
HOW TO PURCHASE A HOUSE FOR TWO GUINEAS 
PER MONTH. 

BIRKBECK FREEHOLD LAND SOCIETY. 

HOW TO PURCHASE A PLOT OF GROUND FOR FIVE 
SHILLINGS PER MONTH. 

The BIRKBECK ALMANACK, with full particulars, po&t 
free. FRANCIS RAVENSCROFT, Manager. 



FARMS, E STATES, RE SIDENCES. 

Any one desirous of 

Renting a Farm or Residence, or Purchasing an 

Estate, oan have oopies of the 

MIDLAND COUNTIES HERALD 

SUPPLIED FREE FOR SIX WEEKS, 
on stating the purpose for which the paper is 
required, forwarding Name and Address, and six 
halfpenny stamps for postage, addressed, " Mid- 
land Counties Herald Office, Birmingham." The 
Midland Counties Herald always oon tains large 
numbers of advertisements relating to Farms, 
Estates, and Residences for Sale and to be Let. 

[griafl tari B cflttoffliM, 

An ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINE, of 52 pages 
and cover. Exponent of scientific and high farming ; advocate 
of co-operation in agriculture, in the supply of farm requisites, 
and the sale of produce ; organ of the Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Association, the pioneer society for mutual supply of 
pure oilcakes, complete manures, reliable seeds, and imple- 
ments on wholesale terms. Specimen copy free. Subscription, 
per annum, 5s., inclusive of postage. Single copies 6d. each, 
through all Newsagents. 

3, Agar Street, Strand, London, W.C. 



THE GA RDENERS' CHR ONICLE 

PUBLISHER'S NOTICES. 



Gardeners' Chronicle Telegrams. — The 
Rigistered Address for Foreign and Inland 
Telegrams is " Oardchron, London." 

ADVERTISEMENTS. 

SCALE of CHARGES for ADVERTISING. 

BEAD LINE CHARGED AS TVO. 



4 


Lines . 


. £0 


3 





15 


Lines . 


. £0 8 


6 


5 




. 


3 


6 


16 




. 9 










. 


4 





17 




. 9 


6 


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. 


4 


6 


18 




. 10 





8 




. 


5 





19 




. 10 


6 


9 




. 


5 


6 


20 




. 11 





10 




. 


6 





21 




. 11 


6 


11 




. 


6 


6 


22 




. 12 





12 




. 


7 





23 




. 12 


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. 


7 


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14 


it . 


. 


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25 


S) ' 


. 13 


6 



AND SIXPENCE FOR EVERT ADDITIONAL LINE. 

If set across two Columns, the lowest charge will be 20s. 

If set across three Columns the lowest charge will be 30». 

Page, £8; Half Page. £1 10s.; Column, £3. 

Gardeners and others Wanting Situations. 
26 words, including name and address, Is. 6d., 
and 6d. for every additional line {about nine 
luords) or part of a line. These Advertise- 
ments must he prepaid. This scale does not 
apply to announcements of Vacant Situations, 
which are charged at the ordinary scale. 

Births, Deaths, and Marriages, 5s. each 
insertion. 

Notice to Advertisers. — In many instances 
Remittances in Payment of Repeat Adver- 
tisements are received without name, address, 
or anything beyond the postmark on envelope 
by which to identify the sender ; this in all 
cases causes a very great deal of trouble, and 
frequently the sender cannot be identified at all. 
Advertisers are requested when Remitting 
to give their Names and Addresses, and also 
a Reference to the Advertisements which they 
■wish repealed. 

Position. — Advertisers are specially requested 
to note, that under no circumstances what- 
ever can any particular position be guaranteed 
for advertisements occupying less space than 
an entire column. 

Postal Orders. — To Advertisers, Subscribers, 
and Others. — It is very important in remit- 
ting by Postal Order that it should be filled 
in payable at No. 42, DRURY LANE, to 
A. G. Martin, as, unless the number of a 
Postal Order is known, and it has been made 
payable at a particular office, and to a par- 
ticular person, it is impossible to prevent any 
person into whose hands it may fall from 
negotiating it. 

N.B. — The best and safest means of Re- 
mitting is by POST-OFFICE MONEY 
ORDER. 

Advertisements for the current week MUST reach 
the Office not later than Thursday noon. 

AU Advertisements should be addressed to the 
PUBLISHER. 
Publishing Office and Office for Advertisements, 
41, Wellington Street, Stband, W.C. 



SUBSCRIPTION'S. 

All Subscriptions payable in advance. The United 
Kingdom, 12 months, 15s. y 6 months, 7s. 6d. ; 
3 months, 3s. 9d. All Foreign Subscriptions, 
including Postage, 17s. Qd. for 12 months. 
Post-office Orders to be made payable at 
the Post-office, 42, Drury Lane, W.C, to 
A. G. Martin. 

Subscribers who experience any difficulty in ob- 
taining their copies regularly, are particu- 
larly requested to communicate with the 
Publisher (in cases of delay in the delivery 
by post, the cover should be forwarded with 
complaint). 



58 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 13, 1894. 



New Edition, corrected up to date. 

THE COTTAGER'S CALENDAR of 
GARDEN OPERATIONS. By the late Sir Joseph 
Paxtox. M.P. 

Reprinted from the Gardeners' Chronicle. 
Price 3d. ; post-free Qd. 
Twenty-five copies, 5s. ; 50, 10s. ; 100, 20s. 
Parcels of not less than 25 delivered carriage free in London only. 
Not less than 100 carriage paid to any part of Great Britain. 
THE PUBLISHER, Gardiners" Chronicle Office, 41, Wel- 
lington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 



CATALOGUES RECEIVED. 

J. Laisg & Sons, Forest Hill and Catford— Chrysinthemums. 

Eugkn-ie Guequier. Rue Belle Vue, Ledeberg-Iez-Gand, 
Belgium— Specialties in Hoses, Carnations, &c. 

DICKSON, Brown & Tait, 43 and 45, Corporation Street, Man- 
chester—Vegetable and Flower Seeds, Garden Requisites, 
&c. 

C. Fidler, Reading— Vegetable Seed?, and Seed Potatos. 

Stuart & Mein, Kelso, Scotland— General Seed Catalogue. 

Dickson & Robinson, 12, Old Millgate, Manchestar— Garden 
Seeds. 

James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, London, S.W.— Seeds, Horti- 
cultural Implements &c. 

DlCKSONS, Limited. Chester— Seeds, Seed Potatos, and Sun- 
dries. 

H. Cannell& Sons. Swanley, Kent— Chrysanthemums. 

Dodbie & Co.. Rothesay. Scotland— Pansiea, Violas, Herba- 
ceous, and General Seed Catalogues. 

Robert Veitch & Son, 54. High Street, Exeter— Kitchen 
Garden and Flower Seeds. 

Brown & Wilson, 10. Market Place, Manchester— Seeds. &c. 

William Paul & Son, Waltham Cross, Herts— Seeds and 
Garden Sundries. 

W. Riley:, 81, Dulwich Road, Heme Hill, London, S.E — 
Designs in Rustic Work, &c. 

H. & F. Sharpe, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire— Wholesale List 
of Garden and Agricultural Seeds. 

C. H. Lorenz, Erfurt. Germany— Genera! Seed Catalogue. 

Kelway & Son, Langpjrt, Somerset— Seeds, Plants, and 
Fruit Trees. 

E. P. Dixon & Son, Hull— Seeds and Sundries. 

Wm. Cutbush & Son, Highgate. London— Seeds and Sundries. 

M. Cuthbertson, Rothesay, N.B.— General Catalogue. 

J. R. Pearson & Sons, Chilwell Nurseries. Nottingham— Seeds 
and Sundries. 

David W. Thompson, 24, Frederick Street, Edinburgh — 
Seeds and Implements. 

Jno. Dow.s'tE, 114, Prir.ce* St., Edinburgh— Seeds. Tool-', &c. 

Thomas Mkthyen fc Sons, 15, Princes Street, Edinburgh - 
Seeds, Implements, &c. 

Taylor & Thompson, 23, Duke Street, Bishoppgale, London 
— Seeds and Sundries. 

Cooper Taber & Co, Ltd.. 9f>, Southwark Street, 
London. S.E. — Wholesale Catalogue of Seeds aid Sundries. 

Jno. S. Ireland. 81, Princes St., Edinburgh— Garden Seeds. 

Jno Peed & Sons. Roupell Park Nurseries, Norwood Road, 
London. S.E.— Seeds and Sundries. 

Cunningham & Wyllie, 8, West Nile Street, Glasgow- 
Seeds, &c. 

Hogg & Robertson, 22, Mary Street, Dublin— Seeds and 
Sundries. 

Brockhimpton "Nursery, feed and Floral Depot (W. E. 
Tidy, Manager)— Garden Seeds, &c. 

William Bull, 536, King's Road, Chelsea- -Seeds and Tools. 

Jas. Dickson & Sons, 32, Hanover Street, Elinburgh— Seed* 
and sundries. 

Hur^t & Son, 152, Houndsditch, London, E.— Clover and 
Grass Seed Circular. 

H Cannell & Sons, Swanley, K;'nt— Seeds an I Suadri.s. 

Barb & Soy, 12, King Street, Covent G.irden, Lon'on — 
Seeds. &c. 

Sir Jas. Wm. Mackey, 23, Upper Sackvil!e Street, Dublin — 
Seedi. 

Haage & ScHMILT, Erfurt, Germany— Seeds and Plants. 

Kest & Brydon. DarliDgton— Seeds, &c. 

J. CnEAL & Sons. Lowfield Nurseries, Crawley, Sussex- 
Seeds and Sundries. 

Wm Fkll & Co., Hexhim— Se?dsand Sundries. 

Ahmitaoe Bros., High Street, Nottingham — Seedd and 
Requisites. 

Dicksons & Co.. 1, Waterloo Place, Edinburgh— Seels, &c. 

W. Drummond & Sons, Stirling, NB.— Garden Seeds. 

A. Rob;nson, 1a. BUhopsgate Street Witlnut, London- 
Seeds, &c. 

THOS. S. Ware. Hale Farm Nurseries, Tottenham— Chrysan- 
themums, Begonias, Dahlias, and Vegetable and Flower 
Seeds, 
Fisher. Sov & Sibray. 4, Market Street, Sheffield, and 39, 
Church Street. Rotherham— Seeds. 

J. Backhouse & Son, York— Garden Seed* and Requisites. 
Leeds Orchid Co , Roundhay, Leeds— Orchids. 



GARDENING APPOINTMENTS. 

Mr Thos BEASLEY, late Foreman at Inwood House Gardens, 

HenstridgH. Blandford. a* Gardener to T. Holfoud. Esq., 

Castle Hill House, Buckland Newton, near Dorchester. 
Mr. Edgar Wood, late Foreman at Bi-diopHtowe Gardens, 

Torquay, has succeeded his father, Mr. Wm. Wood (who 

has retired through ill-health), in the management of the 

same gardens. 
Mr. B. Payni:, for till* last nine years Gardener (o Col. Dixon' 

A*tl» Park. Chelford, Cheshire, as Gardener to W. 

CLARENCE Watson, Esq., Colworth Hull, Sharnbrook, 

Bedfordshire. 
Mr.S. E. McDowall, as Head Gardenerto Lord DeSAUMAREZ, 

atShrublaod Hark, Coddenhana. 
Mr. W. Foote, Foreman in the Gardens, Eastwell Park, Kent, 

as Head Gardener to H. A. Campbell, Esq., Bedgbury 

Park, Goudhurst, Kent. 



BOILING WATER OR MILK. 

E P P S ' 

GRATEFUL-COM FORTING. 

O C O 

BREAKFAST-SUPPER 



WANTED, a GARDENER, immediately 
(Single-handed). Strong ; unmarried ; abstainer ; 
goad character. A little housework. 18:. Apply, first by 
letter. Col. H., Harmondsworth Hall, Slough. 

WANTED, a FOREMAN, for the Houses 
of the Sheffield Botanical and Horticultural Society's 
Garden.— None need apply unless they can produce the best 
cf references as to their ability in the Growing of Stove and 
Greenhouse Plants in general, and Plants for Conservatory 
Decoration. Wages 22s. per week, with bothy accommodation. 
—Apply to WILLtAM HARROW, Curator. 

WANTED, a PROPAGATOR FOREMAN 
and SALESMAN for the Houses; an industrious man 
who has had experience with Flowering and Soft-wooded 
stuff. Situation permanent to a tuitable man.— Apply, givirg 
particulirs as to ability, wages expected, and where last 
erap'oyed, JNO. JEFFERIES and SON, Royal Nurseries, 
Cirencester. 

WANTED, a young MAN for the Plant 
Houses.— Must be a good Grower of Specimen Stove 
and Greenhouse Plants, and u^ed to Exhibiting. Wnges, 18s. 
per week, and bothy. — State particulars to THOS. WlLKINS, 
The Gardens, Iowood Hou*e, Henstridge, near Biandford. 

WANTED, an intelligent Scotchman, about 
24 years of age, possessing a good knowledge of Plant 
Growing, to take charge of a Choice Collection of Hard and 
Soft-wooded Plants, Inside, under a Foreman. Wages 1 7s. p*r 
week, with b3lhy.— Apply, stating age. and enclosing copies 
of testimonials, to ALEX. WRIGHT, The GarJen*. Falkland 
Park, South Norwood Hill, London, S.E. 

WANTED, IMMEDIATELY, an active 
MAN, to take the lead with Outside Work in a Nursery. 
Planting Conifers, Shrubs, &c. Also an Assistant. Wages 
£1 and 18ff. weekly.— Ages and experience to CONIFER,, 
41, WelliDgton Street. Strand, W.C. 

WANTED, an active, middle - aged 
MARRIED MAN. without family, to live in Lodge 
and Work in Gardens; Wife to attend to Gate.— Apply by 
letter to E. VINE, The Gardens, Chorleywood House, Rick- 
mansworth. 

WANTED, a MARRIED COUPLE, to live 
indoors. Husband as GARDENER, aud willing to be 
generally useful. Wife as Cook, and to do House Work for 
family of two.— A. E. HOULDER, Esq, Little SUton, near 
Chester. 

WANTED, a sharp Youth, as APPREN- 
TICE, in a risiog Nursery. Commencing wages, 
l'2s. weekly. Premium, £23 —A. X.. Gardeners' Chronic'e 
Office, 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

WANTED, a strong, energetic young man, as 
IMPROVER.— Must have served not less than two 
jears' apprenticeship in a good establishment — State ape, 
wages, &c, to F. HANSON, ^omerleyton Gardens, Lowestoft. 

WANTED, an experienced TRAVELLER, 
with good knowledge of Horticultural and Seed Trade. 
—State age aud experience to R. H. BATH, Osborne Farm, 
Wisbech. 

WANTED, SHOPMAN in a Country Seed 
Business. Good references required ; a knowledge of 
Book-keeping necessary. Address, stating past experience. 
Salary required. &c— SHOPMAN, Messrs. Hurst & Co. 152, 
Houudbditch, London. 

WANTED, a WORKING HEAD WARE- 
HOUSEMAN.— Must have a thorough knowledge of 
Agricultural Seeds and Seed Cleaning. Write, stating age, 
experience, and wages required. — TOOGOOD and SONS, The 
Queen's Seedsmen, Southampton. 

Seed and Bulb Department. 

WANTED, a thoroughly experienced, ener- 
getic MAN. References from live houses only. — 
State age, wages, &c, to WILLIAM COOPER, Horticultural 
Provider, Feltham. 

WANTED, an experienced MAN, £S 
STOKER.— Must be steady and sober. — Apply by 
letter only, with references, to J. W. WIMSETT and SON, 
Boyal AHliburnliam Nur&ery, Chelsea, S.W. 

WANTED, a young man as SHOPMAN in 
n general Seed. Nursery, and Floral Business. — Wages 
and full particulars to LAXTON BROTHERS, Bedford. 

WANTED, a SHOPMAN, in a country Corn 
and Seed Business.— Mubt be competent man, thoroughly 
understanding the Garden Seed Trade. — Apply, giving re- 
ference^ nnd wages required, to SEEDSMAN, Gardeners' 
ti Chronicle Oilice. 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 



WANTED, a good GENERAL SERVANT, 
byJanuary27. Age25to35. Earlyriser. Plain cook. 
Good references essential. Good wages, no beer. Comfort- 
able quiet home. Familytwo. Washicgpartputout.— Addresa, 
stating experience or qualifications, and wages required, 
Mrs. JONES, 182, Stockwell Park Road, London, S.W. 
Applicants from a distance might inclose recent photo. 



WANT PLACES. 

TO GARDENERS AND OTHERS 
SEEKING SITUATIONS. 

Advertisers are cautioned against having letters 
addressed to initials at Post-offices, as all 
Letters so addressed are opened hy the 
authorities and returned to the sender. 



BS. WILLIAMS and SON beg to intimate 
• that they have at present in their Nursery and upon 
their Register some excellent Men, competent either to fill 
the situation of HEAD GARDENER, BAILIFF, FOREMAN, 
or JOURNEYMAN. Ladies and Gentlemen requiring any of 
the above will please send full particulars, when the best 
selections for the different capacities will be made. — Victoria 
and Paradise Nurseries, Upper Holloway, N. 

GardenerB, Farm-Bailiffs, Foresters, &c. 

DICKSONS, Royal Nurseries, Chester, are 
always in a position to RECOMMEND MEN of the 
highest respectability, and thoroughly practical at their busi- 
ness. All particulars on application. 
Telegraphic and Postal Address—" DICKSONS. Chester." 

F SANDER and CO. can reoommend 
• several highly qualified and energetic HEAD and 
UNDER GARDENERS, of excellent character, and proved 
ability; men thoroughly fitted for all the various duties of 
their profession. For all particulars, please apply to — 
F. SANDER and CO.. St. Albans. 

RICHARD SMITH and uTT. 
beg to announce that they are constantly receiving 
applications from Gardeners seeking situations, and that 
they will be able to supply any Lady op Gentleman with 
particulars, &c. — St. John's Nurseries. Worcester. 

GARDENER (Hkad).— Age 42 ; married, 
no family; seeks re-engagement where a reliable and 
trustworthy man is required. Life experience. — MOKKiSS, 

East Street. Kimbolton, St. Neot's. 

p ARDENER (Head) ; age 3-^arr'ied, seeks 

* J re-engigement with any Lady or Gentleman lequiiing 
the serviets of a first-class man ; thoroughly experienc so iu all 
branches; excellent testimonials ; eighteen years' practical 
experience. — A. C, Sunny Side, Bitterne, Southampton. 

GARDENER (Head), where three or more 
are kept. — Age 25; twelve years' experience. Good 
character from present and previous employers. — A. FANE 
Greenham Lodge Gardens, Newbury, Berks. 

GARDENER (Head), where two or more are 
kept. — Age 30, married; twelve years' experience in 
Fruit. Flower, and Kitchen Gardens. Good tcstimooia's. — 
FRAMPTON, Rhinefield, Brccfcenhurst, Hants. 

GARDENER (Head), where three or four 
m'n are kept.— Wm. Meads, Buscot Park Gardens, 
Fariogdoa. Berks, cm thoroughly recommend William Poole 
to any Lady or Gentleman requiring a goad man. 

GARDENER (Head); age 30, married when 
suited.— C. Fielder, Gardener to the Dowager Lady 
Howard de Walden, The Mote, Maidstone, begs to recommend 
Wm. Bacon, who has been Foreman in these gardens during 
the past three and a half years, to any Lady or Gentleman 
requiring a thoroughly trustworthy mau, with six men under 
him. Fourteen years' experience in good situatione, 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 38, married, two 
children, ages S and 6 ; twenty-four years* good practical 
experience in all branches. Good r-ference for reliability, 
honesty, sobriety, and abilities.— G. WARRINGTON, 4, Glad- 
atone Terrace, Milton Road, Sittingbourne. 

G~~ ARDENER (Head). — Age 32 • married; 
seventeen vears' experience in firBt- jlass establishments. 
Qualified in all branches of the profession, and thoroughly 
understands the requirement* of a large establishment. 
Well up iu the culture of Roses, Carnations, and Violets under 
glass. Highly recommended. — Apply, H. G.. Gardeners' 
Chronicle Oilice, 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

GARDENER (Head). — Advertiser, with 
scientific training, and twenty years' practical experi- 
ence in first class establif-hmtnts. seeks situation as above. 
Seven years in present situation as managing Foreman under 
the Steward. Very highly recommended. Address W. T. H., 
Gardeners Chronicle Cilice, 41, Wellington St.. Strand, W.C. 

GARDENER.— Col. Wallace, The Gardens, 
Bi^-hopstoke, wishes to recommend his GARDENEK 
(Hkad-wouking) to any Gentleman requiring a thorough 
practical man, Land and Stock ; nine jeara' excellent 
chariicter. 

GARDENER (Head-working or good 
Single-handed). — Age 28; married (Scotch); ten 
years' thorough practical experience in all branches Inside 
and Outside,— GARDENER, Oak Lodge, Southgate, N. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 30; 
Sixteen years* practical experience. Good references 
from present and previous situations. -G. SPARKS, Bosworth 
Park, near Hinckley, Leicestershire. 



January 13, ll9i ] 



TEE GARDEN EBS' CHRONICLE. 



59 






GARDENER (Head Working), where four 
or more are kept. — Age 40 ; twenty-sir years' prac- 
tical experience Inside and Out. Eighteen years in last 
situation.— G. BARTLE, IS, BrownLane South. Beeston, Notts. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 29 ; 
married. Life experience in all branches of the pro- 
fession. Good testimonials and character. — G. G., 47, Hart- 
field Crescent, Wimbledon. 

ARDENER (Head Working).— Must have 

thorough practical experience of Vines, Melons, Green- 
house. Fruit and Vegetable Culture. Competent to direct 
Second Man and Cowman inFarm and Poultry duties. Abstainer 
preferred. Wife should be able to take occasional charge of 
Dairy work.— Apply, by letter only, stating wages, and giving 
references.— X . Mr. Evans, 100. Southampton Row, W.C. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 31 ; 
thoroughly experienced in Vines, Melons. Cucumbers, 
Tomato?, &c. ; Stove and Greenhouse Plant?, and Fiower and 
Kitchen Girdens. Character will bear strictest investigation. 
— Z., Willow Cottage, Wellington Heath, Ledbury. 

ARDENER (Head Working).— Age 30; 

married when suited. Where two or three are kept; 
gcod references. Well up in all branches of the profession. 
Early and late forcing.— R. H., Jubilee Terrace, Eynsham, 
Oxen. ^ 

GARDENER (Single-handed, or one or 
more under).— C. J. Pltjmptre, Esq , Fredville, wishes 
to strongly recommend F. Cooper as above.— The Gardens, 
Fredville, near Lover. 

GARDENER (Single-handed, or Second), 
Age 27, single ; fourteen years' practical experience in 

all branches of the profession. Good references.— F. SAR- 
GENT, Pell Green, Wadhur-t, Sussex. 

GARDENER (Single-handed, or where 
help is given).— Age 2-"\ married when tuitfd. Good 
references.— A. SNELLING, 26, Stamford Terrace, Stamford 
Hill, London, N. ___^__ 

ARDENER (Single-handed). — Age 26, 

single; life experience. Go^d character. Abstainer. — 
GEORGE. 65, Tennyson Road, Battersen, S.W. 

GARDENER (good Single-handed). — 
Age 26, married; life experience ia all branches of 
Gardeniig. Good references.— GARDENER, High Street, 
Great Sheiford, near Cambridge. 

GARDENER (Single-handed). — Age 24, 
single; experience in all branches; good refertnees. — 
J. RAYNER, Mrs. Howard, Axminster, Summer Koad, East 
Mole^ey, Surrey. 

GARDENER (good Single-handed, or one 
or more under).— Age 28; can be well recommended. 
Total abstainer.— D., C. Ilott, Head Gardener, Caversham 
Park, Reading. 

TO GARDENERS.— A young Man, age 25, 
requires situation as Second, where three or more are 
kept; experience Inside and Out. Three years' goad character. 
Leaving through death. London preferred.— H. 55, Lowden 
Road. Heme Hill, S.E. __^ 

O GARDENERS. — Situation wanted as 

SECOND, in the Houses, orSlJfOLE-HANDED. Excellent 
references. Good experience.— W. H. WATSON, Wales, 
Sheffield. ' 

GARDENER, has been Second on a large 
Gentleman's place for ten years; seeks a Single- 
Handed place. Accustomed to Vinery. Peach-houses ; ten 
years' good character. — 4, Maunder Road, Han well, W. 

GARDENER, where one or two are kept ; 
age 26 ; married (one in family) ; ten years' experience 
Inside and Out.— H. WOOD, Severn Stoke, Worc< stershire. 

Gl ARDENER (Second), in a good establish- 
T ment. — Age 26; eleven years' practical experience in 
large places. Good character and testimonials fnm present 
and previous employers. — W. H., The Gardens, Mouseh 11 
Manor, Godalming, Surrey. 

GARDENER (Second, or First JOURNEY- 
MAN). — Age 24; ten years* experience in Plant and 
Fruit-growiDg and Conservatory Decoration ; gocd references. 
— E. R., 20, King Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

GARDENER (good Second).— Age 27; tho- 
roughly experienced. Inside and Out.— Mr. Braddy 
can "with confidence recommend as above. — R. LLUON, 
Knightons Eass Finchley. London, N. 

GARDENER (Under), Inside and Out, in 
a Gentleman's Establishment.— Age 22 ; six years' ex- 
perience ; Kitchen and Pleasure Gardens, Stovs and Green- 
house Plants; good references; abstainer.— W. JONES, Milburn 
GardenB, Esher, Surrey. 

ARDENER (Under), Inside and Out. — 

Age 20. single; experienced. Excellent character. Ab- 
stainer. - EDWARD L0VE3EY, Milford Lodge, Godalming, 
Surrey. 

PROPAGATORandGROWER(Soft-wooded). 
Thirteen years' experience ; good references. Market 
Nursery preferred.— W. MILLS, St, Mary's Cottages, School 
Road, East Molesey. 

TO NURSERYMEN ami FLORISTS.— 
Situation required ns FOREMAN and PROPAGATOR. 
Thoroughly understands^Roses, Fruita. Shrubs, Clematis. &c; 
Tomatos, Cucumbers, and Soft-wooded Stuff. Good Knife- 
man. Highest references.— K. THATCHER, Caveisham 
Nursery, Reading. 



To Nurserymen. 

MANAGER, or FOREMAN— Age 38 ; well 
acquainted with the routine of a general Nursery, 
Also all kinds of Plants, Bulbs, Cut Flowers, &c. Two years 
as Foreman Propagator and Salesman in a London Nursery. 
Two years eight months as Foreman in present place. Eleven 
years previous. First class references. — H. DYER, 26, Chester 
Street, Cirencester, Glos. 

GROWER (Soft-wooded).— Well up in 
Ferns, Tomatos, and the routine of a Market Nursery. 
Nine years' expeiience in London Nurseries, Good references. 
— W. FISHER, Great Barton, Bury St. Edmunds. 

FOREMAN, PROPAGATOR, or GROWER. 
— Age 2S ; married; good experience in Pot Plants and 
choice Cut Flowers, Tomato.^, &c , for market; nlso making 
up Wreaths, &c. Good references. — MORBI°, 93, Godwin 
Road, Forest Gate. 

FOREMAN, PROPAGATOR, and GROWER 
of Hard and Soft-wooded Plants.— Twenty years in 
leading Nurseries. Experienced in the production of Cut 
Flowers. Can be well recommended. — H. L. J., Cambridge 
Roao, God man Chester, Hunts. 

F" ORE MAN, or MANAGER to Small 
Nursery. — Florist's son seeks a situation as above. Well 
up in Chrysanthemums, Tomatos, Wreath-makii g. See, Ten 
gears' good experience.— W. A, S., 41, Wellington Street, 
Strand, W.C. 

NURSERY FOKEMAN (General Outside). 
— A ge 25, single ; thoroughly experienced in all branches. 
Excellent references.— T. H. FULLER, Messrs. Jackman & 
Son, Woking, Surrey. 

JL OKEMAN ; age 23.— G. Weekes, Penoyre 

A Gardens, Brecon, can highly recommend Henry Morse as 
a sound practical man, who has served here as Foreman (of 
four under glass) for two and a half years. Well experienced 
in Stove and Greenhouse Plants, House Decorations, Vines, 
Peaches, &c. Excellent testimonials previi usly at Ashton 
Court. 

FOREMAN, in a first-class establishment. — 
Age 30; thoroughly experienced. Three years present 
situation.— LACfcY, Berkeley Castle Gardens, Gloucestershire. 

FOREMAN, or GROWER.— Age 31 ; Grapes, 
Cucumbers, and Tomatos. Fifteen years' experience in 
London Market Nurseries.— W. G., Gardeners' Chronicle 
Office, 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

f "OKEMAN ; Age 25.— Mr. Geo. Humphrey, 
Gardener, hash Court, Faversham, will have much 
pleasure in recommending W. H. Yates, as above, to any 
Gjrdener rt quiring a good all-round, energetic and trustworthy 
man. 

FOREMAN (Inside or General) ; Age 26. 
—Fourteen years' experience ; one year and three 
months' good character as Foreman ; two years previous 
Second Gardener in charge of houses —J. WELLS, 48, Colmer 
Road, South Streatham, S.W. 

FOREMAN (General).— Age 25; ten years' 
experience in Fruit, Plants, and Decorating. Three 
years in present situation. Good references— G. PIKE, 
Waddesdon Gardens, Aylesbury. 

FOREMAN, Inside.— Ag;e 25 ; in good estab- 
lishment. Nine years' practical experience in Plant and 
Fruit Bouses. Good references.— H. MIDDLETON, 53, The 
Grove, Ealing, London, W. 

To Nurserymen. 
FOREMAN (Outside). — Thorough know- 

JL ledge of the Prcpagat on and Growing of general Outside 
Stock, and general Management of Nursery. Good references 
from leading London and Provincial Firms.— H. J. HEDGES, 
Smithy Lune, Aughton, near Oimskirk. 

FOKEMAN, in a good establishment.— Twelve 
years' experience. Good Plant Grower and Decorator. 
— G. COOPER, High Street, Ware, Herts. 

To Nurserymen. 
ITIOREMAN and MANAGER (General), or 

JD SALESMAN and PROPAGATOR; well-up iu the 
Growing and Selling of Rhododendrons, Conifers, and all 
other hardy stock.— W. H. B.. Bagshot. 

FOREMAN, Outside.— Well up in Growing 
-F Hardy Trees, Shrubs. Roses, Conifers, and Fruit, and in 
the Management of Men. Good references— F. ROBERTS, 
1, Palace Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

FOREMAN. — Age 28 ; fourteen years' practi- 
cal experience in Fruit, Plants, Cut Flowers, ana decora- 
tions. Two years as Foreman Excellent testimonials — 
J. DODD. 4, Queens T?rrace, Winchester. 

FOREMAN, or JOURNEYMAN (First); 
age 22 ; good Chrysanthemum Grower, and knowledge 
of Orchids.— Mr. C. Woolford can highly recommend a 
young Man as above. — The Priory, St. Helens, Isle of Wight. 

FOREMAN, in the Houses, Single or good 
First JOURNEYMAN, in a good Establishment.— Nine 
years' experience in Vines, Peaches, Stove and Greenhouse 
Plants.— J. STANYON, Boar's Head, Tunbridge Wells. 

FOREMAN.— Age 26; twelve years' expe- 
rience in all branches; good Plant and Fruit Grower; 
excellent character and references. Abstainer. — W. WATERS, 
Charlton Road, Keynsham, Bristol. 

FOREMAN, or JOURNEYMAN (First).— 
Age 21 ; eight years' experience. Awarded Diploma and 
and R. H. S. Certificate. Understand* cultivation of Flowers, 
Fruits, and Vegetables. Highest references. — GILMORE, 
Loose, Maidstone. 



r rO SEEDSMEN.— Youth, age 18, wi 

JL a situation as SHOPMAN; has good general 1 



JOURNEYMAN, in the Houses.— Age 22; 
nine years' good experience Inside and Out. Can be 
well recommended.— J. BENSTEAD, Benacre Hall Garden*, 
Wrentham. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside, or Inside and Out — 
Age 23. Eight years' experience ; excellent character. 
H. PLANCF, Frimley Road, Yorktown, Surrey. 

JOURNEYMAN, in the houses. —Age 20; 
six years' experience ; two years in present situation. — 
E. LATTIMORE, The Gardens, Lockeiley Hall, Romsey, 
Hants. 

JOURNEYMAN; age 22.— Mr. C. Turner, 
CraDfield Court, Newport Paenell, can with confidence 
recommend J. Francis as above. Four years under Glass. 

JOURNEYMAN (First), under glass in good 
Establishment. — Age 24; ten years experience in all 
branches. Highest testimonials. — W. SEARS, Garden*, 
Whatton Manor, Nottingham. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside. — Age 23 ; eight 
years' experience- Left through death of owner. Good 
reference.— F. BOURNE, 2, Glenny Terrace, Wilton Koad, 
Ilford. 

JOURNEYMAN, in the Houses.— Age 22; 
bothy preferred. Eight years' experience, Inside and 
Out. Can be recommended.— E. RICHAKD30N, Albury Park 
Gardens, near Guildford. 

TMPROVER. — Wanted to place a Youth 

JL (age 16) as Improver in a good Garden or Nursery. Served 
nearly two years, but apprenticeship determined by bank- 
ruptcy. Will give time. Tall, strong, and willing. Good 
references.— PALMER, Solicitor, St. Ives, Hunts. 

TMPROVER (Inside).— Age 24; eight years' 

X experience in routine of Plants and Orchids. Twtlve 
months in present situation. Streatham or Balham preferred. 
— H. L , 3, Black's Road, Hammersmith, W. 

TO NURSERYMEN.— A Youth, about 17, 
■wants to LEARN THE BUSINESS in a large Market 
Nursery near London (Indoors). Would pay good premium. 
— State particulars to Mr. J. MORGAN, Belvedere Nursery, 
Ipswich, Suffolk. 

TO GARDENERS.— A youth (age 17) seeks 
situation in the Garden. Inside. Four years' experience. 
Good character.— W. DUNNING, Hightield, Southampton. 

wishes for 

knowledge 
of Seeds and Feeding Stuffs ; is a good Salesman. Not afraid 
of work. Prefers to live in. — Write, stating wages given, to 
LOADSTONE. The Lady Florist. F.RH.S., The School of 
Gardening, Hemel Hempstead, Herls, 

TO FLORISTS.— A Florist's son, age 26, seeks 
a situation in the Florist Business; well experienced 
in all its branches.-JOHN SPENCER, Post Office, 632, High 
Road, Tottenham. 

CARPENTER wants employment.— Age 36; 
willing to be generally useful. Wages, 32s.- J. H., 
35, Manor Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

SHOPMAN. — Married ; sixteen years' iirst- 
class experience in Seeds, Balbs, Plants, Nursery Stojk, 
and Floral Work. Well recommended. — CLIMAX, Gardeners' 
Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

SHOPMAN (Assistant). — Age 27, married ; 
twelve years' first-class experience in all brsnche*. Used 
to brisk Counter trade.— L. O., 95, Wellington Road, Ashton, 
Preston. 

SHOPMAN. — A Youth, age 18, requires a 
situation a^ above in a Nobleman or Gentleman's Gar- 
dens. Three and a-half years' excellent character.— 
GARDENER, Moulton Grange, Northampton. 

QHOPMAN, or SECOND.— Situation wanted. 

*0 Ten years* experience. Thorough knowledge of Nursery 
Stojk. First-class references.— J. H., Gardeners' Chronicle 
Office, 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

CLERK. — Advertiser is in want of a situation 
as above. Accustomed to Book-keeping, &c, in the 
Nursery and Seed Offices; good experience and references — 
L., Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41,Wellington St., Strand, W.C. 

TO FLORISTS, &c.— A young Lady (age 21), 
three years' experience in a Florist's Shop, can make 
up all Floral Designs, or wait on customers, both if required. 
Out of London. — P. P., Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, 
Wellington Street, Strard, W.C. 

J7L0RIST.— Young Lady, good hand, wishes 
situation in a go^d business. Continental experience.— 
A. C, Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Strand, W.C. 

TERRIBLE SNOWSTORMS have been pre- 
dicted to cccur within the next few weeks, and there is 
every indication that the forecast will come to pass. Inde- 
pendent, however, of those unfortunate people who fall victims 
under the sharp &word of winter, thousands of persons are 
enduring great suffering through the effects of disease. It is, 
therefore, valuable information to state that Holloway's Pills 
and Ointment are the best known remedies for all complaints 
incidental to cold and wet weather. They have saved many 
valuable lives, when all hope of recovery has been given up. 
No ailment can long withstand their healing influence. They 
areeoldat prices to suit the requirements of either rich or poor. 



60 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 13, 1894. 



FLOWER 

SEED 

NOVELTIES & SPECIALTIES. 




Anemone, St Brigld varieties 
Beet, ornamental leaved. McGregor's 

Favourite 

Calceolaria. Golden King 

Carnation. Marguerite 

Cyclamen glganteum cruentum (New) 

Fern Spores, greenhouse 

„ ,. stove 

Freesla refracta (mixed) 

Humea elegans. English saved 

Pansy. Peacock (New) 

Poppy. Mont Blanc (New) 

Primula. Princess May (New) 

Vltls heterophylla variegita 

POST FREE. 



per packet 1 



WORLD- 
RENOWNED 



VEGETABLE 



SEED 



NOVELTIES & SPECIALTIES. 




Williams' Giant Long Pod Beans 
Williams' Early Prolific Kidney Beans 
Williams' Giant Scarlet Kunners 
Williams' Superb Crimson Beet 
Williams' Alexandra Broccoli 
Earley's Hardy Curled Sprout 

William's Defiance Carrot 

Williams' Matchless Red Celery 
WiUlamB' Matchless White Celery 
Williams' Magnum Bonum Cnion 
Williams' Holloway Victory Pea (New) 
Williams' Golden Queen Tomato ... 
Glenhurst Favourite Tomato (New) 

CARRIAGE FREE. 



per quart 



s. d. 

3 

2 6 

2 6 



per ounce 
per packet 

per ounce 
per packet 



per pint 
per packet 



COLLECTIONS OF FLOWER SEEDS. 

Is. 6d., 3s., 5s., 7s. 6d., 10s. 6d., 
15s., 21s., 42s. each. 



COLLECTIONS OF VEGETABLE SEEDS. 

5s., 7s. 6d., 10s. 6d., lfs. 6d., 21s., 
42s., 63s., 105s. each. 



B. S. WILLIAMS & SON, VICTORIA AND PARADISE NURSERIES, 

UPPER HOLLOWAY, LONDON, N. 



J. 




o and UU., r.R.H.S., 



CHELSEA, LONDON, S.W. 




CONSERVATORIES DESIGNED and BUILT to 
SUIT ADJACENT BUILDINGS. 

ORCHID HOUSES WITH ALL LATEST 
IMPROVEMENTS. 

PLANT AND FRUIT HOUSES FOR ALL 
PURPOSES. 



All Materials and Workmanship of the 
Best Quality. 

ALL RINDS of BOILERS, our Improved and 
other Valves, Hot-water Pipes, Castings, Connec- 
tions, and Fittings, at Lowest Retail Prices. 

The Patent " DUPLEX" Upright 
Tubular Boilers of all Sizes, conditionally 
Guaranteed for Ten Years. 



J. WEEKS & CO., F.R.H.S. 

Horticultural Builders and Hoi- Water 
Apparatus Manufacturers, 

CHELSEA, LONDON, S.W. 



Editorial communications ahould be addressed to the "Editor;" Advertisements and Business Letters to "The Publisher," at the Offloe, 41, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
Printed for the Proprietors by Messrs. Bhadburv, Agnkvf, & Co. (Limited), Lombard Street, Preoinot of Whitefriare, City of London, in the >0unty o£ Middlesex, and published by 
Abthub Oeobse Mabtih, at the Offloe, 41, Wellington Street, Parish of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, in the said County.— Saturday, January 13, 1894. Agent for Manchester— Johh Hetwood, 




No. 369.— Vol. XV. {gZZ} SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1894. 



[Regt. as a Newspaper, 



•{ 



Price 3d. 

FOST-FREE, ? id. 



CONTENTS. 



Artificial colouring of 
flowers 82 

Benevolent Institution, 
Gardeners' Royal ... 76 

Books, notices of — 

Kew Bulletin 76 

Orchid Album 78 

Revue de Viticulture ... 78 

Reparians Year Book ... 78 

Weather Lore, &c. ... 79 

Cauliflowers 82 

Dimorphanthus Mands- 

huricus 82 

Frost, severe, in Ireland 82 
Japanese horticultural 

litt-rature 89 

Lselia elegans 

Weathersiana 82 

Lagerstrcemia Flos 

Keginee 76 

Norway, notes on 79 

Novelties of 1893 72 

Nursery notes — 
Drohts', Mr. 

Richmond . 
Veitch & 

Messrs. Jaa 82 

Obituary — 
MacmiHi n, Robert ... 85 

Truelove W" 8* 

Williams.^*/, H. ... 81 



'Soi 



at 



Orchid notes and gleanings 
Coe'ogyne corrugata ... 
OdootoglcssumKrameii 

albidum 

South African Orchids 
Tyntesfield Orchids ... 

Pavia macrostachya at 
Laekea 

Peas, early and maincrop 

Pinus insignis 

Plants, new or noteworthy- 
A?pleuium Guildingii 
Berberis Fremonti 
Trichomanes fruticu- 

lo^um 

Pcinciana Gill ; esii 

Schizostylis coccinea 

Seed trade, the 

Society — 

Royal Horticultural ... 

Tobacco leaves as an in- 
secticide 

Trees, mixed hard-wocd... 

Vegetable products at 
Batoum 

Veitch Memorial trust ... 

Week's work, the — 
Flower garden, the 
Fruits under glass 
Hardy fruit garden, the 
Kitchen garden, the ... 
Orchid houses, the 
Plants under glass 

Wood management 



OUTTOK'S NEW 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Lager^-trcemia Flos Reginte 

Para at Bergen, Norway 

Poinciana Gilliesii 



77 
HI 
73 



"GARDENERS' CHRONICLE." 



Continued Increase in the Circulation. 

Important to Advertisers.— The PuhlislieT 
has the satisfaction of announcing that the 
circulation of the ' ' Gardeners' Chronicle " has, 
since the reduction in the price of the paper, 
Increased to the extent of 75 per Cent. 

Advertisers are reminded that the " Chronicle" 
circulates among country gentlemen and 

AIL CLASSES OF GARDENERS AND GARDEN- 
LOVERS at home, that it has a specially large 
FOREIGN AND COLONIAL CIRCULATION, and 

that it is preserved for reference in all the 
principal Libraries. 



rpECHNICAL HORTICULTURE. 



± 



COUNTY COUNCIL LECTURES. 



" Paxton's Cottagers' Calendar op Garden 
Operations " will be useful to Lecturers and 
Stude7its in the above subject. Price 3d. ; 
post-free, 3±d. 41, Wellington Street, 
Strand, London, W.C. 



FOR SALE.-OIL PAINTING, by E. Moira. 
Subject. "Camden Park, Chitdehurst, 1860." The various 
changes which CamJen Estate has undergone since I860 render 
this work of unusual interest. Offers invited. Can be seen 
by arrangement. — G. E., Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wel- 
lington street. Strand. W.C. 

CANNELL and SONS' complete CATA- 

• LOGUE of CARNATIONS, PICOTEES, PINKS, and 
CHRYSANTHEMUMS sent post-free. We have the largest 
and best-kept stock, and solicit early orders. 
SWANLEY, KENT. 



FIBROUS-ROOTED 

BEGONIAS for SUMMER BEDDING and WINTER 
GREENHOUSE DECORATION, should be growD from 
Seed. 

Sutton's Duchess of York, delicate Carmine, per packet, 2s. 6d. 

Sutton's Coral Gem, pale rote ,, 2s. 6d. 

Sutton's Ci imson Gem. bright scarlet ... ,, 25. Qd. 

Sutton's Reading Snowtlake, pure white ... ,, Is. Gd. 

Sutton's Duchess of Edinburgh, white ei-ffused with pink, per 
packet, 2s. 6i. 

All Flower Seeds post-free. 

SUTTON'S SEEDS, GENUINE ONLY DIRECT FROM 

SUTTON and SONS, THE QUEEN'S 
SEEDSMEN, READING. 

L ILIUM HARRIS IL—This beautiful Lily is 
cffered by the dozen, hundred, or thousand, at 6rf., 9rf., 
and Is. each. Extra fine Bulbs at Is. Orf. and 2s. <6d. each. 

WILLIAM BULL, F.L.S. Establishment for New and Rare 
Plants. 533, King s Road, Chelsea, London. S.W. 

L ILIUM AUKA.TUM.- Just to hand, a 
splendid cous-'goment of tine sound bulbs, in excellent 
condition, and now rt-ady for immediate delivery. Good bulbs, 
per dozen, 6s. ; per 100, 40s. Large bulbs, per dozen, 10s. ; per 
100. 75s. Extra large Specimen Bulbs, per doz., 15s. — JAMES 
VEITCH and SONS, Royal Exotic Nursery, Chelsea, S.W. 

Prize Cob Filberts. 

MR. COOPER, Western Elms, Reading (late 
of Calcot Gardens), is the largest grower of Prize Cob 
Filberts in the Kingdom; 20,000 fine young Trees now ready 
for Sale. Pamphlets and Price Lists on Application. 

PETUNIAS. — Hender's Prize Strains, Grand 
Double Frilled, Is. tid. and 3s. packets; the new Single- 
striped Frilled, 2s. packets ; Hender's Single-striped Plain, Is. 
and 2s. pacRtts. The best Double BEGONIA SEED offered. 
Is. Gd. and 2s. <6d. packets ; Single, Is. Send for The Gem List 
of Flower and Vegetable Seeds, 

HENDER axd SONS, Nursery, Plymouth. 

To the Trade. 

Hand F. SHARPE hare posted their 
• GENERAL WHOLESALE LIST to their customers 
and others, and shall feel obliged if those who have noL received 
it will inform ihem and another copy will be sent. 

SEED-GROWING ESTABLISHMENT, WISBECH. 

YATT'6 PROLIFIC POTATOS for Sale, 
true, 50s. per ton. 
G. F. YOUNG. Swineshead Abbey, Boston. 



M 



C 



HOICE GERMAN 

FLOWER and VEGETABLE SEEDS. 

CATALOGUES free on application. 

FRED. RCEMER, Seed Grower. Quedlinburg, Germany. 

FOR SALE, 10 Cwt. of SHALLOTS. 
Apply to — 
Mr. BRACEY, Martham, Yarmouth. 

RASPBERRY CANES.— Norwich Wonder, 
Carter's Prolific, also Fastolf, well rooted. 
Not less than 1000 canes of either sort supplied. 
ALBERT BATH, Vine Court, Sevenoaks, Kent. 

ANTED, ORCHID and Choioe WHITE 

BLOOMS, in large or small quantities, for Cash. 
Boxes supplied. 
MANAGER, Cumberland Park Nurseries, Willesden Junction. 

WANTED, FRUIT STOCKS, 500 Cherry, 
1.000 Mussel Plum, 500 Brompton ditto, 6 r Common 
ditto, 500 Cherry with leaders; also 3,000 Briars (Seedlings or 
Cutt ngs). Prices for the whole or part to 

W. BALCHItf & SONS, Hasso ks Nursery, Sussex. 

WANTED, TWO good TREE FERNS.— 
State size and price. To Offer Large KENT1AS and 
SEAFORTHIAS.— WM. TROUGHTON, Nurseryman, Preston. 

W~ ANTED, 15,000 STOCKS for Working 
this Season— English Paradise, Crab, Quince, Plum. 
Samples and Prices to MANAGER, 25, King Street, Cambridge. 

ANTED, Stachys tuberifera, Globe Arti- 

chokes, Garlic, Potato Onions, Viola Countess of 
Hopetown. — Particulars to — 

H. CANNELL and SONS, Swanley. 



MR. W. BAGLEY, trading as HUBBARD 
and BAGLEY, Fruit Salesman and Merchant, Coven t 
Garden Market, notifies that he has ADMITTED into 
PARTNERSHIP as from January 16, 1891, Mr. NOEL 
HERBERT BAKER. The style of the firm will in future be 
BAGLEY AND BAKER. 

NATIVE SCOTCH FIR, &o.— Fine stock, 18 
to 24 incite", and 2 to 3 feet. Also, NATIVE LARCH, 2 
to 3, and 3 to 4 feet. ASH, 3 to 4. and 4 to 5 feet. BEECH, 
2 to 3 feet and 3 to 4 feet. POPLAR, 3 to 4. and 4 to 5 feet. 
Whinham's Industry GOOSEBERRY", per 100 or 1000. 
THOMAS MATHESON, Nurseries, Morpeth. 

WINTER -FLOWERING CARNATIONS. 
— Miss Joliffe Improved, best flesh pink, Autumn 
struck Cuttings, 4s. %d. per dozen, 15s. per 100. Cash with 
order.— CRANE and CLARKE, The Nurseries, March. Cambs. 

CARNATIONS.— A fine collection of named 
varieties, including yellow-grounds, Btrong plants in 
pots, 5s. to 8s. per dozen, 80s. to 50*. per 100. 
WM. PAUL & SON, Pauls' Nurseries, Waltham Cross, Herts. 

I PAST LOTHIAN STOCKS.— Now is the time 
J to Sow FORBES' CELEBRATED STRAIN, in sir 
distinct sorts, viz. : Crimson, Purple, Scarlet, White, Crimson- 
Wallrlower-leaved. and White Wallflower-leaved, each sort. 
Is., 2s. 6d., and 5s. per packet. Catalogues free. 

JOHN FORBES, Nurseryman, Hawick, Scotland. 

ORCHIDS. — Many rare and choice Cattleyas, 
Cyp'ipediums, Dendrobiums, Odontoglossums, &c, 
always in stock. Inspection invited. Please write for LIST. 

W. L. LEWIS and CO., F.R.H.S., Chase Side, Southgate, 
Lon don. N. 

300,000 STRONG ^RASPBERRY 

BAUMFORTH'S SEEDLING sample 100 6s. 6<i. 

CARTER'S PROLIFIC ditto 4s. 6d. 

NORWICH WONDER and FASTOLF ditto 3s. 3d. 

Prices per 1000 on application. Special quotations to largo 

buyers. 

R. H. BATH, Osborne Farm, Wisbech. 

Trade Price Current for 1894. 

PETER LAWSON and SONS, Limited, have 
posted their ANNUAL CATALOGUE of SEEDS to their 
customers, but if any have been inadvertently omitted, copies 
will be seat upon application. 

1, George 4th Bridge, Edinburgh. 

ROSES. — The finest varieties in cultivation. 
The best Trees in commerce. For trees worth any three 
of the scrubs often distributed ; for large, bushy well-ripened 
trees with abundant roots ; for trees in the pink of condition ; 
for the cream of Roses, choicest offspring of the Rosarian's 
skill and love. Send for list and sample dozen, to 
WILL TAYLER, Hampton, Middlesex. 

CALADIUMS. — Argyntes, one of the finest 
dwarf-growing varieties for decorative purposes. Strong 
dry Bulbs, from Us. per dozen ; Extra-sized dry Bulbs, 4 to 

5 inches in circumference, 18s. per dozen ; Gigantic Bulbs, 5 to 

6 inches in circumference, 30s. per dozen; Bestrnamed eorta, 
ext-a-fine Bulbs, 30s. to 42s. per dozen. -B. S. WILLIAMS and 
SON, Victoria and Paradise Nurseries, Upper Holloway, N. 

HORTICULTURAL SHEET GLASS. 
Stock Lists and Prices on application. 
GEORGE FARMILOE AND SONS, Lead, Glass, Oil, and 
Colour Merchants, 34, St. John St., West Smithfield, London. 

WEEKS & Co., Horticultural Builders 

• to Her Majesty, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, H.M. 
Government, Admiralty Dept., War Dept., Royal Hort. Soc., 
Royal Botanic Soc, Parks and Public Buildings. Patentees of 
the Duplex UprightTubular Boilers, King's Road, Chelsea, S.W . 

THOMSON'S VINE and PLANT MANURE. 
— This Manure can be had as formerly from all Nuiserymen 
and Seedsmen, under Analysis by the Edinburgh City Analyst. 
Agent for London:— Mr. J. GEORGE, 14, Redgrave Road, 
Putney, S.W. 

Agent for the Channel Islands : — Mr. J. H. PARSONS, 
Market Place, Guernsey. 

Sole Makers :— WM. THOMSON and SONS, Ltd., Tweed 
Vineyard, Clovenfords. 

Price Lists and Testimonials on application. 



62 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 20, 1894. 



SAL ES by AUC TION. 

Wednesday Next, Without Reserve. 

A splendid Importation oE 30,000 LILIL'MS, from Japan, 
just to hand direct, in fine condition, comprising — 

23,000 LILIUM AURATUM, L. auratnm ruhro-vittatum, 
L. a. platyphyllum. L a. Wittei, L. a. virginale, L. 
Kroetzeri, L. Krameri, L. tigrinum, L. concolor, L. 
Condion, L. Medeoloides, L. Batemani. L. speciosum 
rubrum. L. a. r. Melpomene ; Choice PJEON'IES, Giant 
CHESTNUT SEED. SACRED LILIES, &c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL the above by 
AUCTION, at his Great Rooms. 38. King St., Covent 
Garden, W.C., on WEDNESDAY NEXT, January 21, at half- 
past 12 o'clock precisely. 

On view morning of Sale and Catalogues had. 

Wednesday Next. 

FROM GHENT. 
60 Specimen Plants of LATANfA BORBONICA. beautifully 
grown ; 400 AZALEA MOLLIS and A. INDICA, well fur- 
nished with flower-buds; DRAOEVA INDIVISA, choice 
mixture of GLOXINIAS, 500 mixed BEGONIAS, best 
Ghent varieties, &c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will include the above 
in his SALE by AUCTION, at hi9 Great Rooms, 33, King 
Street, Covent Garden, on WEDNESDAY NEXT, January 21. 

Wednesday Next. 
A fine Collection of BORDER PLANTS, Hardy Ornamental 
SHRUBS, TREES, &c j Pyramid and Dwarf-trained 
FRUIT TREES, a Collection of GLADIOLI and choice 
NARCISSUS, Dwarf ROSES, DUTCH BULBS, and 
LI'IUMS, SPIR.E*. LILY OP THE VALLEY. Crowns 
and Clumps ; L. HARRISI. 7000 TUBEROSES, &c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will include the above 
in his S4LE by AUCTION, at his Great Rooms. 38, King 
Street, Covent Garden, W.C., on WEDNESDAY NEXT, 
January 24. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Tuesday Next -Special Sale 
IMPORT4NT TO THE J'JKADE AND PRIVATE BUYERS. 
4000 Exhibition BEGO VI4S, many of them double in separate 
colours; 4000 LILIUM AUBATUM very fine bulbs ; 2000 
other Japanese LILIES, in variety ; 5000 GLADIOLI 
GANDAVESSIS. K-lways, H\brids, and others; 15000 
American TUBEROSES, the true " Pearl " ; 2000 - PIR.T3 4S 
of sorts; PiEONIES. GLOXINIAS, &c. ; al.-o 50 Lois of 
English-grown FERNS, PaLMS. and ROSES in Hots. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS 
will SELL the above by AUCTION at their Rooms, 
67 and 68. Cheap-ide, London, E.C., on TUESDAY NEXT, 
January 23, at 1J o'clock. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Special Importations— Wednesday Next. 

fO.OOO AMERICAN PEARL TUBEROSES, extra tine. 

400 Bulbs of the new golden-flowered CALLA, from South 
Africa. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
include the above in their great LILY SALE, on 
WEDNESDAY NEXT. January 24. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Wednesday Next. 

14,986 LILIUM AURATUM. the whole in grand condition 
including 2000 exceptionally large bulb?. 
180 LILIUM AURATUM PICTUM 
100 „ „ RUBRO-VITTATUM. 

100 „ ., WITTEI. 

60 ,, BROWNII 

800 „ KRAMERI. 

1150 „ SPECIOSUM ALBUM. 

11»0 ,, ,, MELPOMENE. 

1920 „ ,. RUBRUM, 

Just received from Japan. 
Also 101 bulbs of EUCHARIS AMAZONICA, 20 plants of 
LAPaGERIA ALBA. 50 AZALEAS, 50 CAMELLIAS, and 
100 PALMS in variety from Belgium ; 200 Standard ROSES, 
and 120 Dwarf ROSES. 50 ljts of choice PALMS and oth-r 
Decorative Plants, Double and Single BEGONIAS, 1 case of 
plants of ARVUCARIA EXCELSA. a fine lot of CYATHEA 
CUNNINGHtMI from New Zealand ; 500 LILIUM SZOVITZ- 
IANUM. just arrived from the Caucasus Alps ; English-grown 
LILIES m variety; 100 lots of Hardy BORDER BULBS 
and PLANTS, and 50 lots of DUTCH" BULBS. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL the above by AUCTION at their Central Sale 
Rooms, 67 and 68, Cheapside. London, E.G., on WEDNESDAY 
NEXT, January 24. at 12 o'clock. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 
N.B.— The Auctioneers desire to call particular attention to 
the JAPANESE LILIES in this Sale; they are now opening 
the cases, and the bulbs are turning out grandly, the Auratum 
being unusually fine. 

Wednesday Next. 

GREAT SALE of PALM SEED3. 
40,000 KENTIA BELMOREANA I in the very finest 
40,000 ,. FORSTKRIANA f possible condition. 

6,200 MACROZAMIA EXCELSA. 
30,000 LATAriA BORRONICA, 
98,100 CORYPHA AUSTRALIA. 
Received direct. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
include the above in their SALE on WEDNESDAY 
NEXT, January 21., at U o'clock. 

On view morning of S-ile, and Catalogues had. 

Friday Next. 

Important SALE of ' Ooo magnificent roots of home-grown 
LILIES, 60.000 Berlin Crowns of LILY OP THE VALLEY, 
5000 MILLA BICOLIA and BESsERA ELEGlNS, 5000 
GLADIOLUS, DOUBLE BEGONIAS, a fust-class strain ; 
5000 CARNATIONS and PICOTEES. SPIR/FHS. DIELY- 
TRAS. TIGRtDIAS, PANCRATIUMS, AMARYLLIS, 
SCILLAS, and many other hardy varieties. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 
SELL the above by AUCTION, at their Central Sale 
Rooms, 67 and 68, Chcapside, London, B.C., on FRIDAY 
NEXT, January 26. at 12 o'clock. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 



Lea Bridge Road Nurseries, Leyton, E. 

PRELIMINARY. NOTICE of an IMPORTANT CLEARANCE 
SALE of superior NURSERY STOCK, the land being sold 
for Buildng. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS 
■will SELL by AUCTION, on the Premises, as above, 
on MONDAY and TUESDAY, February 12 and 13, at 12 o'clock, 
by order oE Mr. John Fraser, who is transferring the business 
to South Woodford, a large quantity of unusually well-grown 
NURSERY STOCK, all carefully prepared for removal ; 5000 
FRUIT TREES, thousands of HOLLIES and CONIFERS for 
Planting. 

Further particulars will appear. 

The Forestry and Gardening Exhibition, Earl's Court. 

CLEARANCE SALE of the SPECIMEN PALMS. BAY TREES, 
and OTHER PLANTS suitable for the Exhibition and 
Furnishing Trad», by order of H. Bishop, Esq., the 
Receiver and Liquidator. 

VjESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS will 

1*X SELL bv AUCTION, on the Premises as above, on 
THURSDAY NEXT, Jan. *5, at i o'Clock. the whole of the well- 
grown STOVE and GREENHOUSE PLANTS, which include 
20 Standard Bay Trees in Tubs, with stems 3to 5 feet ; Carinas, 
130 Tea Plants, 530 mixed Ferns, Palms. 211 Rhododendrons, 
182 Aucubas, 155 Hollies, 226 Yews, 185 Cupressus, and others. 
May be viewed two days prior and morning of Sale, on pre en- 
tation of Catalogue. Catalogues may be had on the Premises, 
of H. BISHOP, Esq. (Messrs. Turquand, Young & Co.). 41, 
Coleman Street. E.C., and of the Auctioneers aud Valuers, 67 
and 6S, Cheapside, London, E.C. 

Friday Next. January 26, 

NEW AND MAGNIFICENT CYPRIPEDIUM CHARLES- 
WO&THII(ROLFE, N. SP.) 

Exhibited and unanimously awarded a Fir&t-class Certificate 
by the Orchi Committee of the Royal Horticultural So- 
ciety, and pronom eed by every one to be the mos beau- 
tiful a^d charming Cypripedium introduced, causing quite 
a sensation at the Drill Hall on Tuesday, September 26, 
1893. The special feature of this novelty is the d rsal 
sepal, woich is quite di-tinct in appearance an' colour to 
any other known Cypripedium, which will render it ex- 
ceptionally valuable to the hybridist. The consignment 
we are offering is one of the best conditioned we ever had, 
embracing plants of wonderful size, which almost look like 
established plants ; tnd we may reasonably expect some of 
them will flower soon. 

Also a fine lot of CYPRIPEDIUM BELLATULUM. ONCI- 
DIUM SARCODE3, VANDA KIMBALLIANa, and other 
Cnoice ORCHIDS. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE & MORRIS have 
received instructions from Messrs. Charlesworth, Shut- 
tleworth & Co., Heato", Bradford, to offer the above great 
novelty at their Central Sale Rooms. 67 and 68. Cheapside, 
London, E.C, on FRIDAY Next, January 26, at half past 12 
o'Clock. 

On View morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

No Reserve.- Hampton. Middlesex. 

IMPORTANT CLEARANCE SALE OF FRUIT-TREES, 
ROSES, &c. 

MR. T. AVOODS will SELL (without the 
least reserve), on the Premises, Osborn Nursery, 
Hampton, Middlesex, on January 27, 1S94. at 11.30 precisely, 

14,000 FRUIT TREES, 
comprising chiefly Standard Plums, Cherries, Damsons, Pears, 
Trained and Pyramid Apples, Pears, Cherries, and Plums; 
500 choice Roses, 500 Filberts (for varieties, tee Catalogue), 
Asparagus for forcing, Standard Elms, &c. 

Now on view. Catalogues had, post-free, from Mr. WILL 
TAYLER, Osborn Nursery, Hampton; or, Mr. T. WOODS, 
Auctioneer, Houoslow, Middlesex. 



WANTED, to RENT six to eight GREEN- 
HOUSES, with about 1 to 3 acres of Meadow LAND, 
■within 8 tj 12 miles of London. Rent moderate. 

A. C , 13, Newton Road, South Tottenham. 

WANTED to RENT, about 3 Acres of LAND 
for Cultivation, no objection to one Gree hous*.— T. 
H., 23£, Raglan Street, Wolverhampton. 

WANTED, a good SECOND-HAND SET 
of SEED DRAWERS, suitable for a Small Seed Shop. 
— Send price and particulars to — 

G. O. JUYNARD, 02, Market Street, Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 

WANTED, a covered NURSERY VAN, in 
good condition. State size and price to 
E. D. SHUTTLEWORTH, 218, Park Road, Clapham, S.W. 

SOUTH COAST.— An exceptional opportu- 
nity for securing a thoroughly genuine FLORIST and 
FRUITERER'S BUSINESS, in a most fashionable Seaside 
resort. Capital Shop and Piemises. Lease eighteen years. 
Rent £1.50 Average takings £35 per week. Fullest inves- 
tigation solicited Price, including Stock, Greenhouse, 100 
by feet. Fixtures. &c £700 (Folio 8H8).— Ap.ly to Messrs. 
PROTHEROE AND MORRIS.67 and BS.Cheapside. London, E C. 

BUSINESS FOR SALE.— The Great Northern 
Nursery, w>th good frontage, opposite to the Station, 
Newark. Good lot of large Fruit Trees, Greenhouees, Pits, 
Plants, Trees, Shrubs, &c. Two AcreB, Excellent position. 
—Particulars, J. N. B,, 39, Appleton Gnte, Newark. 



PROTHEROE and MORRIS, Horticul- 
tural Market Garden and Estate Auctioneers and 
Valuers, 67 and 68. Cheapside, London, E.C, and at Leyton- 
stone, E. Monthly Horticultural Register had on application. 

SPECIAL OFFER. — Eollisson's Telegraph 
CUCIIMHER SEED, the best for all purposes, 6.0 for 
Is. lrf., 100 for 2s., cash with order. 
S. BARRATT, Cucumber Grower, Radcliff-on-Trent, Notts. 



"T)WARF GLORIES, very strong, 30s. 

J-i^ per 100 ; Half-standard Roses to spare, best varieties, 
cheap cash.— HE NRY ROOK, Kemherton. Shifnal, Salop. 

ARTICHOKES. — Good stuff, about half a 
ton. What offers ? 
J. LLOYD JONE S. Florist. Whitchurch, Salop. 

^0()0 First-class TURFS, of an old loamy 

t/V/W meadow, 6s- per 100. 30u yards of BOX EDGING. 
id. the yard, about 1$ inch thick. Samples on application. 
The UARDENER, W oburn Park. Addlestone. Surrey. 

pHRYSANTHEMUMS. — Lady Lawrence, 

KJ Christmas White. Strong Cuttings. 3s. dd. per 10 ■. 
Cash with order.— MORRIS, High Sireet, Farnborough. Kent. 

Important to Mushroom Growers. 

CUTHBERT'S SPECIALITE MUSHROOM 
SPAWN. Always alike ; most productive. Hundreds 
of testimonials. Per bushel, 5s. 

K. and G. CUTHBERT Seed, Bulb, and Plant Merchant, 
Soulhgate, N. Established 1797. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM CUTTINGS. — Gloria 

\J Mundi, Madame Desgranges, Mons. Bernard, Elaine, 
Source d'Or. Is. 6rf. 100. | 12s. per 10C0. Ladv Lawrence, 
Jardin des Plantes. 2s. fid. 100. 18s 1000. Marguerite Cuttings 
10s. per 1000.— CHIPPERFIELD . Florist. Hampton Hill. 

pHRYSANTHEMUMS.-Madame Desgranges, 

\J 10s. ; Mrs. Hawkins, 15s. per 1000. strong cuttings; 
CORNFLOWER, Blue, 8s. per 1000, free; also Standard 
APPLE-*, Suffleld. and Victoiia PLUMS, 12s per dozen 
FEARNLEY, Johns Vill a, Hounslow Road, Hampton Hill. 

PAUL'S DOUBLE SCARLET THORNS 
and S ^ARLETHORSECHESTNUTS, -Extra sized trees, 
perfect specimens, that have been kept constantly removed. A 
fineopportunity for anyone wanting trees for immediate effect 
fc izes and special low prices ppr dozen on application. 

WM. PAUL & SON, Pauls' Nurseries, Waltham Cross, Herts. 

TUMATO "CHALLENGER" (Collins').— 
Awarded Four First-class Certificates at London Shows in 
one season. The best kind for Amateurs and Market Growers. 
Fruit large, smooth, heavy, bright scarlet, grandly flavoured, 
free setting, very prolific. Over 10.000 packets already sold. 
Sealed Packets only. Is. (Wholesale, HuRSr & Son). Illus- 
trated Descriptive Seed LIST gratis.— COLLINS BROS, AND 
GABRIEL. 39. Waterloo Road, London, S.E. 

Illustrated. Free, 

CATALOGUE. 

Mention this paper. 
Nothing is too small, or too much trouble. 
Correspondence Invited. The Trade Supplied. 

E. D. SHTJTTLEWORTH & CO., Ltd., 

PECKHAM RYE, LONDOV, S.E., and 
FLEET, HANTS. 



Kitchen Garden and Flower Seeds, and Garden 

RE^UISITSS. 

FISIIEE, SON, ao S I B R A Y , 

JL HANDSWORTH NURSERY. SHEFFIELD. 

Have now issued their SPRING CATALOGUE of the above, 
and have posted one to all their customers. If any of their 
friends have not received a copy, F. S. & S. will have pleasure 
in posting one free on application. 

Seed Warehouses :— 4. Market Street (or Fitzalan Square), 
Shellield, and 39, Church Street, Rotherham. 

ASPARAGUS of fine quality.— For Forcing : 
5-yr. old, splendid roots, 12i. 6d. per 100 ; 6-yr. old, 
extra fine selected, 15s. per 10 ». For planting: 3-yr. old, 
25s. per 1000; do., selected, 35s. per 1000; 4-yr. old, 5s. per 100. 
All quotations are free on rail, and for cash with order. My 
Asparagus always makes the very top price at Covent Garden. 
.7. J. CLARK, Market Gardener, Goldstone. Brighton. 

BARR'S SEEDS.— UNEQUALLED VEGE- 
TABLE SEEDS in the be*t sorts only. Much valuable 
information. CATALOGUE FREE ON APPLICATION. 
FLOWER SEEDS.— Up wards of 2000 species and varieties, all 
decorative kinds. Catalogue free on application. 
BULBS.— Gladioli, Lilies Anemones, Ranunculus, Hyaeinthus 
candieans, Tigiidias, &c , for Spring Planting, Lists 
ON APPLICATION. 

PLANTS— Michaelmas Daisies, Perennial Sunflowers, Double 
and Single Pteonies. Irises, Oriental Hellebores, Carna- 
tions, &c. Lists free on application. 
BARR and SON, 12, King Street, Covent Garden, London. 

BEGONIAS A SrECIALTY. — Awarded 
Seven Gold Medals. Gold Cup, and only Gold Medals for 
Begonias at (he International Horticultural Exhibition. Seed- 
saved from Prize Plants. Choicest mixed, Single or Double 
varieties, Is., 2s 6tf., and 5s. per packet. Collections (Seed), 
Single, Twelve named varieties, separate, 5s. 6rf. ; Six ditto, 
3s. Tubers, named singles, from 18*. to 60s. per dozen ; 
Choicest Seedlings. 4s. to 2ls. per dozen; Bedding, choicest, 
3s. to 9s. per do?en; Choicest named Doubles, fnru 18s, per 
dozen; Choicest Seedlings, \2s, to 30s. per dozen; Choicest 
mixed, for bedding, 9s. to 18s. per dozen. Catalogues gratis. 

JOHN LAING and SONS, Begonia Growers, &c., Forest 
Hill, London, S.E. 

FOREST TREES.— Ash, U to 2 ft. 14s. per 
1000 ; 3 to -1 feet, 20s. Beech, 4 to 5 ft., 30s. per 1000. 
Elm Wych, 2ft., 14$. per 1000; English, 3 to 4 ft., fine, 25s. 
Larch 1^ to 2 ft., 20s. per 1000 ; 3 to 2\ ft , 24s. Spruce, 1 to 
1£ ft., 16ff. per 1000. Scotch Fir, 1 to l£ ft., 20s. per 1000. 
Hazels, 2 ft., 18s. per 1000. Hornbeam, 3 to 4 ft., 20s. per 
1000. Maple, Norway. 3 to 4 ft , 25s. ; 4 to 5 ft., 30s. per 
It 00. Oak, English. 1 j to 2 ft., Ms. per 1000. Sycamore, 2£ to 
3 ft., 16s. per 1000; 3 to 4 ft, 20s. Thorns, \\ ft.. 8s. per 10UO , 
2 to 3 ft., 13s. ; 4 ft., 15s. 

GARLIES MITCHELL, Nurseryman, Stranraer. 



January 20, 1894} 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



63 



FRIDAY NEXT. 

NEW AND MAGNIFICENT CYPRIPEDIUM CHARLESWORTHII 

(ROLFE, N. SP.) 

Exhibited and unanimously awarded a First-class Certificate by the Orchid Committee of the Royal Horticultual Sooiety, and pronounced by every 
one to be the most beautiful and charming Cypripedium introduced, causing quite a sensation at the Drill Hall on Tuesday, September 26 1893. 

The speoial feature of this novelty is the dorsal sepal, whioh is quite distinct in appearance and colour to any other known Cypripedium which will 
render it exceptionally valuable to the hybridist. 

The consignment we are offering is one of the best conditioned we ever had, embracing plants of wonderful size, which almost look like 
established plants ; and we may reasonably expect some of them will flower soon. 

Also a fine lot of CYPRIPEDIUM BELLATULUM, ONCIDIUM SARCODES, VANDA KIMBALL IANA, and other Choice ORCHIDS. 

J^ESSRS. PROTHEROE & MORRIS have received instructions from Messrs. Chaeles- 
■woeth, Shuttlewoeth & Co., Heaton, Bradford, to offer the above great novelty at their Central Sale 
Booms, 67 and 68, Cheapside, London, E.G., on FBIDAY, January 26, at half-past 12 o'Clock. 

On view morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 



EXHIBITION. 



West of England Chrysanthemum Society. 

THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION will be held 
in the Guildhall, PLYMOUTH, on TUESDAY and 
WEDNESDAY', November 13 and 14, 1S94. 
For Schedules, fee, apply to 

^rfA^l^f^QHhHiU, Plymouth. 

CUCUMBER SEED— CUCUMBER SEED. 
—The celebrated Roch f ord variety, that gave ao much 
satisfaction last season, best for Market or Private Gardens. 
Order at once, to ensure a supply. 

Per packet, 2s. <od. ; per 1<V>. Bs. 2d., post-free. 
A. A. BENNETT. F.B.H.S., Ashford Vineyard, Cobham, Surrey. 

MUSHROOMS, sent anywhere, Is. 3d, 
per pound, carriage free. 
MUSHROOM SPAWN, the very best, 4s. Qd. for 16 bricks. 
BAILEY'S Mushroom Nursery, doom's Hill, Greenwich. 

SMALL SHRUBS.— Abiea Albertii, 6 in.. 
65. per 100 ; A. Douglasii, 1-yr., 20s. per 1000; Black A, 
Spruce, 8 in., 40s. per 1000 ; Ampelopsis Veitchii, transpl ; 
8 in., 60s. per 1000; Cup. macrocarpa. 1 yr., 30s. per 1000; 
Cup. erecta, 9 in., 40s. per 10001; C. Allioni<, 9 in., 9s. per 
100; C. gracilis", 9 in.. 7s. per 100; Cotoneaster mic, 10 in., 
35s. per 1000; Escallonia mac, 10 in , 10s. per 100; Eulalia 
japonica, 6 to 8 in., 4s. per 100; Retinospora plumo-'a, Bin., 
40s. per 1000; Rhodcdendron ponticum, 3-yr., 25s. per ICO; 
4 to 5 in., 40s.; Thuya Lobbii. 15 to 18 in., 40s.; Veronica 
Traversii. 10 to 12 iD., 10s. per 100. 

GARLIES MITCHELL, Nurseryman, Stranraer. 

CA AAA GERANIUM CUTTINGS.— 

fJl/^V/V/l/ F. V Raspail, 2s. Gd. per 100, £1 per 1000. 
40.000 CHRYSANTHEMUM CUTTINGS, Mrs. N. Davies, 
Princess Teck, Cullingfordii, Mrs. H. Cannell. Is, 6rf. per 100, 
10s. per 1000; Stools of all above, 2s p-r dozen, 2000 CAR- 
NATIONS in 60-pots. Mrs F. Watts, Germania. Mr*. R. Hole, 
4s. 6rf. per dozen, 25s. per 100 ; Souvenir de la Malmaison, 
deep pink, Rothschild's variety, strong stuff, 6s. per dozen, 
40s. per 100. Cash with Order. 

JAMES GREEN. Reliance Nurseries, March. 

MILLER'S PROLIFIC MUSHROOM 
SPAWN, fresh, and in splendid condition. Produces 
abundant crops, 3s. 6d. per bushel. Mr. W. H, Ward, The 
Gardens, Aston Hall, stys, "Your Spawn his proved the best 
I ever had." 

PEARL DOUBLE TUBEROSES, best and dwarfest sort, 
grand roots. 2s. per dozen, 14s. Qd. per 100. I'lustrated SEED 
CATALOGUE free. 

F. MILLER and CO., 267. Fulham Road, London. S.W. 



NEW CHRYSANTHEMUM for 1894. 
"ROYAL WINDSOR." 

A Japanese variety, of ti very dwarf and robust habit, the 
plants being well furnished with exceptionally large dark 
green foliage of an extraordinary texture. The flowers are 
large, and of a good form and substance ; when expanding, 
they are of a beautiful rosy chestnut and gold, opening out 
until the outer petals become a light primrose colour, with a 
ceBtre of a pleasing deep orange-yellow, shaded with bronze. 
Acknowledged by all who have seen it to be a gem. 

Plants are now ready for distribution. To be had of all the 
leading Chrysanthemum growers, price 5s. each, three for 
10s. td., six for 21s. 

Also, a fine stock of the leading varieties now ready for 
Bending out. 

JOHN SMITH, F.N.C.S., St. Leonard's Road Nursery, 
Windsor, Berks. 

Important to Exhibitors. 

TOMATO, CUTHBEKT'S CRIMSON 
EMPEROR.— This splend.d Toronto is across between 
the well know:: American variety "New Jersey" and "The 
Trophy." The colour is a rich glossy crimson, with very solid 
flesh. The beautiful shape of the fruit will make it a general 
favourite, both for exhibition, the market, and private use. 
Per packet. Is. 

MELON, CUTHBERT'S EMPRESS OF INDIA, a cross 
between the two well-known and valuable varieties, "The 
Countess" and " Sion House." The fruit U beautifully netted, 
the flesh of a delicate pink colour, and it is a free setter; 
flavour exquisite. Per packet, Is. 6a. 

Descriptive CATALOGUE free. 

R. AMD G, CUTHBERT, Seed Merchants, Southgate, N. 

Established 1797. 



FOR ORCHIDS and GARDENERS 
to Grow Them, apply to SANDER'S, St. Albans. The finest 
Btock of Orchids in the World.— 30 minutes from St. Pancras. 

TTORCING SEA KALE. 



StrODg. well-selected roots, 

90s. per 1000 on rails ; best variety. 

HARRISON and SONS, Seed Gro wers, Leicester. 

ENGLISH OAKS.— Special offer of fine 
straight, clean-grown handsome trees ; 8 to 10 feet high, 
15s. per dozen, JB5 per 100 ; 10 to 12 feet. 21s. per dozen, 
£7 10s. per 100 ; 12 to 14 feet. 30s. per dozen, £loper 100. 
WM. PAUL & SON. Pauls' Nurseries. Waltham Cross. Herts. 

CHARLES TURNER ; S Descriptive and 
Priced CATALOGUE of KITCHEN, FLOWEK GARDEN, 
and FARM SEEDS, will be sent F'ee on application. 
The Royal Nurseries, Slough. 

T ILIUM SZOVITZIANUM. — Just arrived 

-Li in fine condition from the Caucasian Alp^. This magni- 
ficent species is quite hardy, and bears handsome spikes of 
from ten to fifteen golden yellow flowers, prettily spotted, and 
deliciously fragrant. By the dozen or hundred. Price on 
application to WILLIAM BULL. F.L S Establishment for 
new and rare plants, 53i5, King's Road, Chelsea, London, S.W. 

TUB EROSES.— Best Pearls by the dozen, 100, 
or 10^0. For prices, vide Seed Catalogue, post free from 
WILLIAM BULL, F.L S , E^-tablishment fur Seeds and Plants, 
536, King's Road. Chelsea, London, S.W. 

ORCHIDS. — Cymbidium eburneum, Odonto. 
Ruckerianum. Polyxanthum, Cypripedium Chamberlaini, 
Vanda Cathcarti, all in bud. 

H. BROCHNER, Hessle, Yorkshire. 

OWEN'S CHRYSANTHEMUMS.— Awarded 
250 First-class Certificates and 16 Medals ; 50 Fir-.t-class 
Certificates and 6 Medals, 1893. Illustrated, descriptive, and 
priced Catalogue of latest novelties. Now ready, 2d. 
R. OWEN, Floral Nursery, Maidenhead. 

I^ARLY TOMATO PLANTS.— Hackwood 
J Park Improved, moit reliable for early planting. 2s. Qd. 
per dozen; Ham Green Favourite and Sutton's Perfection, 
for succession, 2s. per dozen, strong sturdy plants, carefully 
packed, carriage free for cash "with order. 

HEAD GARDENER, Da^hwood, Gravesend, Kent. 

Seed Potatos. 

Hand F. SHAKPE have forwarded their 
• SPECIAL PRIOED LIST of SEED POTATOS to 
their Customers and others in the TRADE, and -will thank 
those who have not received it to inform them, and a further 
copy will be posted. 

SEKD-GROW1NG ESTABLISHMENT, WISBECH. 

Wf\ (\i\i\ EUONYMUS, Green and Golden, 

*J\J^\J\J\J all splendid bushy plants.— GREEN : 12 in. 
to 15 in., at 30s. per 100; 15 in. to 18 in., at 40s. per 100; 
18 in. to 21 in., at 55s. per 100 ; 21 in. to 24 in., at 75s. per 100 ; 
30 in. to 40 in. at special prices. 

GOLDEN : 5 in. to 12 in., at 3s. to 8s. per dozen. Cash -with 
order. J. J. CLARK, Goldstone, Brighton. 

TO BE SUCCESSFUL in Growing Flowers 
and Vegetables to perfection, vou must have " DOB- 
BIE'S CATALOGUE AND COMPETITOR'S GUIDE " as your 
constant companion. " I thank you for your excellent 
andpracticil Guide, which is the beat I ever had." A speci- 
men of hundreds of testimonial*. The book is ready now. It 
consists of nearly 200 pages, and is sent free by post for id. 
Please apply early if you want to be sure of getting a copy. 

DOBB1E and CO., Florists and Seed Growers to the Queen, 
Rothesay, Scotlnnd. 

To Nurserymen, Builders, Local Boards, Vestries, &c. 

AND OTHERS WHO INTEND 
PLANTING TREES and SHRUBS THIS SEASON. 

ROBERT NEAL, The Nurseries, Trinity 
Road. Wandsworth, S.W., begs to offer an extensive 
stock of FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES. SHRUBS, 
ROSES, GRAPE VINES, FRUIT TREES, CLIMBING 
PLANTS, &c, which being grown in the neighbourhood of 
London are especially suitable for Town Planting. Also a large 
stock of extra fine SEAKALE and RHUBARB, for forcing. 
CATALOGUES free on application. 



CUPERB ORCHIDS, CHEAP.— Thousands 

*J to select from. Write for LIST, free. 

P.McARTHUR.TheLond onNur3ery,4,MaidaVale,London,W. 

pHRYSANTHEMUMS. — Last year's Roots. 

V> Full of Cuttings, 10s. per HO. Free on Rail. Source 
D Or, FsirMaid of Guernsey, SoeurMelaine, Madame Desgranges 
Cash with order.— J . K. STORK, S*egne,-s. 

DOX'S BEGONIA SEED.— For germination 
J-» and quality of flowers superior tj all others. Per 
packet, single mixed, Is. and 2s. 6rf. ; larger packets, 5s. ; 
double mixed, packets. Is. 6d. and 2s. 6d. ; larger packets 5s. 
Sow now. Ask for PRICE LIST of Tubers, and Pamphlet 
on Culture. 
JOHN R. BOX, Seed sman and Begonia Grower, Croydon. 

FOR SALE, 50,000 well-rooted Norwich 

A. Wonder RASPBERRY CANE; also a large quantity of 
John Ruskin STRAWBERRY PLANTS. 

Price on application to— 
W. CHAMBERS, Southfle et. ne:ir Gravesend. Kent. 

T„„ Larch, Ash, Poplar. Flues, &e. 
HE ALDRIDGE NURSERY (JO. offer fine 
transplanted Larch, 1A to 2 feet at 17s. id., 2 to 24 feet 
21s. per 1000 ; Ash, 1J to 2 feet, 12s. 6rf., 2 to 3 feet. 15s. M. 
per 10 0; Black Italian Poplars, 3 to 4 feet, and 4 to 5 feet- 
Canadian ditto. 3 to 4 feet, and 5 to 6 feet; Austrian Pine, 
2 to 3 feet ; and other stock at low prices to clear. 
' Walsall, Staffordshire. 

pALMS, FERNS, &c— KENT1AS. fine, in 

i- 48'b, 12s. per dozen; fix sorts of PALMS, in 48's 9s 
and 12s. per dcz.; Large KENTIAS, in 60's.5s. and 6s. perdoz ■ 
eight sorts of PALMS, in 60's, 4s. and 5s. per doz. ; do. in large 
thumbs, 3s. prr doz.. 20s. per 100 ; ARALIAS, in 48 s. 5s. and 
6s. per doz. ; twelve best sorts of FERNS, 12s. per 100 • 
ASPARAGUS PLUMOSUS NANUS, 6s. perdoz.; variety of 
FERNS in 48's, 5s. & 6s. per doz. Free on rail. Cash with order. 
LANE AKD MARTIN, 237 , Brixton Road. London. S.W. 

FERNS! FERNS!! and DECORATIVE 
PLANTS.— Trade Ferns, in 2i inch pots, Stove and 
Greenhouse, 30 best selling sorts, 12s. per 100 ; Stores, 6s. per 
100 ; large ditto, in 48's, 10 best selling sorts, 6s. per dozen. 
Adiantum cuneatum, in 48's, for cutting (value in fronds), 6s. 
and 8s. per dozen; ditto, for making large plants quickly 
(bushy), 16s. and 20s. per 100. Aralias, Grevilleas, Solanums, 
Cyperus, in 48's, 6s. per dozen. Ficus. Palms. Dracteuas, Erica 
hyemalis, and Cyclamen, Is. each. Best (Trade) Value, packed 
free, Cash with Order.— J. SMITH, London Fern Nurseries, 
Loughborough Junction, London. S.W. 

PRAISED EVERYWHERE. 

CANNELL'S 

ENGLISH WONDER PEA. 

All can have a lovely-flavoured Marrowfat 
Wrinkled Pea, only three or four days beh nd 
the earliest in cultivation— a Gardener's Gem. 
See declarations from a number of experts in our 
Catalogue. 

Sent Post-free, 3s. per Quart. 

SWANLEY, KENT. 




HIGHEST 



Send 4b r hfew 6a?alocjue''. 



64 



THE GA B DENE B S' CHR ONICL E. 



[January 20, 1894. 



CHARL ES SHARP E & CO. 

Seed Growers — Seed Merchants 

Cultivateurs — Marchands Grainiers 

S amenculture — Samenliaudlung. 



TRADE CATALOGUES 
ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN. 

SLEAFORD, ENGLAND 



^IIIIIIIIIIIIIllllllllinillllllllllllUlilllHIIIIIIIIIIMlIIIIMHIINUIIIIIIIIIIIIItllllllNlgj 

HARDILY-GROWN, /" | 

= Thoroughly Transplanted .**'* *f • - 

[Forest, Fmnx^i 

I AND ALL OTHER •'"' i/vO •'"'' = 

trees, XO>;„ R I 

I PLAITS/^ v-''' S tocL I 
&c -••"'"'' CV^"' ARE QU,TE i 

G$Lf UNEQUALLED. | 



i /'ivV''' Nurseries | 
I' "^3 -""'" 4so J5.ca?es. I 

§ ..••'■' CATALOGUES FREE on Application, f 

@AIIIIINIimilllllimilllllllllimillHimillllll!I!lllllUlllilllU!IV||||llllllt!IM||]Uj3 



WHOLESAL E SEED C ATALOGUE. 

We have now published our Wholesale Catalogue of 

VEGETABLE & FLOWER SEEDS 

Containing also the be-t Novelties of (he Season. MAY BE 
HAD ON AMPLICATION. Any of our Customers not having 
received one by po&t will oblige by letting us know, when 
another shall at once be posted. 



WATKINS&SIMPSON, 

BULB AND SEED MERCHANTS, 

EXETER ST., STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

Seed&Trial Grounds-Feltham &Twickenham, Middlesex. 



For PLEASURE and PROFIT. 



FRUIT 



Nothing so Profitable 
and Easy to Grow. 
■ 80 ACRES IN STOCK. 



ROSES. 



Hundreds of 

Thousands. 

Bushes in variety. Packing and Carriage Free for Cash 

with Order. 8s. per dozen, 608. per 100. 

All othi:r Nursery Stock Carriage Forward. 

Roses in Pots from 15s. per doz. 

Ornamental Trees, 01 Aores. 

4 Acres of Glass. 

CLEMATIS (80,000), from 15s. per dozen. 

N.B.— Single Plants are sold at slightly increased prices. 



SEEDS. 



The Best procurable. 
Lists Free. 



GENERAL CATALOGUE 

(over MO pages) of Nursery Stock, artistically produced, 

containing PODlfl hundreds of illuntrations, and full of 

valuable information, aent FREE. 

RICHARD SMITH & CO., WORCESTER. 




c 



UTBUSirS MILL- 
track MUSHROOM SPAWN. 
— Everyone can readily grow Mush- 
rooms, and by using this Spawn will 
ensure success. All growers speak in 
high praise of the quality. Numerous 
Testimonials. None genuine unless 
in sealed packages, and printed cul- 
tural directions enclosed with our 
signature attached. 

Price, 6s. per bushel, Is. extra for 
or. Is. per cake, free per 
Parcel Post. 

WM. CUTBUSH & SON, Nurserymen and Seed Merchants, 
Higheate Nurseries, London. N., and Barnet. Herts. 






1000 BEAUTIFUL DAFFODILS for 21s. 

X\/ \/\/ Carriage Paid on receipt of remittance — a mix 
lure of beautiful named sorts. Beautiful PEERLESS CHAI 101 - 
CUPPED and POET'S NARCISSI, in mixture, per 1000, His. ; 
per 100, 2s. 6d. SWEET-SCENTED BUNCH FLOWERED 
NARCISSI, named sorts, mixed, per 100, 4s. 6i Beautiful 
MIXTURE of HYACINTHS, from manv named sorts, per 100, 
10s.6d.; per doz.. ls.id. Beautiful SINGLE NAMED TULIFS, 
in mixture, per 100. is.M. YELLOW WINTER ACONITES, 
per 1000. 10s. 6d. SNOW-WHITE GLADIOLUS, " Bride," per 
100, 2s 6rf. BLUE APENNINE ANEMONES, per 100. 3s. Hd. 
CROWN IMPERIALS, mixed, per dozen, 2s. SNOW-WHITE 
TRUMPET LILY, •' Harrisi." per dozen, 5s. 6rf. 

All sent carriage paid on receipt of remittance. 
BARR and SON, 12, King Street, Covent Garden, London. 



CARNATIONS CARNATIONS. 

The best varieties in all the classes, well established in flower-pots, from 6s. per dozen. 

PICOTEES — Yellow Ground Varieties a Specialty. 

From 6s. per dozen. 



CARNATION and PICOTEE SEED. 

Saved from best named fertilised flowers, 2s. to 3s. 6d. per packet. 
Send for CATALOGUE. Note. — Plants are now in splendid condition to send out. 



JAMES DOUGLAS, F.R.H.S.. GREAT 



CKSON & ROBINSON'S 

DESCRIPTIVE PRICED CATALOGUE OF 

GARDEN SEEDS 

IS NOW BEADY, AND WILL BE SENT, POST FBEE, ON APPLICATION. 



12, OLD P/SSLLGATE, MANCHESTE 

Telegraphic Address :— " PURITY, MANCHESTER." 



All Flower <f- Vegetable SEEDS are supplied post free, and arrive within ten days after receipt of order. 



CHR. LORE! 

Noiv Ready, 

The ENGLISH EDITION of 

LORENZ'S 

ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOCUE, 

With MORE than Two 
Hundred Beautiful 
Engravings and Exact 
Cultural Directions. 

Gratis and Post Free on 
application. 



Postage for Letters to Germany, 
2%d. ; Postcards, Id. 



ERFURT. 



THE LARGEST AND OLDEST 
, GERMAN SEED HOUSE, 

Before you order your 

SEEDS 

FOR THE SPRING, 

read The 

ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOCUE, 







ML 










For Owners of Gardens, 
and Amateurs, of the 
Largest and Oldest Seed 
House on the Continent, 
and you will BUY your 
SEEDS much CHEAPER 
than from 
Any Other Firm. 



CHR. LORENZ, 

SEED GROWER and MERCHANT, 

Seedsman by Special Warrant to H.M. the Empress of Germany, H.M. the King of Saxony, H.M. the King of Bavaria, 

H M. the King of the Netherlands, H.M, the King of Roumania, H.M. the King of Servia, 

H.B.H. the Grand Duke of Hesse, H.H. the Duke of Auhalt. 

100-103, JOHN STREET ERFURT, GERMANY. 



Jancaet 20, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



65 



TO EXHIBITORS, and those who require 
the best and first-class GARDEN SEEDS. 
CAULIFLOWER. Corinium, most valuable early variety, per 

paoket. Is. urf. 
CARROT. Prizetaker. per oz., Sd. 

,. New Red Interim diate, per oz., 6(/. 
CELERY. Jefferies' Cirencester Red Champion, the best in 
cultivation, per oz., Is. 
„ Jefferies" Cirencester White Champion, very superior, 
per oz.. Is. 
LEEK. Prizetaker, the finest grown, per packet, 1». 
LETTUCE, Siddington Cos. large, self folding, fine flavour, 

per packet. 6d and Is. 
ONION, Ailsa Craig, per packet. Is. 6d. and 2s. id. 
„ Iuwood Favourite, per packet, Is. 
,, Rousham Park, superior stock, per oz., Is. 
For all the latest and best novel ies in VEGETABLE ard 
FLOWER SEEDS, see our CATALOGUE, illustrated through- 
out with 04 pages, post-free to applicants. 
Seeds Carriage Free. 
JNO. JEFFERIES and SON, Seed Merchants, Cirenceter. 

BURMESE LILIES. 

(HARDY GARDEN). 

HUGH LOW & CO. 

Have just received, per s.-s. Yorkshire, a grand 
Consignment of L. NEPALENSE and L. 
SULPHUREUM (WALLICHIANUM SU- 
PERBUM), which they propose to offer at 
greatly reduced prices. The bulbs vary very 
much in appearance, and new varieties may be 
confidently expected. 

CLAPTON NPBSERY, IiONTON, N.E. 

COVERT PLANTS-COVERT PLANTS. 



EVERGREEN PRIVETS, 2 to 3 feet, at 21s. per 1000. 
SNOWBERRY, 3 to 4 feet, at 3Cs. per 1000. 
GORSE. 1 to 2 feet, at 15s. per 1000. 
SCARLET DOGWOOD, 2 to 3 feet, at 15s. per 100. 

All stout transplanted plants. 



JOHN PERKINS & SON, 

52, MARKET SQUARE, NORTHAMPTON. 



THE BEST 




AT MOST MODERATE PRICES. 

SEED POTATOS, 
GARDEN TOOLS, & SUNDRIES. 

Descriptive Catalogue No. 432i Post Free 
on Application. 

Delivered Free by Rail or Parcel Post. 

DICKSONSChkter 



TO MA RKET GR OWERS. 

Two of the BEST PEAS for MAEKET GARDEN purposes are 

PRIDE OF THE MARKET, 

GLADIATOR. 
The former we can recommend as a substitute for Sfcratazem. 
It is a cheaper and better Pea, and cannot be distinguished 
from Stratagem when growing. 

Samples and prices from— 

CHARLES SHARPE & CO., Sleaford. 

SPECIAL CULTURE OF 

FRUIT TREES AND ROSES. 

A LARGE AND SELECT STOCK IS NOW 
OFFERED FOR SALE. 

The Illustrated and Desoriptive Catalogue of 
Fruits, post-free, Sd. 

The Descriptive Catalogue of Koses, post-free. 



THOMAS RIVERS & SON, 

THE NURSERIES, 

SAWBRIDGEWOBTH, HERTS, 



NOW IS THE TIME TO PLANT. 

Send for our NSW DESCRIPTIVE and PRICED 
CATALOGUE of FRUIT TREES, ROSES, CONI- 
FERS, SHRUBS, FOREST TREES, CLIMBERS, 
HERBACEOUS PLANTS, &c. A large Stock grown. 

LANDSCAPE GARDENING 



.A leading feature. 



Plans, Specifications, 
prepared. 



and Estimates 



GEO. JACKMAN & SON, 

WOKING NURSERY. WOKING, SURREY. 

Established 1810. Area 150 acres. 



NOW READY. — NOW READY. 



DANIELS 



5 



ILLUSTRATED GUIDE and 

SEED CATALOGUE 

For AMATEUR GARDENERS, 

Spring, 1894. 

Containing 132 pages, imperial size, of beautifully illustrated 
letterpress, three superb coloured plates, a select list of 
Choice Kitchen Garden and Flower Seed*, Seei Potato*. 
Fruit Trees, Roses, Clematises, Carnation?, ai-d other florists' 
(lowers, with copious notes en culti-ation, and a list of 
the best novelties of the season. The wbole enclosed in 
a charmingly printed coloured wrapper. This will be found 
by far the best and most complete Garden Catalogue yet 
published, and should certainly be in the hands of all who are 
interested in horticulture. 

PRICE la., POST FKEE. 
The Shilling to be deducted from first order of 5s. or upwards. 



DANIELS BROS. 



ROYAL NORFOLK SEED ESTABLISHMENT, 

NORWICH. 



NOTHING 
NOTHING 



is too small. 



is too much trouble. 



The Trade Supplied. 

E. D. SHUTTLEWOBTH $ CO, Ltd., 
(Albert Jfurseries) 

PECKHAM RYE, LONDON, 8.E., 
and FLEET, HANT8. 



GOLD MEDAL 
CHRYSANTHEMUMS, 

My Collection has been awarded this season two Gold 
Medals, two Silver Gilt, one Silver, and one Bronze, the 
highest award in each case. The National Chrysanthemum 
Society's Gold Medal being the only one ever awarded to a 
Collection of Cut Blooms. 

My Stock is in fine condition, and all who are interested in 
Chrysanthemums should secure a copy of my new, Descriptive, 
and Illustrated Catalogue, the most useful and complete ever 
published, which contains Cultural Articles by Mr. Charles E. 
Shea, and Mr. H. Shoesmith; also Cultural Notes, by Mr. E. 
Beckett. Post-free, 7 stamps. 

H. J. JONES, 

Ryecroft Nursery, Hither Green, Lewisham, S.E. 

BEST LATE APPLET 

WE CAN STRONGLY RECOMMEND OUR NEW APFLE 
"NEWTON WONDER," 

as the best late Apple in cultivation ; fruit keeps till June ; 
large, well-coloured, perfect form, splendid cooking quality ; 
tree a vigorous grower, free from canker, and very productive. 

Awarded First-class Certificate, R.B.S., Dec. 1887. 

Now Widelt Known. Descriptive Catalogue of Fruits 
on Application. 

J. R. PEARSON & SONS, CMlwell Nurseries, Notts. 



CONIFERS. — Abies Douglasii, U to 2 ft., 
24s. per 100; Araucaria imbricata, 3 ft., 36s. ; 4 to 4£ ft., 
48s. per doz. ; Cedrus deodara, 2 ft., 12s. per doz ; Cupres^us 
macrocarpa, 2 to 2£ ft., 50s. per 100; C. Lawsonri, 3 ft., 20s. ; 

4 to 5 ft., 30s. per i00 ; C. erecta, 3 to 4 ft , 3bs. per 100; Picea 
nobilia, 2 to 2£ ft., 12s. per doz ; Retiocspora plumose, 3 to 
3} ft.. 35s. per 100; Thuia LoLbii, 3 it.. 20s. per 100; 4 ti 

5 tt., 35s. per 100; 6 to 7 It., tiOs. ; Tlniicpiis iLlobrata, 2 to 
2£ ft , 50*. per 100 ; 3 to 4 fret. 20s. per doz. 

GARLIES MITCHELL. Stranraer. 



FRUIT 
ROSES 



VINES, 

OF ALL THE FINEST VARIETIES, 
NEW AND OLD. 



HUGH LOW & CO., 

BUSH HILL NURSERY, 
EUITBLD. 

POT ROSES. 

Magnificent Plants, in 7-inch and 8-inch pots 
From 21s. to 36s. per dozen. 

CLIMBING TEA and NOISETTES, in pots 
■with rods, from 10 feet to 15 feet long, from 
3s. to 5s. each. 



DWARF ROSES 

From Open Ground, from 50s. per 100. 
Sample dozen, 8s. 



CATALOGUE POST-FREE FROM 

FRANK CANT, 

CHAMPION ROSE GROWER, 

BRA1SWICK NURSERY, COLCHESTER. 
ANTHONY WATEKER 

Invites an inspection from intending Planters to the fol- 
lowing well-grown TREES, having stout, clean stems, 
with handsomely-furnished, well-balanced heads, and from 
frequently transplanting are splendidly rooted; the girth 
of the stem is taken at 4 feet from the ground : — 

ACER DASYCARPUM, 14 to 20 feet, girth 4 to 8 inches. 

„ „ WIERILACINIATUM,10tol4feet,girth3to5inch. 

„ NEGUNDO VARIEGATA, Standards, 8 to 10 feet. 

„ REITENBACHI, 12 to 14 feet, girth 4 to 5 inches. 

,, SCHWEDLERI, 12 to 18 feet, girth 4 to 8 inches. 

„ WORLEYI, 12 to 14 feet, girth 3 to 6 inches. 
BEECH, Purple, Pyramids, and Standards, 10 to 20 feet, girth 

4 to 9 inches. 
BIRCH. Silver, 12 to 14 feet, girth 3 to 5 inches. 
CERASUS SEROTINA (American Bird Cherry), 12 to 16 feet, 

girth 6 to 7 inches. 
CHESTNUTS. Horse. 14 to 20 feet, girth 6 to 11 inches. 

„ Double White, 14 to 16 feet, girth 6 to 8 inches. 

,, Scarlet, 12 to 18 feet, girth 4 to 10 inches. 

,, ,, Brioti, 10 to 14 feet. 
ELMS, English, 10 to 12 feet, girth 3 to 6 inches. 

,, Guernsey, 16 to 18 feet, girth 7 to 9 inches. 
LIMES. 12, 16. and 20 feet, girth 3 to 10 inches. 

„ EDCHLORA or DASYSTYLA, 12 to 14 feet, girth 4 to 6 
inches. 
Silver-leaved (Tilia argentea), 12 to 14 feet, girth 5 to 6 
inches. 
LIQUIDAMBAR, 6 to 10 feet. 
MAPLE, Norway, 12 to 16 feet. 
OAK, English, 12 to 14 feet, girth 4 to 5 inehes. 

,, Scarlet American, 12 to 14 feet, girth 4 to 5 inches. 
POPLAR CANADENSIS NOVA (the true variety), 12 to 

16 feet, girth 6 to 7 inches. 
SYCAMORE, Common, 12 to 17 feet, girth 4 to 7 inches. 

„ Purple, 14 to 16 feet, girth 6 to 7 inches. 
THORNS, Double Pink, 8 to 10 feet. 

„ Paul's Scarlet, 8 to 10 feet. 

„ Double White, 8 to 10 feet. 

WEEPING TEEES. 

BEECH, Weeping, Pyramids, and Standards, 8 to 12 feet. 

„ Weeping, Purple, Pyramids and Standards, 7 to 12 feet. 
BIRCH, Young's Weeping, Pyramids and Standards, 8 to 
14 feet. 
,, Cut-leaved Weeping, Pyramids and Standards, 10 to 
12 feet. 
ELMS, Weeping, Pyramids and Standards, 7 to 14 feet. 
LARCH, Weeping, Pyramids, 8 to 10 feet. 

KNAP HILL NURSERY, WOKING, SURREY, 



66 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januakv 20, 1894. 



GARD EN SE EDS, 

The Subscribers have the pleasure to intimite that their 
new CATALOGUE of VEGETABLE and FLOWER SEEDS, 
BITL&S, and SUNDRIES, has now been posted to their Cus- 
tomers, and tbey respectfully solicit orders, which will be 
esteemed, and command their best attention. 

LITTLE & BALLANTYNE, 

The Quees's Seedsmen, CARLISLE. 
THE FINEST SCARLET 

WINTER-FLOWERING CARNATION, 

SIR HENRY CALCROFT, 

Has received Two Awards of Merit from the Royal Horticul- 
tural Society ; one in Spring, 1893, and again on Tuesday 
last, the 16th inst., when exhibited by Mr. Whilians, Gar- 
dener to His Grace the Duke of Marlborough, Blenheim. 

For full particulars, see this week's report of the Royal 
Horticultural Society's meeting on Tuesday last. 

Strong healthy Plants, 5s. each. 

A beautifully-arranged painting of this grand Carnation 
will be sent free to all those ordering plants. 



WM. CUTBUSH & SON, 

HIGHGATE NURSERIES, LONDON, N., 

And BARNET, HERTS. 

SEAKALE for FORCING.— Extra strong, at 
105. p<?r 10D ; eecood siz*. 6s. ppr 100. No charge for 
packing. Free o • rail for cash with order only. 

G. STEV8NS. St. John's Nursery. Putney. 

A complete CATALOGUE 
of all wants for the garden, 
including NOVELTIES and 
SPECIALTIES for 1894, of 
sterling worth, will be posted 

«r-pr\0 ^ ree ' ■^ Exhibitors and 

QrrljQ Growers should see this List, 

which contains the best at 

moderate prices. 

LAXTONS' STRAWBERRIES, inoluding 
their grand new "ROYAL SOVEREIGN," can still be 
supplied in large or small quantities. 

LAXTON BROTHERS, ^BEXr™ 3 ' 



LAXTONS' 



THE COLORADO BLUE SPRUCE. 

ABIES PUNGENS GLAUCA and ARGENTEA. 

Handsome upecimena, 3, 4, ft, and 6 feet high, Thes* are all 
of the Bluest t>pe. and unnoubtedly the finest plants in 
commerce. They are all Seedlings, the plants usually met 
with being grafted on the Common Spruce Fir. 

ANTHONY WATERER, 

KNAP HILL NURSERY. WOKING. SURREY. 

C ANNAS, all the best and novel vars. of the 
flowering race, Crozy, 12 bulb3 t 12 sorts, from 6s. to £3, 
according to the novelty. 

GLADIOLUS GANDAVENSIS.splendidSeed lings, mixed, in all 
colours, 8s. to 10s. per 10D. 
„ „ in separate colours, red, pink, and white, different 

varieties in each colour, 16s. per 100. 
,, yellow-sulphur, lilac, violet, £1 per 100. 
,, named, 12 vars,, from 3s., 4s., 5s., 6s., up to £2, accord- 
ing to novelty. 
GLADIOLUS HYBRID LEMOINEI, splendid vars., from 6s. to 
£3 per 12, according to novelty. 
,, ,, ,, Seedlings, all colours, £i per 100. 
TREE PJEONIES, 12 sorts, 15s. to £3 and more, according to 

strength of plants, 
HERBACEOUS PiEONIES, 12 sorts, from 5s. to £2, according 

to novelty of t-orts. 
LILAC CHARLES X., plants well budded, grown in pots, £4 

to £6 per l'»0. 
NEW PHLOXES, 12 splendid new vara., 1894, £l. 
STANDARD TEA and fERPETUAL ROSES per 1000. Prices 

on application. 
TEA ROSES, grown outdoors, or in pots. The largest Stock 
known. , . 
Apply toLEVEQUE ET FTLS, Nurserymen, Ivry-sui -Seine, 
near Paris. 



& 




sow^ILLEY'S 

"""STY 




)% 



■ rt 



'■"Tflk. 



nj |..ij, j on to order oui seed fi <m 
Tilley's." Amateur ■ an ! Potato growers 
Blioulxl see our Special offer of 

GRAND PRBZES. 
fUuairulcd Catalogue and Pri» Li I ft' • 

"TRUSTY" SEEDS 
I i the "Que in of Watcrlug PI > 

Tiliey Bros., Brighton. 



NEW SWEET PEA 

" P RINCESS M AY." 

A most beautiful and distinct new variety, the colouring of which is throughout of a delicate 
shade of pale heliotrope or lavender, appearing in the bud state of rather a darker tint than when 
fully expanded. 

The colour is most pleasing, and quite in accordance with modern and fashionable tastes. 
Probably not since the introduction of Princess Beatrice Sweet Pea has there been raised a variety 
so distinct and effective, and it will doubtless be equally as much sought after and grown as that 
now popular variety. 

The flowers are large, and the wings and standard well expanded. 

The gardening press have unanimously spoken in high terms of this pretty and distinct novelty. 

We have purohased the entire stock of this new Sweet Pea from Messrs. Laxton Bros., and are 
now distributing it to the trade at prices as per our Wholesale Catalogue, in which a handsome 
Coloured Plate of it is issued. 

It has received a First-class Certificate. 



HURST & SON, 

Seed Merchants, 152, HOUNDSDITCH, LONDON. 



Bulwell Potteries, Nottingham. * 



MesErs. Dicksons, Limited, Chester, write ■—" The Flower Pots jou have so largely supplied us with are light, stroDg, 
and well made, and in every respect highly satisfactory." 

Messrs. Richard Smith & CO., Worcester, write :— "We beg to say that we are highly satisfied with your 'Garden 
Pots ; ' they are well made, light, yet strong, and we like them better than any other we have ever used." 

Mr. William Bull, 536. King's Road, Chelsea, London, writes:— "For nearly thirty years I have been using your 
' Garden Pots,' and atill fiud them the best and cheapest." 

Largest Manufacturers in the World, No Waiting. Millions in Stock. Carriage and Breakage Free on £10 
Order?. Half Carriage on £5 Orders. Samples Free. 

THE &BERCRAVE COLLIERIES CO., SWANSEA. 

BEST BIG VEIN ANTHRACITE COALS, 

As used at the General Post Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand ; the Victualling Yard, Deptford ; H.M. 

Small Arms Faotory, Birmingham, &o. 

FOR STEAM MALTING, HOP DRYING, AND HORTICULTURAL PURPOSES. 

REPRESENTATIVE FOR LONDON AND DISTRICT— 

JNO. BOWDEN, 24, LAMB0URN ROAD, CLAPHAM, S.W. 




R. HALLIDAY & CO., 

HOTHOUSE BUILDERS and HOT-WATER ENGINEERS, 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL WORKS, MIDDLETON, MANCHESTER. 

Vineries, Stoves, Greenhouses, Peach Houses, Forcing Houses, &c, constructed on our improved plan, are the 
perfection of growing houses, and for practical utility, economy, and durability cannot be equalled. We only do one class of 
work, and that the very best. 

Conservatories and Winter Gardens designed architecturally correct without the assistance of anyone out of our firm, 
from the smallest to thu lurgest. Hot- water Heating Apparatus, with really reliable Boilers, erected, and success guaranteed 
in all cases. Melon Frames. Sashes, Hot Bed Boxes, &c always in stock. 

Plans, Estimates, and Catalogues Freo. Customers waited on in any part of the Kingdom. 

Our Maxim is and always has been — 

MODERATE CHARGES. FIR3T-0LASS WORK THE BEST MATERIALS. 



Januaht £0, 1894.] 



THE GA RDENER S' CUB ONI CLE. 



67 



PEACHES and NECTARINES in POTS.— 
— All best sorts, 4 to 6 feet high, cheap. Also, Planting 
Canes of Groa Colmar Grapes. 
TODDINGTON ORCHARD CO., Ltd., Winchcomb, Glos. 

Chrysanthemums. — Chrysanthemums. 

TO MARKET GROWERS and OTHERS.— 
The four best kinds for Market : President Hyde, best 
yellow; Florence Percy, best white; Source d'Or, best bronze, 
the prevailing colour ; Canneh's Elsie, best cream. Splendid 
strong cuttings, 2s. tid. per 100, by parcel post. Also the 
following at low prices : Avalanche, Lord Canning. Molyneux, 
Sunflower, Gloire Du Kocher, Florence Davis, G. Wermig, 
Madame Desgranges, Eyosford White, Beauty of ExmoutD, 
snd many others.— W. CONNELLY, Lyme Regis. 

SHRUBS, &o .— Arbor-vitee. American, 3 to 3£ft., 
H 2)s. ver 100 ; Ampelopsia Veitcbii, l£ in. pots, 35s. per 100; 
Azara microph>lla, 2 ft., 4s. per doz. ; Cotoneaster micro- 
phylla, 2 ft., 10s. per l'O; C. Simonsii, 3 ft.. 10s. per 100; 
Dogwood, 3s. per 100 ; Escullonia macrantba, pots, 2 ft., '62s. 
per 100 ; E. rubra, 2 ft., 3s. per 100; Fuchsia Riccortonii, 
15 to IS in., 20s per 100; Grass, Pampas, 2 to 2£ ft., 3us. per 
100; Grialinia littoralis. 15 to 18 in., 6s. per doz. ; Hypericum 
caty., 12s. per 100; Hollies, Green, 2 to 2£ ft., extra, 80s. per 
100; Laurel Colchic. 2 ft., 12s. per 100, 3 to 3J ft.. 20s. ; L. 
Portugal, 1£ ft., 12s. per 100; Lilac, White aud Hurple, 4s per 
doz. ; Laurestmus, 15 in., bu-hy, 30s, per 100; Rhododeudron, 
hybrid, 1 to 1£ ft., 20s. ; 2 ft., 30s. ; 3 ft., 40s. ; Bucktho-ns, 
2 feet, 16s. per 100; Yew, English, l£ to 2 ft., 24s. per 100. 
GARLLES MITCHELL, Nurseryman. Stranraer. 

TSAAC MATTHEWS and SON have for 

J- immediate disposal as follows, all of first-class quality, in 

full health and vigour : — 
RHODODENDRONS, White, full of buds. 
,, Scarlet and other varieties, full of buds. 
,, Hybrid Seedlings and Ponticum varieties, from 1 to 4 feet, 
at remarkably low prices, all bushy fine plants. 
PRIVET, Oval Leaf , from 2 to 4 feet, fine; ASH, Common, 
and MOUNTAIN BEECH ; HAZEL, HORSE CHEST- 
NUTS, ELM, LARCH, AUSTRIAN PINE, POPLARS 
(various), EVERGREEN PRIVET, THORN QUICK, 
SCOTCH FIR, SPRUCE. SYCAMORE, and WILLOWS, 
all good, well-grown Trees, from l£ to 4 feet, and upwards. 
ROSE*, AUCUBAS, BERBERIS dQUIFOLIA, BOX, 
CUPRESSU3, DOGWOOD, GOLDEN ELDERS, HOL- 
LIES, IVIES, LAURELS, RETINOSPORAS, English and 
Irish YEWS, AZALEAS (various), and many other varie- 
ties. For Price List, apply to— 

The Nurseries, Milton. Stoke-on-Trent. 

THE "PERFECT" FUMIGATOR. — Quite 
Safe, no Scorching, Smoke COOL, Effectual and Most 
Economical. Testimonials. 

Mr. Leach, Gr. to the Duke of Northumberland, Albury 
Paik, says, Dec. 15, 1893 :— After nearly 40 years' experience, 
this is the best Fumigator I have ever seen, in fact all that 
can be desired. The Al Tobacco Cloth I like very much. Send 
on 15 lb. more. 

From Mr. F. Cornish, Gr. to Dowager Lady Bowman, 
Joldwynds, near Dorhing, Dec. 9, 1893 : — I consider it the best 
Fumigator I have ever used. Also your Al Cloth requires very 
little attention : most economical, no injurious effects upon the 
foliage, certain death to green and black-fly. 

Fumigators, 10*. 6d. each. Al Tobacco Cloth, specially 
prepared. Is. <od. per lb. Full particulars with copy of other 
testimonials, on application to JAS. IVERY and SON, 
Nurserymen, &c, Dorking and Reigate, Surrey. 



NATIVE GUANO.— Best and Cheapest 
Manure for Garden Use. Price£3 10s. per ton, in bags. 
Lots under 10 cwt., 4s. per cwt. ; 1 cwt. Sample Bag sent 
Carriage paid to any Station in England, on receipt of P. O. 
for 5s. 

Extracts from 18th Annual Collection of Reports:— 
NATIVE GUANO FOR POTATOS, VEGETABLES, &c. 
H. BRINKWORTH, Potato Grower, Reading, used for Potatos, 
Onions, and Carrots; results :—" Very good; never had better 

crops." A. J. Allsop, Gardener to Lord Portman :— " A 

better crop of Onions I don't wish to have. I can thoroughly 
recommend it as a valuable manure for vegetables." 
NATIVE GUANO for FRUIT, ROSES, TOMATOS, &c. 
R. McIntosh, Gardener to F. T. Cobbold, Esq., Felixstowe : 
— ** For Cucumbers, Melons, Peaches, and Vines, it is my fa- 
vourite manure. For Violets in frames. Chrysanthemums, and 
nearly all kinds of plants, we use it with excellent results." 

G. Hickman, Gordon Road Nursery, S. Woodford :— " Used 
for some yt-ars, and am satisfied it is the best manure at the 
price I ever had. Specially good for (Jucumbersan n Tomatos." 
Orders to the Native Guano Co. Ltd.. 29, New Bridge 
Street, Blackfriars, London, where Hamptilcts of Testimonials, 
Sec, may be obtained. AGEN TS WANTED. 

JERSEY GUANO.— As used by every Jersey 
farmer for early crops of Potatos and all kinds of 
agricultural produce. £13 10s. per ton delivered. A trial 
eolicited. 

J. D. HAMON, Jamaica Row, Birmingham. 

GISHURST COMPOUND, used sinoe 1859 
for Red Spider, Mildew, Thrips, Greenfly, and other 
blight ; 2 ounces to the gallon of soft water, 4 to 16 ounces ae 
a winter dressing for Vines and Orchard-house trees, in lather 
from cake, for American blight, and as an emulsion when 
paraffin is used. Has outlived many preparations intended to 
supersede it. Boxes, Is., 3s., and 10s. 6a, 

p ISHURSTINE keeps Boots dry and soft on 

\T wet ground. Boxes, 6d. and Is., from .the Trade. 
Wholesale from PRICE'S PATENT CANDLE COMPANY 
(Limited), London. 

" l^ILLMRIGHT," 

-IV For Destruction of all Insect Pests and Mildew. 

THE STOTT DISTRIBUTOR CO. (Lmtd.), 
Barton House, Manchester. 



ANDERSON'S RUSSIA MATS 

Are the Best and Cheapest. 

GARDEN SUNDRIES OF EVERY KIND. 

Illustrated CATALOGUE post-free on application. 



JAMES T. ANDERSON, 

135 & 137, COMMERCIAL ST., LONDON, E. 

ORCHID PEAT; Best Quality; BROWN 
FIBROUS PEAT for Stove and Greenhouse use. RHO- 
DODENDRON and AZALEA PEAT. Samples and Prices of 
WALKER AND CO.. Famborough. Hants. 




THE FERTILISERS AND FEEDING STUFFS ACT, 1893. 



TO THE TRADE. 



BEESON'S MANURE 

Is sold with a guaranteed analysis showing the percentage of nitrogen, soluble and insoluable phosphates, and potash 
contained therein as required by the above Act. 

This Manure has been used with approval by the principal gardeners and market growers for over twenty years. Reports, 
with directions for use. are enclosed in every tin and bag. Purchasers are requested to see that each bag is sealed and marked 
"BEESON'S MANURE, SHEFFIELD." 

It can be obtained through all Nurserymen and Seedsmen retail in Tins at la. an-1 2B 6d. each; also in Sealed Bags, 
containing 50 lb., 8s ; or 1 cwt., 15a. Either two or four ton lots for cheaper railway carriage are made up comprising 
any quantities to suit the trade. 

Pure Crushed Unboiled Bones any size, Steamed Bone Meal, Dissolved BoDes, Sulphate of Ammonia, Nitrate of Soda, Guan o 
Dried Blood, Superphosphate, Kainit, Wood Charcoal, &c. 

W. H. BEESOW, CARBROOK BONE MILLS. SHEFFIELD. 

HORTICULTURAL BUILDER. 

Every description of GREENHOUSES, LIGHTS, &C. 



PIT LIGHTS. 

Best quality and workmanship, 2 inches thick, 6 ft. by 4 ft., 
iron bar across, and very strong, is. Gd. each, 505. doz., £10 for 
60 lights, free on rail in London. Ca-:h or reference with order. 



CUCUMBER HOUSES. 

■Timber sufficient to build 100 feet by 12 feet house. Boot 
Ventilators, Door. &c. Put on rail in London. Price, £9 108. 
Send for detailed specification, to 



W. DUNCAN TUCKER, HORTICULTURAL WORKS, TOTTENHAM. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, just issued. 



ECONOMICAL-SAFE LASTING 

CLAY'S 
MANURES 



Are used by the . 

Leading Growers 
Royal Botanic 1 (;M^.H 

Society, - -r>- ' - o 

Royal Horticul- _? :-.-. '->. , ' * 

TflLUNUUNflr- turalSociety, Hp/l!©© [MTOR 

"■ *■*■ Royal Parks. 5jg- 

V*. ^(/ London County * V "''- — -"' 5* 
^>* *^> Council, 

' I IA throughout the 'W< : t{''- , v ' 
United Kingdom 



\ LONDON? 



TRADE MARK. and in 



TOADE MARK. 



EVERY QUARTER OF THE GLOBE, FOR 

ALL HOR TICULTURAL P URPOSES. 

SOLD by SEEDSMEN, FLORISTS, and NURSERYMEN. 
In 6d. and Is. Jackets, and SEALED BAGS - 
71b. 141b. 281b. 581b. 112 1b. 

2s. 6d. 4s. 6d. 7s. 6d. 12s. 6d. 20s. 

Or direct from the Works, Carriage Paid in the United 
Kingdom for Cash with order (except 6d. Packets). 

The respective Trade Mark Is printed on 
every Packet and Bag. ana also impressed 
on the lead Seal attached to the mouth 

of eacn Bag which is 
THE ONLY GUARANTEE OF GENUINENESS. 



Prices of CRUSHED BONES in Various 
Sizes on Application. 

CLAY & SON, 

Manure Manufacturers, Bone Crushers, &c, 
TEMPLE MILL LANE, STRATFORD, LONDON, E. 

STANDEES MANURE 

(Established 30 years). 

The fertilising properties of this Manure are 
acknowledged to be unsurpassed by any in the 
market. If used carefully, in small quantities, 
most satisfactory and lasting results will follow. 

Analysis produced to purchasers of any quan- 
tity on application. 

Sold in new and enlarged Tins, 1«., 2s. 6d., and 
5s. 6d. each ; and in Wooden Kegs, 28 lb., 10s. 6d. ; 
56 lb., 18s. ; 112 lb., 32s. each. 

TO BE HAD OF ANT SEEDSMAN. 



Makers : — 

CORRY & CO., Lmtd., 

13, 15, and 16, FINSBURY STREET, LONDON, E.C. 
ONES! BONES!! BONES!!!— Any size 

from dust to 1 inch, at 10s. per cwt. Carriage Paid on 
1 cwt. Special quotations to large buyers. 
Terms. Cash with Order. 
E. S. WILES AND LEWIS. Bon e Crushers, St. Albans. 

AGENTS WANTEDfortheSALEof NATIVE 
GUANO. The Best and Cheapest Manure for all Farm 
and Garden Crops. - The NATIVE GUANO COMPANY, 
LIMITED. 29, New Brid ge street. Bl'cttfrisrs. London E.C. 

/CROSS'S GARDEN FERTILISER. — For 

\_^ Vines. Pot Plan's, Fruit Trees. Vegetables. 

MURRAY'S ••ELECTRIJ" MILDEW and INSECT 
DESTROYER, a purely Vegetable preparation, harmless to 
plant life, a perfect cure of Mildew and all Insect Pests. 

ALFXANDER I R OSS ASP SONS. 79, Martt Lane, London. 

Ci BEESON'S MANURE. — Composed of 
Jm Blood and Bone. The Best Fertiliser for all P'Tposes. 
Sold io tins, Is., 2s. Hd., and 5s. Sd. ; also in air-tight bags, 
4 cwt. 6s. ; 1 cwt., 10s. Full directions for use sent with each 
tin and bag. 1 cwt. and above sent carriage paid, cash with 
order. 8. BEESON, Bone MillB, St. Neot's, Hunts. 

" 12, Knowle Road, Brixton, London . 
"I have tried this fertiliser on various garden crops, and I 
am able to say that it is an excellent Manure for Vegetables, 
Flowers, Vines, and Fruit Trees. 

"A. B. GRIFFITHS, Ph.D., F.E.S.E., F.C.S." 



68 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jantjaby 20, 1891. 




VEITCHS' 

GENUINE SEEDS. 



NEW MELON-BEAUTY OF SION. 

First-class Certificate, Boyal Horticultural Society. October IS, 

1892. First-class Certificate, Gardening and Forestry 

Exhibition. July 26, 189 1. Silver Medal for Eighteen 

Fruits, Gardening and Forestry Exhibition, July 26, 1893. 

A new scarlet-flesh seedling of great merit. Highly 

recommended. p er Packet, 23. €d. 

ONION— VEITCHS MAIN CROP. 

This is a most desirable and perfect strain for exhibit?on or 
general use, and though generally grown for a main crop, will 
also prove an excellent keeper. 

Per Ounce, Is 6d. 

CUCUMBER— V£ITCHS' PERFECTION. 

A distinct kind, remarkably prolific, and of robust constitu- 

li0Q - Per Packet. 2s. 6d. 

LETTUCE, VEITCHS' SUPERB WHITE COS 

A splendid summer LetUne, of immense size, forming close 
compact hearts. p er p ac k e t, lg. 6d. 

CABBAGE— VE5TCHS' EARLIEST OF ALL 

An ex eedingly early new variety, epsoially adapted for 
epring sowing, and coming into use quicker than any other sort. 

Per Packet, Is. 

Seeds Carriage Free, except parcels of Peas and Beans under 
10s. in value. For full particulars of above and other varieties© 1 
choice VEGETABLE SEEDS, see SEED CATALOGUE for lS9lf 
forwarded gratis and post-free on application. 



ESTABLISHED 1832. 

No Connection with, any other Firm of 
the same name. 



JAS. VEITCH & SONS, 

EOYAL EXOTIC NURSERY, 
CHELSEA, LONDON, S.W. 




CATALOG!) 



FOR 1894, 

OF 

VECETABLElFLOWERSEED 

AND 

BULBS & PLANTS, 

IS NOW READY. 

Will be sent post-free on application to their offices, at 
OVERVEEN, near HAARLEM, HOLLAND, or to their 
General Agents— 

Messrs. MERTENS & CO., 

3, CROSS LANE, LONDON, E.C. 



CANNELL'S 
SEEDS. 



Surely the following will give confidence to all 
who have not previously dealt with us of the great 
advantages that ivill arise from having our own 
grown 

" KENTISH PERFECT GOLDEN SEEDS " 

direct from ui at Pbices Neaely Wholesale. 
(§T 300 ACRES. 

Me. Speakman, Sunnyside, Crewe, Feb. 3, 18?3. 

"I feel amazed you should ask me if jour seeds, 
plants, &c, had not given satisfaction — they almost 
surprise us. We have not once had from you 
anything bat what was in every way as good as it is 
possible to be ; and to show you how good your seeds 
are over others, our gardener sowed them as he said 
as thick as he always did those he used to get 
locally, and when he saw how thick they came up he 
was astonished. We only now require half the 
quantity in proportion to other people's." 



Mr W. H. Uphill, The Girdens, Fern Lodge, 
Windsor Forest, Oct. 12. 1893. 

"My respected employer wishes you to forwa'd 
the following plants, as we find yours ii better than 
other firms." 

The Finest and Completest CATALOGUE cj '127 pages 
Post Free to coming Customers. 



SWANLEY, KENT. 



SEEDS, 



Just Published. 
SEED CATALOGUE, 

With everything priced. 



Containing Novelties of Sterling Merit, roth in 

VECETABLE AND FLOWER SEEDS. 

Post free on application to 

WILLIAM BULL, F.L.S., 

Establishment for Seeds and Plants. 
636, KING'S ROAD, CHELSEA. LONDON, S.W. 



The Best of the Season. 

WEBBS' 

RELIABLE 

NOVELTIES. 



For Descriptions and Full Particulars see 

WEBBS' 

SPRING CATALOGUE 

Beautifully illustrated with five coloured platen 

and hundreds of eogravinga, post free, Is., which 

in allowed off nubsequent orderfl. 



Seedsmen by Royal Warrants to EM, the Queen 
ana H-R.H. the Prince of Wales. 

WORDSLEY, STOURBRIDGE. 




NOW READY. 

19/ 



ILLUSTRATED 



CRIPTr 



LOGUE 



1894. L 

Post-free on application to 

CHARLES SHARPE & CO., 

SEED FAEMEKS AND MERCHANTS, SLEAPOKD. 




IPEDIUM 
CHARLESWO 




(ROHFE, N. SP.) 



MAGNIFICENT IMPORTATION, INCLUDING MASSES OF EXCEPTIONAL SIZE. 

Hugh Low & Co. 

Will Offer the above, IN QUANTITY, through 

Messrs. PROTHEROE and MORRIS, on FRIDAY, Febuary 2. 

FULL PARTICULARS NEXT WEEK. 



January 20, 1894.1 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



69 



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SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1894. 



JAPANESE HORTICULTUKAL 
LITERATURE. 

\ FEW years ago (Gardeners' Chronicle, Oc- 
■£*- tober 2, 1887, p. 491), I gave a descrip- 
tive account of two small Japanese books, one 
devoted to the illustration of varieties of He- 
patica triloba, and the other to varieties of 
Adonis amurensis, of which plants the Japanese 
have raised several highly-diversified races. 
Since then I have often had occasion to consult 
some of the other Japanese books in the Kew 
library, and I now propose giving some par- 
ticulars of those specially interesting to hor- 
ticulturists. These books belong to three 
categories. For example, there are several serial 
or periodical publications still current, such as 
the Japanese BotanicalMagazine, mainly devoted 
to the elucidation and illustration of the wild 
flora. This work has been noticed from time to 
time in these columns, so I need say no more 
about it. Then there are books speoially devoted 
to the representation of garden raoes and va- 
rieties of certain genera. Those I have reviewed 
on Hepatica and Adonis belong to this cate- 
gory. Finally, there are the standard or 
classical works, in which both wild and 
cultivated plants are depicted, such as those 
cited throughout Franchet and Savatier's 
Enumeratio Plantarum in Japonia sponte cres- 
centium. These are three in number, namely, 
the Kiea-wi, or Kwa-i, the So Mokou Zoussetz, 
or Sonioku Zusetsu, and the Phonzou Zou/ou, 
or Ilonzo Zufu. The first transliteration of 
each title is that adopted by Franchet and Sava- 
tier in the work cited, and the second is that 
used by Mr. F. V. Diokins, in an article on the 
progress of botany in Japan, which appeared in 
the Journal of Botany some years ago. All three 
of these works are in the Kew library. Taking 
them in chronological order, the Kwa-i comes 
first. This was published in 1759, and the title 
has been variously translated as A Selection of 
Plants and A Collection of Flowering Plants. It 
consists of eight volumes or parts ; four devoted 
to the illustration of herbaceous plants, and four 
to shrubs and trees — in all 20J figures. The 
descriptions and names are wholly in Japanese 
characters ; but fortunately there is a European 
key to this work, entitled, Botanique Japonaise, 
Livres Kwa-wi, traduit par le Dr. L. Savatier, 
1875. I mention this particularly, beoause I 
believe it is known to very few persons iu this 
country. It is not merely a translation, inas- 
much as the botanical names have been added 
throughout by Mr. Franchet, so that the Kwa-i 
is an open book to anyone understanding 
French. I should mention, however, that it is 
necessary to learn ihe Japanese numerals — 



70 



THE GARDE NEBS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 20, 1894. 



not a very difficult task — at least up to the 
number four, in order to be able to distinguish 
the volumes. The number of the plate may be 
found in each volume by counting them from 
right to left, or the reverse of the arrangement 
European books ; that is to say, number one 
is at what we should call the end of the book. 
It would have added considerably to the value of 
Savatier's translation had he given the Japanese 
numerals, and the two signs indicating herbs 
and trees. The number of each plate, as cited 
by Franchet and Savatier and others, is on the 
verso, or back, down in the left-hand corner. In 
the Kew copy of the Kiua-i these numerals are 
often almost illegible ; but as I have said before, 
it is easy to count back to the plate wanted, 
each part or volume being separately numbered. 
The figures are all uncoloured, and although 
often defective in botanical detail, are usually so 
characteristic in habit as to enable one to recog- 
nise or identify the plant intended. As draw- 
ings they are unequal, some being highly 
artistic, others somewhat crude. The trees, 
especially, are admirably illustrated, the details 
of the leaves, as Mr. Dickins remarks, being 
most accurately rendered. I may add, that the 
Ivew copy was presented by Mr. Diokirn. 

2. So/noku Zusetsu, or Illustrations and Descriptions 
of Plants, 1856. — This work possesses a great ad- 
vantage over the Kwa-i. In the first place, the 
Latin names are usually given on the plates ; not 
always quite correctly, but sufficiently so to be quite 
intelligible. Then, from a botanical stand-point, the 
figures, as a whole, are better, often including en- 
larged coloured dissections of the flowers. For the 
rest the figures are uncoloured. There are twenty 
parts or volumes, each separately numbered, 
and containing, in all, figures of about 1200 
species of herbaceous plants, excluding grasses and 
Sedges and Ferns, arranged according to the Lin- 
nean system of classification. It appears that it was 
the author's intention to publish another twenty 
volumes treating of trees and shrubs ; but he did 
not live to accomplish it, though Franchet states 
that he had good authority for knowing that he 
left much material prepared ready for publication, 
and it was hoped that the Japanese Government 
would publish it. That hope, however, has not 
been realised. I do not propose entering into de- 
tails, because this is the most accessible of Japanese 
books to Europeans ; but some idea of its scope 
may be gathered from the fact that there are eighty- 
five figures of Orchids, whereas Franchet and 
Savatier enumerate only sixty-seven species for the 
whole of Japan. Of course, it does not follow that 
these eighty- five figures represent as many different 
species. Several of them are unnamed, and some 
merely referred to the order Orchidea;. 

3. Honzh Zufil, or Illustrated Flora of Japan, 1828. 
— Horticultural^, this is by far the most interesting 
of the three Japanese works cited by Franchet and 
Savatier in their Enmneratio, where the title is trans- 
lated, a " Botanical Treatise, with Plates." Com- 
plete copies of the HonzT, Zufu are rare and costly. 
Indeed, it is difficult to procure a copy, even in 
Japan. Kew is indebted to Mr. Tokutaro Ito, 
F.L S., a Japanese gentleman (who came to England 
to study a few years ago), for an excellent copy. 
The entire work consists of ninety-six parts, or thin 
volumes, each with the folded leaves separately 
numbered, and each containing from twenty to 
thirty coloured figures, making a total of about 
two thousand. Tne drawing and colouring is very 
unequal in merit, yet some of it admirable. The 
arrangement is arbitrary, but the species of a genus 
and plants of a similar character are in some in- 
stances brought together. On the other hand, in 
some of the volumes there is a general mixture. I 
propose passing in rapid review some of the more 
interesting volumes. Both wild and cultivated 
plants are depicted. The first four volumes contain 
i) figures. In the fifth volume the almost exclu- 



sively Eastern Asiatic genus Adenophora (Campa- 
nulaceai) is illustrated by a number of beautiful 
varieties, followed by five or six varieties of Platyco- 
don grandiflorus. FigB. 23 and 21 , vol. 6, represent two 
handsome varieties of Bletia byacinthina. Volume 7 
fig. 31, is the South African Haaminthus coc:ineus. 
Some Pteonies in vol. 9 and some Tulips in vol. 11 
are worth noticing, though the former are not equal 
to what might have been expected, there being one 
variety of Pteonia Moutan and two of P. albiflora ; 
still, that of P. Moutan especially is beautifully 
drawn. Twenty pages of Chrysanthemums in 
vol. 13 illustrate a very pretty assortment, but there 
is nothing to equal the large Japanese varieties of 
the present day. It should be remembered, however, 
that they are the varieties of sixty years ago, and at 
that period far in advance of anything in Europe. 
The Cockscombs (Celosia) in vol, 15 include most 
of the varieties known in this country, both the floral 
and foliage ornamental kinds except the extremely 
dwarf true Cockscombs. Three varieties of Rehmannia, 
a pretty genus allied to the Foxgloves, are depicted 
in vol. 17 ; and it may be mentioned in passing, that 
several fine species of this genus are among the 
recent discoveries in China. A beautiful and curious 
series of varieties of Lychnis in vol. 18 deserve 
mention ; as also the Violets in vol. 20. A selection 
of varieties of Azalea in vol. 23 merits attention, 
as it includes some very singular things, especially 
some with exceedingly narrow petals. Vol. 26 is 
wholly devoted to climbing plants, belonging to a 
variety of natural orders, including the Leguminosse, 
Combretacea;, Convolvulacea;, Cucurbitacea;, Aris- 
tolochiacea;, and Bignoniaceie. Passing on to vol.27, 
we come upon some charming single and semi-double 
Roses. 

Some fine varieties of Clematis florida appear in 
vol. 29. In vol. 32 are half-a-dozen varieties of 
Wistaria sinensis, including a pure white one. 
Vol. 36 is chiefly devoted to succulents, among them 
the common Opuntia and a large- flowered Cereus, 
copied from European publications, as is also the 
Rose of Jericho in vol. 38. In vol. 39 there are 
pretty Columbines and Cypripediums ; and a number 
of varieties of Rice are figured in vol. 40, and various 
other cereals in vol. 41, among them Indian-corn and 
large Millet. A number of showy Poppies are repre- 
sented in vol. 42 ; and vols. 43, 46, and 47, contain 
almost as rich an assortment of Beans, Turnips, 
Carrots, &c, as could be found in European gardens 
at the present time. Red and white as well as yellow 
Dandelions are represented in vol. 49, whilst vol. 51 
is devoted to Lilies ; vols. 52 and 53 to Gourds, large- 
fruited Solanums, and the like ; vols. 54 to 60 to 
seaweeds and funguses, and vols. 61 to <j8 are almost 
wholly taken up with fruits, displaying such a 
variety, that a separate article would be necessary 
to give an idea of its extent. As might have been 
expected, there is a great variety of the specially 
Japanese Persimmon (Diospyros Kaki). Suffice it 
to say, that they differ as much in size, shape, and 
colouring, as our Apples do. There is also a con- 
siderable variety in the Orange family. In vol. 71 
we find a number of varieties of Grapes, mostly 
small-fruited ones, and some as small, or even 
smaller than, red and white Currants, which the 
artist has made them resemble by putting a speck of 
brown on the top. Returning to flowers, Nelum- 
bium speciosum occupies almost exclusively the 
volumes 72 to 75. This plant does not appear 
to grow wild in Japan, though it is re- 
corded as a native of China, as far north as 
Peking ; yet it appears to be, or to have been, a 
favourite under cultivation with the Japanese. The 
figures begin with the seeds, whole and in section, 
followed by germinating seeds in various stages, and 
the vegetative development and increase, while the 
later figures show the ripe fruit and decaying leaves. 
The fifty, or thereabouts, intervening ones illustrate 
a remarkable series of varieties having flowers from 
2 inches to 1 foot across, with broad or narrow 
petals, and single or double, cup-shaped or broadly- 
expanded, and pure white to rosy-purple ; others 
almost yellow or green, and various combinations 
of these colours. There are also varieties with 



striped or variegated foliage. In vol. 76 is a 
good figure of Trapella, a singular genus allied 
to Martynia> and only lately described. Vols. 77 to 79 
illustrate the Conifene, including the Cupressinea;, 
and several figures represent dimorphic foliage. 
Ginkgo or Salisburia is, however, not among them. 
In vols. 80 and 82 there is an interesting lot 
of Magnolias, followed by a number of African Pro- 
teaceai, probably copied from some European work. 
In vol. 82 there are also some brilliant examples of 
autumn tints in foliage. The remaining fourteen 
volumes, except the last, which is wholly letterpress, 
contain almost exclusively figures of trees and 
shrubs. In vol. 90 there is a selection of 
varieties of Hibiscus syriacus, covering probably 
nearly as wide a range as those grown in 
Europe; and vol. 91 consists entirely of varieties 
of Camellia japonica, of which about sixty-five are 
depicted. They include single, semi-double, and 
double of every imaginable form and colouring, and 
shape of petal ; many of them certainly very different 
from anything I have seen in this country. Single 
and semi-double varieties predominate, and they are 
to a great extent marked by irregularity in the shape 
of the petals and unBymmetrical colouring. I will 
pass on to and conclude with a few words on the 
Bamboos, which fill volumes 94 and 95. Curiously 
enough, not one is represented in flower, and 
although there is considerable variety in foliage, ic 
is the stems and stem-sheaths that present the most 
striking characteristics. The square-stemmed variety 
is there, and some with grotesquely formed stems, 
which look as if they had been produced artificially ; 
but it is in the colouring that they exhibit the 
greatest peculiarities. Possibly the artist may have 
given vent to bis fancy, as in one having alternate 
longitudinal white and bright red stripes. Green 
stems with yellow sheaths, or the latter brown, 
spotted with black ; bright yellow stems, with a 
longitudinal green band from node to node, alter- 
nating from side to side, or green mottled with dark 
brown, or wholly yellow or green — such are among 
the varieties figured. W. Botting Hcmsley. 



New or Noteworthy Plants. 



BERBER1S FREMONTI, Torr* 
Tnrs species of Berberis has been intro- 
duced lately from West Colorado by Mr. C. A. 
Purpus, who describes it as one of the finest ever- 
green shrubs, from 3 to 7 feet high, fully covered 
during May and June with well-scented yellow 
flowers, followed by a large quantity of large scarlet 
berries. 

This shrub is met with very rarely in the Grand 
Mesa up to 6500 feet. It likes sunny, rocky, well- 
drained places, and is quite hardy ; the temperature 
of the regions where it is growing goes down as far 
as 10° and 12° of Fahr. It is the only Berberis of 
the Mahonia type which has red berries. F. II. 

Asplenujm (Euasplenium) Goildinoii, Jenm., 
sp. nov. 

Stipites slender, 3 to inches long ; grey, naked, 
channelled; fronds bipinnatifid, thin, pale green, 
glabrous, truncate ; apex serrately attenuated, 10 to 
15 inches long, 3 to 5 inches wide ; pinna; spreading, 
the base truncate, equilateral, often rather enlarged, 
and nearly or quite sessile, occasionally viviparous ; 
apex serrato-acuminate, 2 to 3 inches long, & to 
$ inch wide, shallowly or deeply cut into oblique, 
conspicuously dentate, obtuse segments, 2 to 2.1- lines 
wide; veins pinnate, simple, much curved, running 
into the marginal teeth ; sori short, h to 1 line long, 
rather elevated, confined to the outer veinlets, all 
single ; involucres pale, raised, the edge barely even. 

St. Vincent, West Indies ; collected by II. II. and 
G. W. Smith. No. 1346. Rootstock not seen. Mr. 
Baker, in his enumeration of the St. Vincent Ferns, 
in Annals of Botany, has placed this under A. arbo- 
reum, Willd., from the numerous forms of which and 
its allies it differs by the equal-sided pinna;, thin 

n Torrey, in But. Mcx Bound, 30 A'oy. 



January 20, 1894.] 



THE GAB DENE US' CHRONICLE. 



n 



texture, uniformly serrated margin, short and simple 
sori confined to the outer veins. In A, arboreum the 
pinnie are invariably cut away on the inferior base, 
the sori are linear, from twice to several times longer, 
often double, the inferior veins being uniformly the 
fertile ones. Whether this is Guilding's plant 
ascribed to arboreum by Grisebach, not haviDg seen 
specimens, I am unable to judge. 

Trichojianes fruticolosum, Jenm., sp. nov. 

Bootstock filiform, wiry, free-creeping, clothed 
with blackish tomentum. Fronds plentiful, scat- 
tered, forming large wide-spreading patches, firm and 
strict in texture, but membranous, dark green, 
faintly striated, the margin deciduously stellate- 
ciliate, sub-orbicular, or more often broader than 
deep in outline, 2 to 4 lines each way, the outer edge 
more or less uneven, or incised between the sori, but 
in the young fronds even, the base rounded cuneate 
or partially or entirely cordate, passing into the 
filiform stiffish stipites, which vary from .1 to 3 lines 
long, and are clothed at the bise or throughout like 
as the rootstock. Veins very fine and close, re- 
peatedly forked, radiating from the merely rudi- 
mentary midrib at the base of the frond. Sori one 
to twelve, the involucres tubular, placed side by side 
along the broad outer margin, free, or partially or 
fully immersed, the lips rounded, and dark-edged 
the receptacles usually included. 

Britiih Guiana; found on lime walls of the old 
Dutch ruins on the small island of Kykoverall in the 
mouth of the Mazaruni River. This species is inter- 
mediate between sphenoides and punctatum. It is 
a rather stiff wiry little plant, the fronds generally 
broader than deep, rather angular, and with the 
petiole reminding one of a gridiron in shape. The 
sori are placed along the outer edge, one only in the 
smallest fronds, but varying to as many as a dozen 
in the largest ones. They are regular and uniform 
in line, and when there are several, their serried 
order on the little fronds gives the species a very 
distinct and characteristic aspect. G. S. Jenman, 
Georgetown, British Guiana. 



Orchid Notes and Gleanings. 



ODONTOGLOSSUM KBAMERI ALBIDUM. 

Odontoglossom Keamehi has extremely pretty wax- 
like, rose-tinted flowers, strongly reminding one of 
0. citrosmum, although there is no resemblance 
between the two plants in growth or habit. It is a 
very difficult plant to import, and consequently 
continues rare. 

A very charming form, with pure-white sepals and 
petals, having the base of the labellum of a bright 
yellow, and the blade of the lip of a delicate pink, is 
now in flower with Walter Cobb, Esq., Dulcote, 
Tunbridge Wells ; its beautiful and fragrant flowers 
last a long time. But few plants of this white form 
are known. There is one in the Tring Park col- 
lection, and Sir Trevor Lawrence has another, and 
that probably enumerates the number in cultivation. 
Odontoglossum Krameri wants a tolerably warm, 
shady, and moist situation, and should never be let 
get quite dry at the roots. Unless for a short time 
after the balbs are fully made up, it should be 
copiously watered. 

CcELOGYNE CORRUGATA. 

I see complaints that this, one' of the prettiest 
of our fragrant white Orchids of the hills, does not 
flower freely under cultivation, and I think a few 
remarks on the conditions under which it grows 
here may be of service to Orchid-growers in Europe, 
for with regard to its flowering freely or not, it is 
simply a question of treatment. Ccc'ogyne corru- 
gata should have no shade, or a very slight shading 
in the height of summer only. It grows here on 
the most exposed rocks, taking root in crevices and 
tufts of grass on the edge of precipices exposed to 
a three-months' drought ; in January, February, and 
March the rocks being so hot that you can hardly put 
your hand on them. Then raiD, mist, and sun mixed 



until November, followed by cold cutting winds and 
lots of hoar frost till warm March and April come 
again, and bring out their flowers in abundance. 
Aerides Lindleyanuin grows in the same way. I am 
aware that these conditions would have to be modified 
very much to suit cultivation in Europe ; but I am 
sure that by the light of this note, if properly applied, 
Ccelogyne corrugata would flower freely. l'\ G., 
Madras Presidency , India, 

South African Orchids. 
I have on one or two occasions seen in the 
Gardeners' Chronicle remarks on the Epiphytal 
Orchids of South Africa being difficult to grow in 
Great Britain, and I may mention a fact with regard 
to them, but which I fear will not suggest a certain 
remedy. We hear occasionally of Borne of the 
Madagascar Angrsecums and other Orchids being 
found habitually growing on dead trees ; but with 
regard to our species, dead wood is very distasteful, 
and in preference to growing them on logs of wood, 
it would be far safer to either pot or basket the 
plants, leaving them to take to the material in 
which they are potted, in preference to rooting over 
the wood which they do not like. Out here, our 
Epiphytes will grow more in three months planted 
on a living tree than they would in three years on 
dead wood ; in fact, if a tree in the bush that they 
are growing on dies, the Orchids on it soon die also. 
I saw in the Gardeners' Chronicle recently remarks 
on the long duration of the flowers of Polystachya 
pubescens. It is quite true. They keep in flower 
here for six or eight months at a time. W, T., 
Graham's Town, S. Africa. 

The Tyntesfield Orchids. 

To all persons interested in Orchids, the name of 
Mr. George Hardy of Timperley in Cheshire is well 
known as a collector during the last twenty or 
thirty years. A few of our mostly-prized Orchids 
have been named in compliment to him, as, for in- 
stance, the famous Cattleya X Hardyana. This 
note, however, is descriptive of the collection of that 
of his son, Mr. Fred Hardy, whose residence is 
situate at Sale, and within fifteen minutes' walk of 
the Timperley collection. A few weeks ago I had 
the pleasure of a visit, and found Mr. F. Hardy 
quite an enthusiastic lover of plants in general 
and Orchids in particular. One long house 
is divided into three compartments, at the entrance 
of which were noted a finely-grown lot of Phalic- 
nopsis, including the best varieties of P. amabilis, 
P. grandiflora, P. Schilleriana, &c. ; about forty fine 
strong spikes of bloom were showing, promising a 
floral treat for the commencement of the new year. 
In the same houBe were growing a varied collection 
of Dendrobiums, notably some remarkable pieces of 
D. Dearei, which are models of cultivation ; also 
the D. Phalienopsis Schroderianum, with good fat 
bulbs and huge flower-spikes, the varieties being 
numerous, one of which was nearly pure white, and 
of good form, known as " Tyntesfield var." Cypripe- 
diums also find a place in this portion of the house, 
and are looking well; they include many undowered 
seedlings which have good parentage, and from their 
distinct appearance promise to be good things. 

The centre portion of this house is devoted to 
Cattleyas and Lielias, and more cannot be said of 
them than that they are ' pictures of health and 
happiness." Cattleya TriaDrci seems to be much 
represented, and upwards of a hundred sheaths are 
showing. Other species, such as Mendeli, Mossia;, 
gigas, &c, were also looking well. There was in 
flower a fine lot of Cattleya labiata autumnalis, 
among which were some very distinct varieties. At 
the other end of the house, where Borne Mexican 
plants are grown, I noted what I consider some of 
the best grown plants extant of Dendrobium James- 
ianumand infundibulum ; they are remarkable for the 
length and solidity of their pseudobulbs. This may 
be worth noting by growers, as there is a difference 
of opinion as to the position most suitable for I), 
Jamesianum ; some growers house them with 
Odontoglosaums. 

The third portion of this house is devoted to 



OJontoglossums, and they thrive well. Here, as at 
Timperley, there is a Btage on either side of the 
centre walk, covered with fine white granite, above 
which is a 3-inch wooden staging, all the plants being 
stood on pots ; it gives a good circulation of air all 
around the plants, and it also assists drainage. 
There was not a large number of Odontoglossums in 
flower, but there were many fine spikes pushing up 
of O. Andersonianum, 0. luteo-purpureum,0. Pesca- 
torei, &c. The most notable Odontoglossum in this 
collection is 0. c. Wrigleyanum, which will rank 
among the best known forms. The Tyntesfield 
variety of 0. crispum is also a distinct and valuable 
plant. 0. constrictum, 0. sceptrum, O. hystrix, 0. 
maculatum, 0. cordatum, 0. Hallii, and O. Edwardii 
are well represented. This may be said to be a 
coming collection in the Manchester district. 
Viator. 



THE SEED TRADE. 

The Home and Foreign Grass and Clover 
Crops. — Messrs. Hurst & Son, of Houndsditch, 
have just issued the hoim report of the Grass and 
Clover crops, and from it we learn that the supplies 
of the various articles in the coming season are 
likely to be more than usually irregular. Bed 
Clover, Alsike, and Perennial Bye-grasses seem to 
be the most favoured crops ; while Trefoil, French 
Italian Rye-grass, and the larger proportion of the 
natural grasses are exceedingly scarce. In reference 
to English Bed Clover and Cow- grass, the excep- 
tional drought of last spring caused the hay crop in 
the country to be so very light, that farmers were 
compelled to use their Clover leys for fodder, and 
consequently hardly any maiden seed was saved. 
For the second crop, a very large acreage was left for 
seed, especially in the eastern counties, and a con- 
siderable proportion of this, it is understood, was 
saved in the finest condition, as already a good 
supply has appeared upon the markets, the yield per 
acre having proved somewhat varying, and in many 
cases disappointing to the farmer; but taking the 
whole of the districts, a much larger quantity haa 
been saved than in either of the preceding years, 
and nearly all good- coloured and well-ripened seed — 
a sample disfigured by weather will be quite an ex- 
ception. What is known as single-cut Cow-grass is 
scarce, from the fact that forage in the early summer 
was so valuable. 

In reference to supplies from abroad, it would 
seem that very little seed may be expected from 
France; a few large-grained samples at a high 
price may be obtained from the northern provinces. 
Germany has a fair crop of large-grained good- 
coloured seed. The United States and Canada have 
large crops of fine-coloured well-matured seeds; the 
Northern States and Canada Beds are particularly 
fine, and will no doubt be in considerable deiumd, 
as prices are at a moderate level to begin with. 
Messrs. Hurst & Son say, that " in the present de- 
pressed state of the agricultural interest, high prices 
seem to be anomalous ; and although we always 
advocate the purchasing of large-grained clean 
English Beds, the current prices of these appear 
almost prohibitive to many this season. It would 
therefore, be far better to buy clean States or 
Canadian than go in for so-called cheap English 
Bed, that has been brought down to a low price by 
the admixture of weedy continental seeds." 

White Clover is an under-average crop in England, 
and, as far as can be ascertained, a small crop in 
Germany. America has been able to send a mode- 
rate supply of small-grained seed, and as the 
character of the plant from American seed is robust, 
it is gradually getting into favour in this country. 
Alsike, though a small crop in England, is an average 
one in Canada and the United States ; but, as far as 
can be made known, only a moderate yield in Ger- 
many. As Trefoil is scarce, Alsike is likely to be 
used in its place. The Bcarcity of Trefoil is this 
season remarkable, and so small a crop, both in this 
country and on the Continent, has not before been 
known. Prices rule abnormally high, and the meagre 
supply promises to be exhausted before the end of 



72 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januaby 20, 1894. 



the season. Lucerne is a very small crop in all 
districts. There is a large crop of common 
English Sainfoin, but a Bmall one of the Giant. 
The French crops of both are much below the 
average. 

Italian Rye-grass is almost the smallest crop in 
France on record ; and as there was an entire clear 
oat last year, owing to the large autumn demand, a 
very limited quantity of pare seed remains. Prices 
for genuine Mayenne are very high, and it is expected 
they will advance. The Irish crop is an average 
one, and will make up the deficiency from France. 
The English crop is also small. There is a fair 
average crop of heavy-weight perennial Rye-grasses. 
The samples of the higher weights are clean and 
good ; the light-weight stocks appear to be unusually 
foul. Two yearB of extreme drought on the Con- 
tinent have caused a great deficiency in most of the 
natural grass supplies; Cock's- foot grass seemed to 
be the only exception, and for the greater portion of 
this New Zealand must be looked to. Timothy is 
under an average yield, and advances in prices may 
be expected. 

White Mustard and Rape appear to be good 
average crops ; but the large demand for Mustard 
last summer and autumn will keep prices fairly high. 



POINCIANA GILLIESII. 

As an out-of-doors shrub in the mildest parts of 
Britain, there is nothiDg which approaches Poinciana 
Gilliesii for the beauty of its yellow and scarlet 
flowers. We are indebted to the kindness of the 
Rev. H. Ewbank, St. John's, Ryde, Isle of Wight, 
for the flowering shoots from which our engraving 
(fig. 8, p. 73) was prepared, and who had a strong- 
growing example in full blossom at the end of 
the month of September, and in October last year. 

About London the plant succeeds against a warm 
wall, flowering in July, and later, according to the 
season, some slight protection being afforded it 
daring the winter. It is a native of the province 
of Mendoza, in Chile, where it is found in sheltered 
situations, between the rivers Diamante and Atuel, 
and also along the western side of the Rio Quarto. 
The flowers have a sickly smell, and are supposed 
by the common people to be injurious to the sight. 
Hence its vernacular name Mai d'Ojos. 

Leaves bipinnate, leaflets oblong, about twelve 
rows on a side ; rachis, and bracts, covered with a 
coarse brown glandular coating ; sepals fringed with 
hairs and glands, petals erect, stamens very long, 
red. 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTS AT 

BATOUM. 
Repoetinq on the commercial products of Batoum, 
Consul Stevens gives some interesting tacts in 
reference to fruits, vegetables, and forest produc- 
tions. Under the first head it is stated that fruit 
of every description grows throughout the country, 
and is very plentiful ; in fact, in many districts it 
grows wild, and is so abundant that it is allowed to 
remain on the trees until after attaining maturity, 
when it falls of its own accord, and it not picked 
up by wild beasts, rots where it nas fallen. In con- 
sequence of the prevalence of cholera, the sale of 
certain fruits, such aB Melons and Figs, with which 
the markets are simply glutted, has been strictly 
prohibited by the authorities. Vegetables during 
tne year 18113 were good, and Cauliflowers, Peas, 
Beans, Cucumbers, Cabbages, Tomatos, Asparagus, 
Mushrooms, and vegetables of every other descrip- 
tion, were very plentiful during their respective 
•easons. 

Referring to the forests, it is said that the 
mountainous districts of tne Trans-Caucasus are 
copiously furnished with large natural forests, re- 
markable for their richness, and containing trees 
of almost every kind — Oak, Pine, Walnut, Fir, 
Elm, Beech, &c, being abundant. Until recently, 
howevtr, owing to the continuous method of cutting 
down trees, the forests were being gradually exter- 
minated in places where they were easy of access. 
It seems that within the last few years the 
Government haB interfered, and put a stop to the 
reckless destruction that was being practised, by the 
introduction of measures regulating the felling of 
trees, which now haB to be carried out with Borne 
regard to the preservation of a certain number of 
trees in proportion to the size of the forest from 
which the wood is being obtained. Liquorice root, 
which grows wild in the Governments of Baku and 
Elisavetpol, is gathered and brought in by the 
inhabitants of these districts to the three liquorice 
factories situated at Elisavetpol, Liaki, and Udjari, 
which, up to la«t month, had manufactured 440 tons 
of paste, and pressed 15,531 tons of root. Both 
these quantities have already been exported to the 
United Kingdom, the United States of America, and 
France. 

Experiments in the cultivation of Tea are being 
made at Chakva, a few miles distant from Batoum, 
the climatic conditions of which place are specially 
suited for growing Tea trees. Several thousands 
of treea have recently been planted by a wealthy 
Moscow Tea merchant, who is said to be about to 
engage the servicea of experienced Chinese Tea 
p'anterB to look after his plantations. 



NOVELTIES OF 1893. 

(Continued from p. 37.) 
Messes. Sandee & Co. — In considering the 
new plants other than Orchids which have been 
shown, one turns, as it were, instinctively to 
the important Quinquennial Show at Ghent, and 
to the grand group of new plants with which 
Messrs. F. Sander & Co., of St. Albans, took the 
Medal offered by the King of the Belgians. In 
the group were two remarkable Dracaenas, viz., the 
silver-striped D. Sanderiana, which promises to be 
a good market plant; and the beautiful yellow- 
spotted D. Godseffiana. The other plants in the 
group were Ludovia crenifolia, a noble foliage plant ; 
Alsophila atrovirens, with fronds like a giant Filmy 
Fern ; Strobilanthes Dyerianus, which is regarded 
as a probably useful plant for bedding purposes, as 
well as for others in which pretty coloured foliage 
is desirable ; and Alocasia Watsoniana. Other 
new plants exhibited by Messrs. Sander at the same 
time or since are— Oreopanax Sanderiana, Alocasia 
Sanderiana nobilius, A. S. magnifica, Acalypha 
Hamiltoniana, Maranta Leonioe, Corypha Wogani, 
Asparagus albanensis, and Salmia Laucheana. 

MM. Linden. 
At the Bame exhibition Messrs. Linden, l'Horti- 
culture Internationale, Brussels, ixhibited many 
new plants, among them being Tradescantia bu- 
perba, T. Regince, Stenandrium Lindeni, Hsemanthus 
Lindeni, Stnilax argjraea, Cyrtosperma ferox, Cu- 
pania elegans, Begonia Lansbergii, Anthurium 
Wambeckeanum, &c. 

Messes. Veitch. 
The new plants contributed by Messrs. James 
Veitch & Son are principally the result of their 
careful hybridisation. Among them are two very 
fine Nepenthes — N. mixta (Northiaa X Curtisii) and 
N. Ameaiana (Rufllesiana X Ilookeriana) ; Aglao- 
nema pumilum and Dracaena Jamesii, two excellent 
foliage plants ; Pteris longifolia Mariesii, an elegant 
new form of an old species ; Didymocarpus lacunosa, 
a pretty Gesnerad from Penang ; and following up 
their effortB to obtain a good type of large-flowered, 
winter- blooming Begoniaa, begun so promisingly in 
their B. John Heal, they have raised and proved a 
grand strain and named it B. Mrs. John Heal. Of 
their renowned strain of AmarylliB the new ones 
certificated were Socrates, Vedette, Eldorado, and Co- 
rinna, all fine deep crimson selfs with no eye ; Excel- 
lent, a rich rose colour ; Nimrod, one of the largest in 
size ; and Syren and Renown, both good. Of green- 
house Rhododendrons, Yellow Gem, Ariel, Ceres, 
Primrose, Ajax, Aphrodite, Princess Beatrice, and 
Balsamiflorum Rajah, a fine fawn-yellow double, 
are fine novelties. The intercrossing of those useful 
flowers the Streptocarpus, has now been performed, 



with results which are very near to perfection in so 
far aa regards the colour of the flower, and the strain 
of Messrs. J. Veitch & Sons was awarded a Silver 
Cup at the laat Temple Show. The crossing of 
Phyllocactus is also giving good results, the last two 
of Messrs. Veitch, P.x Plato and P. xNiobe, being 
very brilliant flowers. Other good plants for which 
Messra. Veitch received certificates, are Magnolia 
stellata rosea, M. hypoleuca, and Veronica Purple 
Queen, the last-named a compact, free- flowering 
plant. 

Mb. W. Bull. 

Among his novelties in plants Mr. Wm. Bull, of 
Chelsea, enumerates Heliconia illustris, a beautiful 
foliage plant, probably furnished with showy flowers ; 
Vriesia purpurescens, with deep purple leaves ; and 
Philodendron notabile, and Aglaonema veraioolor, 
two fine Aroida ; Selaginella usta, a very distinct 
species ; and three very fine Davallias. 

Messes. B. S. Williams & Son. 
Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son, Victoria and Para- 
dise NurBeries, Holloway, always Btrongin Amaryllis 
and Cliveiaa, had very handsome new varieties in 
Amaryllis Lord Roberts, A. Joseph Chamberlain, 
and A. Lady Ardilaun ; and Cliveia Prince ol Oiange 
and C. Scarlet Gem, two of the most brilliant of the 
forma of C. miniata yet introduced. Dracaena Coul- 
lingii, D. " H. S. Milner," D. Lord Wolseley, Cara- 
guata cardinalis and Poinsettia pulcherrima variegata, 
all appear in Messrs. Williams' collection. The Poin- 
settia has been previously favourably noticed, and is 
now in a fair way of becoming appreciated by culti- 
vators, the pretty green and white foliage forming a 
pleasing setting to the brilliant heads of bracts. 

Messes. J. Laing & Co. 

While continuing to improve their fine strains of 
tuberous- rooted Begonias, Messrs. John Laing & 
Son, nurserymen, Forest Hill, S.E., are enabled to 
add novelties to their already fine stock of Cala- 
diums, and in both of these genera the past year 
brought them many awards at exhibitions ; and 
beaidea theae plants, Chrysanthemums, Crotons, and 
Dracaenas are some of the specialties in which 
Messrs. Laing were successful in obtaining awards. 
Their Gloxinia Princess May is certainly one of 
the best erect pure whites extant. Dracaena in- 
divisa aureo-variegata received an Award or Merit 
in July last, and AtocaBia Chantrieri in Ojtober. 

Miscellaneous. — Various fine plants, either intro- 
duced or brought into prominence for the first time in 
1893, and which are entitled to honourable mention, 
are the fineEucharisLowiiandLiliumLowiiofMessrs. 
Hugh Low & Co.; Lilium Alexandiae (Ukeyuri), by 
Messra. Veitch, of Chelsea, Wallace, and others ; 
the neat little Primula Forbesii, so well shown by 
Sir Trevor Lawrence ; the charming Japanese 
Schizocodon soldanelloides of Captain Torrens ; the 
very extraordinary Pitcher-plant, Dischidia Raflles- 
iana, flowered at Kew ; the violet-like Saintpaulia 
ionantha, first shown by Herr Wendland at Ghent ; 
the handsome winter-flowering and foliage Begonias 
Gloire de Sceaux and Gloire de Lorraine, so well 
shown by Mr. John Jennings, gardener to Leopold 
de Rothschild, Esq., who for his beautiful exhibit of 
the former at the Royal Horticultural Society's 
meeting in January last year took both a First-class 
Certificate and a Silver Medal ; the glowing Robb 
Crimaon Rambler of Mr. Charles Turner, which 
should occupy a place in every garden, large and 
small ; the showy and hardy Scopolia carniolica 
Hladnikiana of Messrs. Paul & Son, Cheshunt, who 
have also shown fine new Amaryllis and flowering 
Cannas ; Helianthus rigidus "Miss Mellish," Bhown 
by the Rev. W. Wilks, and which is a stately and 
extraordinarily robuBt new variety. 

Of new Carnations, were a number of beautiful 
things raised and exhibited by Martin R. Smith, 
Esq., Hayes Common, Beckenham (gr., Mr. C. 
Blick). Among these were some very fine additions 
to the Souvenir de la Malmaison Bection, giving that 
favourite class almoBt as wide a range of colour as 
the perpetual flowerers have. Other fine new Car- 
nations are the large and full yellow Pride of Great 



January 20, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



73 



Britain of Messrs. Ware of Tottenham ; Duke of 
York, delicata, and Uriah Pike, of Mr. H. B. May ; 
Mrs. Leopold de Kothschild, shown by Mr. Rey- 
nolds ; King of Crimsons of Mr. Douglas, and Mrs. 
Apsley Smith of Mr. Charles Turner. 

Ferns. — These plants, deservedly favourites, are 
steadily advancing in demand, both as decorative 
plants to grow, use, and then when no longer beautiful, 



Messrs. Birkenhead. 
Messrs. W. & J. Birkenhead, of Sale, Manchester, 
whose extensive nurseries are practically devoted to 
Fern culture, and who possess species not found in 
other places, have in 1893 contributed to the list of 
novelties — Adiantum "manuatum," a pretty thing. 
Certificated at the Fern Conference this year; 
Davallia fijiensis elegans, at the [last Temple Show; 



with large fronds and small pinnules, like a major 
form of A. gracillimum ; Asplenium serra var. 
natalensis, a beautiful and BtatelyFern, useful for all 
purposes ; and several new British Ferns. 

Mr. H. B. May. 
Mr. H. B. May, of Edmonton, whose frequent 
exhibits of fine and varied groups of rare Ferns at 




FlO. 7. — POINCIANA QILLIESII : HALF-HAEDY SHRUB, YELLOW AND SCARLET. 



to throw away, and as plants for planting in ferneries, 
conservatories, and greenhouses. The trade in them 
has in the past year received a good lift by reason of 
the orders of the Cape nurserymen, who are fond of 
Ferns, and have gladly availed themselves of the re- 
laxation in the vexatious and useless Phylloxera 
laws, allowing of their again introducing plants with 
soil about their roots. 



Gymnogramma decompo9ita robusta, a giant gold 
Fern, and probably intermediate between G. chryso- 
phylla and G. decomposita, though much Btronger 
than either ; G. Parsonsii elegans. a free-grown form 
of the type, with fronds about 1J foot in length, 
tasselled and crested ; Adiantum capillus-veneris 
gracile, a beautiful form with lightly-arranged pin- 
nules ; A. Hodgkinsoni, a very handsome variety 



the Royal Horticultural Society's meetings are so 
familiar to visitors, has also been diligent in the 
production of new and improved forms of the so- 
called Market Ferns. Of these the Pteris serrulata 
var. gigantea, for which Mr. May reoeived an Award of 
Merit in January last, seems the perfection of a 
decorative Fern. It is free in habit, elegant in the 
arrangement of its fronds, quickly makes a saleable 



74 



THE GARDENERS 1 CHRONICLE. 



[January 20, 1891. 



plant, and if grown on forms a noble specimen. Mr. 
May also received awards daring the year for several 
very rare Ferns not new, and his groups are always 
admired, not only for the general excellence of the 
plants, bat for the number of rare species contained 

in them. 

Florists' Flowers. 

The Chrysanthemums, Begonias, &c, have received 
many additions during 1893. Those indefatigable 
raisers and distributors of good showy flowers, either 
as plants or seeds, Messrs. H. Cannell & Sons, Swan- 
ley, Kent, being well to the front in this section. 
The Dahlia found worthy exponents in Messrs. 
Ware of Tottenham, Keynes, Williams & Co. 
of Salisbury, Turner of Slough, and Cheal & Sons. 
In Chrysanthemums, Mr. R. Owen, Floral Nursery, 
Maidenhead, took a strong lead with a very 
large number of sterling novelties ; and Mr. N. 
Davis, Jas. Veitch & Sons, and others had good 
certificated new kinds. Barr & Son, and others con- 
tinue to show fine collections of the favourite Nar- 
cissus, with some novelties in these pretty flowers. 
In new forms of Gladiolus, Messrs. Kelway & Son, 
of Langporr, continue as usual to show improved 
varieties ; and in the same field Messrs. Burrell & Co., 
of Cambridge, by their fine exhibits at the Royal 
Horticultural Society's show at the Agricultural Hall, 
and elsewhere, proved themselves adepts in cross- 
ing these plants. Among other improvements may 
be noted the "Netted Queen" sections of Gloxinias 
worked up by Messrs. Sutton & Son, Reading ; and the 
handsome-flowered Cannas>hich are steadily gaining 
favour, and which have been specially taken up 
by Messrs. Paul & Son, Cheshunt, Messrs. Cannell 
& Son, and Vilmorin & Co., of Paris. All the other 
classes of plants seem to have been equally well ex- 
ploited, but enough have been cited to prove good 
progress. 

The following novelties, in addition to the Orchids 
enumerated in oar former issue, have been illustrated 
in the Gardeners' Chronicle during the past year : — 

Alocasia Watsoniana, May 13, p. 569. 

Anthurium Wambekianum, Nov. 4, p. 557. 

Azalea mollis, Anthony Koster, April 29, p. 513. 

Begonia Gloire de Sceaux, July 15, p. 67. 

Canna L. E. Bailey and Madame Crozy, Oct, 7, 
p. 425. 

Cunna Madame de l'Aigle and Jacquemet Bon- 
neford, Oc'. 7, p. 433. 

Didymocarpus lacanosa, Aug. 19, p. 211. 

Dischidia Rafflesiana, Sept. 23, p. 368. 

DracEena Sanderiana, April 15, p. 445. 

Eucharis Lowii, May 6, p. 539. 

Hoemanthus Lindeni, April 22, p. 483. 

Lilium Alexandra; (Ukeyuri), Aug. 26, p. 243. 

Lilium Lowii, July 29, p. 121. 

Ludovia crenifolia, April 15, p. 443. 

Nepenthes x mixta, Jan. 14, p. 47. 

Oreopanax Sanderiana, April 15, p. 451. 

Primula Forbesi, Dec. 2, p. 685. 

Pritchardia Vuylstekeana, March 18, p. 331. 

Salmia Laucheana, April 22, p. 481. 

Saintpaulia ionantha, June 10, p. 685. 

Schizocodon soldanelloides, April 8, p. 415. 

Scopolia Hladnikiana, April 8, p. 419 | 

Senecio sagittifolins, March 25, p. 355. 

Smilax argyrtee, April 22, p. 475. 

StreptocarpuB hybrids, Sept. 2, p, 265. 

Rose Crimson Rambler, Aug. 19, p. 215. 

Tradescantia R giruc, April 22, p. 481. 



Vegetables. 



EARLY AND MAIN CROP PEAS. 

I should like to say a few words respecting the 
sorts of Peas that did best hpre during the very dry 
season of 1893. The position of the gardens is good, 
and slopes towards the south, so, naturally, we get a 
'air amount of sun, and the soil, which is heavy, 
becomes very hard in dry weather. Still, I may say 
the putseaBon has bpen favourable to the Pea crops, 
but we ran short of water in the hot dry weather, 
and could spare very little for watering outside. 



I picked my first dish of Peas from Veitch's 
Selected Early and Lightning on May 12 ; these 
were sown outdoors on December 9, for I never sow 
any in pots or turves, as I think it frequently occurs 
they get a check, and are but little earlier than the 
others. They were sown with Exonian and Chelsea 
Gem, but the two first were ready to pick at the 
same time, and Exonian a few days later, and I con- 
sider this a grand early Pea. Chelsea Gem did very 
well, and was a week later than Exonian, growing 
about 18 inches high. All four varieties bore 
splendid crops. I have sown Peas in trenches for 
some time, but last year, the ground having been 
well manured and dug deeply some time before 
sowing, I took the drills out with a spade, and sowed 
the Peas in the ordinary way, and I am of opinion 
they did better than in trenches. The sides of 
trenches in heavy ground get hard, and the roots 
become restricted to the trenches. Trenches may 
answer well in light soils. 

For second early I sowed William I., and it suc- 
ceeded my first lot very closely, and was followed by 
Duke of Albany, which is one of the best Peas in 
cultivation. I much prefer Peas that grow from 
4 to 6 feet in height for main crop, Duchess was 
tried along with the preceding one ; but if the Duke 
of Albany is grown, the other may readily be dis- 
pensed with, as there is but little difference between 
them. Dr. Maclean was excellent, but Telephone 
could only be picked during a fortnight. Stratagem 
and Sharpe's Queen gave but poor returns. High- 
clere Surprise 1 consider a good Pea and a wonderful 
cropper. 

I make two or three sowings of that splendid Pea, 
Goldfinder; its colour when cooked is dark green, 
and it is an enormous cropper. This, and Ne Plus 
Ultra were sown together for late crop, but Gold- 
finder is much the best Pea, and cropped until the 
end of October. Autocrat is a good Pea where it suc- 
ceeds, but is not a Pea suitable to all places. It did 
very well here lastyear, and continued in bearing along 
time, but sometimes it has been a complete failure. 
Among new Peas, Alderman proved to be a grand 
addition, a'good cropper,ofexcellentflavour, and splen- 
did for exhibition. I may say the same of Magnum 
Bonam, which grew 4 feet high, and the haulm was 
covered with splendid pods. Daisy I did not succeed 
with. F. Q. 0., Lifton Park Gardens. 



The Week's Work. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By John Lambert, Gardener, Powis Castle, Welshpool. 
TUBEROUS BEGONIAS.— Look over the stock of 
these, and if the number is likely to be less than 
the requirements, introduce plants of the required 
varieties into heat, to grow and furnish shoots fit 
for cuttings. Care must be taken that the soil does 
not get too wet, or the heat too strong, or decay of 
the tubers will be set up. Seed of Begonias may be 
sown at this season, especially if plants are required 
for bedding- out this year. Make use of well-drained 
pans or shallow boxes, filling these with finely- 
sifted leaf-soil and loam, and some powdered 
charcoal; on the top place a layer of silver-sand, on 
which, after watering the pots, sow the seed, and 
cover with a piece of glass. The seed-pans, &c, 
should be placed in a bottom-heat of 80°. 

GENERAL WORK — This will consist of examining 
the roots of Dahlia, Canna", Lobelia cardinalis, and 
Gladiolus, and making sure that they are well-pro- 
tected against frost. If shrubs have been recently 
transplanted, see that the roots are protected by a 
mulch of strawy litter from frost. 

PROPAQATINQ — Tropreolum Mrs. Clibran is a 
bedding plant that requires a lot of workiDg up, and 
no stock of it is over plentiful in any garden as 
yet. This plant I find to be a very good substitute 
for Calceolaria floribunda, not quite so effective at a 
distance, but lasting in flower a longer time, in fact, 
till killed by frost. If the plant is not fastidious as 
to soil, it will be a good substitute for the rather 
troublesome Calceolarias. 

LOBELIA 8PECIOSA will also require attention 
if a good strain has to be worked up from cuttings. 
If carefully selected, this plant improves year by 
year, and it is easy to raise plants from cuttings. 

COLEUS VER3CHAFELTII of suitable varieties 
may also be propngated at this season ; the same 
kind of soil and treatment as that adviBed laot week 
will suit them. The soil in the cutting-pots should 
be finely-oifted lea'-mould and peal , andshould have a 



surfacing of silver-sand. The cuttings of these and 
other tender subjects liable to injury from cold should, 
if possible, be made, and put into the cutting-pot in 
the propagating-house, or pit itself, if no heated 
dotting-shed exists. 

ALTERNANTHERA CUTTINQS may now be taken, 
and in doing so, avoid those plants that show any 
tendency to flowering, or look stunted. Some gar- 
deners prefer to strike Alternantheras on beds in 
frames, and where very large numbers are wanted, 
this method has its advantages. Ours are struck in 
pots, and transplanted into frames that have been 
used for Winter Violets. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By T. Tubtox, Gardener, Maiden Erlegh, Beading. 
COB AND FILBERT NUTS. — If a sheltered 
position can be given to Cobs and Filberts, no 
more regular and remunerative crop can be had. 
The shelter should be from the north and east, and 
it is best afforded by a wood or belt of trees at a 
short, though not too short, distance from them. 
When making a plantation of these Nuts about 
twelve years ago, I was able to afford them sach a 
position, and since the trees came into bearing they 
have borne heavy crops of Nuts each season. The 
catkins appear early, and unless thus protected, in 
some seasons they may be all killed with frost. The 
soil the trees are planted in here is the stiffest of clay. 
The ground was well trenched, and when the trees 
had been planted and the ground had settled, the top 
spit was removed and used for top-dressing the 
orchard, being replaced with road-scrapings, which 
had been stored for twelve months, and other 
light soil, in order that hoeing might be more 
easily effected in the summer. As Filberts do not 
always produce sufficient catkins to fertilise their 
own flowers, the Cosford — an excellent and prolific 
Cob, and also a tall grower — was planted among 
them, in order to ensure more pollen, which has 
answered extremely well. The trees should have 
clean stems about 2 feet high, and all suckers should 
be cleanly and regularly removed. Trees raised 
from cuttings made from strjight, firm young wood, 
with all the lower buds taken out in the same way 
as Currants, give less suckers than those raised from 
suckers or from layered branches. 

PRUNING. — In the case of trees which have bsen 
allowed some degree of extension, thin out weak 
sprays L from the centre, keep the heads well open, 
and remove any crossing branches whilst yet young, 
or they will be much missed if taken out when they 
have become larger. Regard must at the same time 
be given to the number of catkins now showing, 
and if they are scarce, preserve as many as 
possible. It is, however, on the better-ripened wood 
that the catkins and the fruit-bloom appear ; and by 
keeping the heads open to admit all possible air and 
light, a more fruitful wood is obtained. In planting 
Nuts, the trees should not be less than 12 feet apart ; 
and to maintain well-balanced symmetrical heads, 
any branches disposed to grow too strongly should 
be shortened back, but not more than one or two 
should be so treated in one season. Among Filberts, 
the White and Red-skinned and the Frizzled are 
good sorts ; and among Cobs, Cosford and Webb's 
Prizs, or Kentish Cob, in which I fail to see any 
difference, are all the sorts it is necessary to grow. 

GENERAL WORK. — Daring frosty weather prepare 
stakes for Raspberries and other fruit trees. By 
painting them with gas-tar, so that the tarred portion 
rises about 6 inches above the surface of the ground, 
they will be much preserved; and the tar having had 
a season to get thoroughly set, no damage from its 
use need be feared. See to the labels on trees, that 
the wire with which they are suspended is not grip- 
ping the branches at all, but if they are, move 
them to smaller branches. Recently-planted trees 
that have still the nursery or other perishable 
labels, Bhould be furnished with more durable ones. 
Bear in mind that procrastination in this matter 
leads to losing the names of varieties, and hence to 
much of the interest attached to hardy-fruit growing. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By J. F. M'Lkod, Gardener, Djvcr House, Bothampton. 
ASPIDISTRA LURIDA VARIEGATA.— Where there 
is a scarcity of this useful plant, or when they 
have outgrown the purposes for which they are 
required, a stock may soon be established by dividing 
them, which may be done somewhat severely, as each 
leaf with about an inch of root or rhizome attached 
will form a new plant. Place these singly into 
small pots, and afford them accommodation in the 



January 20, 1894 ] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



75 



propagating case, where active growth will soon take 
place. The soil on this occasion should consist of 
one part of loam, one of leaf-mould, and one of eand ; 
but after having become established, I would recom- 
mend the following as being less liable to promote a 
strong coarse growth, and destroy the variegation, a 
characteristic of this subject which adds so much to 
its value as a decorative subject. This compost 
consists of one part turfy-loam, one part lime- 
rubbish, one part broken oyster-shell, and one part 
charcoal, which should be passed through a J-inch- 
meshed sieve. 

REPOTTING FERNS.— When work of this kind is 
in contemplation, the present is a good time to do 
it, Ferns not being so very fastidious as to when 
repotting is done, provided they are supplied with a 
suitable compost. If the collection is a large one, 
and a thorough overhaul of the plants be decided 
on, notes should be made of the sizes of the pots 
required, so as to afford the gardener an adequate idea 
on which to calculate the quantity of soil he will 
require. This should consist of loam, peat, sharp 
sand, and leaf-mould in equal parts, and about 
£ part of ground charcoal, the whole to be passed 
throngh a ;V-inch-meshed sieve. In potting, the 
soil may be made moderately firm by being rammed, 
and when the pot is filled to within | inch of the 
rim a sprinkling of sand should be thrown over the 
surface, for besides giving the plant a clean bright 
appearance, it proves troublesome to the snails by 
adhering to their foot when on their nightly peram- 
bulations. 

ZONAL PELARGONIUMS. — To provide a show of 
these flowers in the late summer months, cuttings 
ought now to be put in, the blooms which will follow 
those which were rooted last autumn. These 
latter will at this season be in need of a change 
into small pots. Short jointed cuttings are best, 
being made about 3 inches in length, and placed in 
48-pots, putting as many round the sides of the pots 
as possible without crowding them, and leaving 
those in the middle at rather wide distances apart. 
The soil should be sandy loam or any kind that will 
hold a nice ball of it together about the roots when 
lifted. After receiving a good watering, place the 
pots on a shelf in a warm greenhouse, and let them 
remain there till the cuttings are rooted. 

FORCING HOUSE.— Plants of Azalea mollis, A. 
indica, and the Ghent varieties, Spirooa, japonica, S. 
palmata, and that lovely novelty, S. astilboides, 
Staphylea colchica, Daphne Cneorum, Tulips 
and Hyacinths, should be introduced, and where the 
flowers show colour remove them without delay to a 
cool and less moist house. A pinch of seed of the 
different varieties of Celosia plumosa, Solanum 
virgatnm, and the Egg plant may be sown. Begonias 
of the Rex type may now be propagated from the 
leaves, and the finer forms of the Continental varie- 
ties from side shoots, as these make much nicer 
plants than those from tops, and root in half the 
time. Statice profusa, a much-neglected subject, 
may be put into warmth of 50° with a view to 
getting cutting?, choosing any old scraggy plant, for 
the purpose. 

THE OBCHID HOUSES. 

By W. H. White, Orchid Grower, Burford Lodge, Dorking. 

CALANTHE8. — From the middle of the month 
of November to the present time, the different 
varieties of Calanthe of the vestita section hare 
been in. bloom, and as many of them will now be 
passing out of flower, their short period of rest may 
be said to have commenced. It will now be 
necessary to thoroughly harden and mature the 
pseudobulbs, so that when the growing season comes 
lound they may start with increased vigour. Imme- 
diately the spikes are cut, water should be entirely 
withheld, and as the plants are no longer useful for 
decoiative purposes, they may be placed on a dry 
shelf in the same house in which they have been 
growing, close to the roof-glass, where they will 
obtain the benefit of uninterrupted sunlight. Light 
and pure air they require just as much when at rest 
as when growing, Such Calanthes of the C. Reg- 
nierii section as C. nivalis, C. Sanderiana, C. Wil- 
liamsii, and C. Stevensii, that always bloom during 
the spring months, must still be afforded water occa- 
sionally, to help them to perfect their flowers, which, 
when open, show off to the best advantage when 
the plants are stood upon the ground and intermixed 
with Maidenhair Ferns. By arranging them in this 
way the beauty of the flowers is more distinguish- 
able (owing to their upward inclination), and their 
strong arching spikes produce a charming effect. 



SPATHOGLOTTIS AUREA. — Amongst tropical 
terrestrial Orchids the above holds a prominent 
position, its bright canary-yellow flowers being very 
handsome. When in full growth, the plant delights 
in strong heat, with abundance of moisture, both 
at the root and in the air, and an elevated position 
in the stove or East Indian-house will suit its require- 
ments admirably. As this species will be now in 
bloom, or showing its bloom-spikes, water at the 
root must be carefully regulated, for if too much be 
afforded at this critical time the flower-spikes are 
apt to damp off. As soon as the plant has finished 
flowering, afford it rest by diminishing (he quantity 
of water, only just sufficient to prevent undue 
shrivelling being applied. 

ZYGOPETALUM MACKAYI.— Plants passing out 
of flower should be repotted or top-dressed as may be 
required. Fibry loam, chopped moss, and plenty 
of broken crocks, well mixed together, form a suit- 
able compost for them to root in. For a consider- 
able time I had some difficulty in getting this species 
to do well, but after repeated trials in various 
divisions, it was placed in the warm stove, where it 
now grows and blooms satisfactorily. 

SOBRALIA MACRANTHA — This gorgeous plant 
will now be pushing up its strong flowering breaks, 
and in order to afford all the light possible, cut away 
all the last season's flowering shoots down to the 
roots, and tie out the new growths clear of each 
other. Dryness at the root must be avoided always— 
in fact, this species may be treated almost as a semi- 
aquatic plant. To those who possess more than one 
plant a good plan is to grow one in the intermediate- 
house, and the other in the cool-house, so as to pro- 
long the flowering season, and by adopting this 
method we bad last year an almost continuous supply 
of S. macrantha blooms from May until September. 

FRUITS UHDEH GLASS. 
By Bailly Wadds, Gardener, Birdsall Gardens, Yoik. 
EARLY MELONS. — Seeds for early crop may now 
be sown in the same manner as advised for Cucum- 
bers, care being taken when potting or planting- out 
not to cover up the stems of plants, but to keep the 
roots near the surface, so as to avoid any danger 
from canker being induced. Good varieties are Pre- 
mier and Suttons' Al scarlet-fleshed, white-fleBhed 
Best of All, Countess, green- fleshed Golden Per- 
fection, and Eastnor Castle. 

TOMATO SEED of approved varieties should now 
be sown in heat; 5 or 6-inch pots may be used for 
this purpose, covering the seed well with fine soil 
about one-tenth of an inch, plunging the seeding- 
pots in bottom-heat, and covering with a bit of glass. 
When the seeds have sprouted, place them as near 
the glaBs as possible, potting off into small pots when 
large enough, i.e., when two or three true leaves are 
made. After having got them established in the 
pots, place them in a warm, airy house. Good 
varieties for potting or planting-out are Horsford's 
Prelude, Trophy, and Greengage. Horsford's is a very 
early variety, a good setter, and bright in colour, 
not very large fruits, but it may be depended 
upon for both early and late use. For producing 
heavy crops of fruits of good flavour, Trophy is one 
of the best. The yellow varieties are not much 
in demand, and Greengage is one of the best of them. 
Seedling plants raised at this season are prefer- 
able to cuttings struck in the autumn, and cuttings 
struck in the summer are excellent for giving a 
supply until the end of January. A few plants 
struck in July and August and grown on in 10-inch 
pots, keeping the plants to one stem each, will give 
satisfaction as a rule. They do not set their fruits 
very well from October till daylight begins to 
lengthen. For fruiting in the summer, plant- 
ing out under glass in any form is to be preferred, as 
it causes less labour, and the returns are very satis- 
factory. If there is no permanent trellis in the 
house or pit, a temporary one is easily made with 
tar-string. 

PINEAPPLES.— As the daylight increases, an 
increase in the day temperature, 5° to 10° with sun- 
heat, and some additional atmospheric moisture, may 
be afforded fruiting Queens and other varieties that 
were started last month for early summer fruiting ; 
and if none are yet started, no time should now be 
lost, selecting those plants that have a distinct period 
of rest, and which have a rosette of short leaves in 
the centre in preference to those that do not exhibit 
this feature. Before plunging the plants in bottom- 
heat, which should be about 85°, scrape off some of 
the soil on the top of the bal', and replace it with 
rich loam, pressing it firmly about the collar, and, 
indeed, all over, but not employing a potting-stick. 
An application of tepid manure- water will be 



advisable for all plants that are not in a very dry 
condition. Those which are in thie state should 
get at first only clear water. Night temperature, 65° ; 
by day, 75° to 85°, maintaining the house in a genial 
moist state, neither too arid nor the reverse. 

8UCCE88ION plants should be examined, repotting 
those that are found to be very well rooted. Those 
intended for shifting should be thoroughly watered a 
few days previously. For potting these plants, use 
rich turfy loam that has been kept dry and warm, 
and clean well-drained pots. The majority of these 
will not require shifting for a few weeka yet. 

SUCKERS, until the days are longer, should 
be kept quiet and not encouraged to grow much, 
a bottom heat of about 70 c will be sufficient 
for them ; night temperature 60°, day temperature 
65° to 70° with air during Bunny weather. 
Where the planting-out system ia practised, strong 
selected suckers and well-rooted should be used for 
planting out about 2 feet apart, in a compost of turfy 
loam, with a good addition of dry cow-dung and bone- 
meal. Water sparingly for a time if the soil is 
moist. Charlotte Rothschild is an excellent variety 
for this system, one of the principal requisites for 
which is to have a number of small beds well- heated 
with hotwater-pipes, and valves to regulate as re- 
quired. For a small establishment, a span-roof 
house, 75 by 20 feet, divided into three divisions of 
25 feet each, with path down the centre or round the 
sides, would make a useful house. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By A. Coombes, Gardener, Ilimley Hall, Dudley. 
ROTATION OF CROPS.— A plan of cropping the 
garden should now receive attention. I do not 
always adhere to a strict system, but the aim 
should be to change the positions of the crops as 
much as possible. It is unnecessary to fix the 
exact place for everything, but the position of all the 
principal crops should be decided upon, so that pre- 
parations may be made for them. The majority of 
gardeners have their own methods, and mine gener- 
ally are as given below. The laud is manured 
heavily for Onions, and when this crop is off the land, 
it is planted, without any more digging, with Cab- 
bages, these being in their turn followed by the main 
crop of Celery, which again prepares the land without 
any further manuring for such roots as Beet, Carrots, 
and Parsnips. Brussels Sprouts, which we grow in 
large quantity, have an intermediate crop of Cos 
Lettuce or some quick-growing kind of Turnip sown 
between the rows, which crops are taken belore the 
Sprouts need all that space. The main crop of Potatos 
always follow Brussels Sprouts, and rows of Peas 
and Beans are placed singly or two rows together 
between other crops. Cauliflowers are placed where 
the soil is the heaviest, the second early ones being 
followed by Leeks. The borders are reserved for early 
Potatos, early crops of Turnips, Dwarf Peas, French 
Beans, dwarf kinds of Savoys, Spinach, Salads. 

PEAS. — In early districts in gardens which have 
light soil, in fine weather make a sowing upon a 
sunny border of such varieties as Chelsea Gem, 
Sutton's Al, or William Hurst. If the ground was 
dug some time previously, it will Buifice to make 
drills with a broad hoe, a board being used to stand 
upon if the soil be in the least degree sticky. Sow 
thickly, and scatter over the seed a good dressing of 
Boot to protect it from mice and other enemies ; 
cover with worn-out Boil from the potting-bench, and 
fill the drill with the staple soil. If the border is 
not dug, it is the better plan to sow Peas whilst 
the work of digging is proceeding. The distance 
to allow between the rows will depend on the 
nature of the Boil and the position of the garden ; 
if the conditions are conducive to a free growth, 
3 feet apart will not be too much space. In less- 
favoured districts or upon cold soils, nothing is 
gained by sowing thus early out- of-doors ; but should 
there be plenty of cold frames for hirdening off, it 
would be preferable to sow a fortnight hence, either 
in pots, boxes, or pieces of iron-roof spouting. I 
prefer boxes 2 feet long 6 inches wide. Whichever 
is used, pieces of loam as large as Horse-beans 
should be placed at the bottom of the boxes. The 
seeds should be afforded a temperature of .50° till tho 
plants are 3 inches high, and then the boxes removed 
to a cold frame, where frost can be excluded. 

BROAD BEANS. — Beck's Green Gem may be 
sown on a warm border, dibbling the seeds in, in 
double rows, 4 inches apart and 2 feet between the 
rows. Where the soil ia very moist, it will be better 
to cut a trench with a spade 2 inches deep, and 
having dropped the Beeds into this, cover with potting 
bench soil ; a row or two of Early LoDg Pod may 
also be sown in the open quarters. 



76 



TEE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 20, 1834. 



EDITORIAL NOTICES. 



Local News. — Correspondents will greatly oblige by sending be 
tfie Editor early intelligence of local events likely to be of 
interest to our readers, or of any matters which it is 
desirable to bring under the notice of horticulturists. 

Newspapers. — Correspondents sending newspapers should to 
careful to mark the paragraphs they wish the Editor to see. 

Advertisements should be sent to the PUBLISHER. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 



SALES 

Special Sale of Begonias, Lilies, 

s, Gloxinias, Greenhouse 

at Protheroe & Morris' 



TUESDAY, 



WEDNESDAY, Jan 



THURSDAY, 



/Spacial Salt 
OQ J Tuberoses, 
*»1 Ferns, &c. 

I Booms. 

If. 24 -j 



FRIDAY, 



Great Sale of Japanese Lilies, Palm 
Seeds, Roses, Plants, &c, at Pro- 
theroe & Morris' Rooms. 

(■Clearance Sale of the Specimen 
„.) Palms, Bay Trees, &c. at the 
Forestry Exhibition, Earl'sCourt, 
by Protheroe & Morris. 

("Orchids at Protheroe & Morris' 
. ' Rooms, Begonias, Lily of the 
"alley, Gladioli, &c at Protheroe 
Morris' Rooms. 



"\ Val 
(. &J 



CORRECTED AVERAGE TEMPERATURE FOR THE ENSU- 
ING WEEK, DEDUCED FROM THE OBSERVATIONS 
OF FORTY-THREE YEARS, AT CHISWICK.-38M. 



A MEETING of the above ad- 
Gardeners' Royal m irable Society was held at 
SS " Simpsons'." in the Strand, Lon- 
don, on Wednesday, the 17th 
inst., for the purpose of electing a number of 
gardeners and the widows of gardeners to be 
placed on the list of pensioners. Thirty-seven 
names, all approved by the Committee, and all 
worthy, were found on the list of candidates, but 
out of this number only twelve secured election, 
a deplorable fact. We append the names of these 
persons, together with the number of votes each 
received:— James Burt, 3227; Thomas Gooch, 
3051 ; John Coomber, 2002 ; Margaret Tindall, 
2034; William Pamplin, 2655; Emma Kendall, 
2620; Sarah Buokham, 2615; John Mackay, 
2408 ; Jane Niohols, 2346 ; Ann Harding, 2321 ; 
Richard King, 2300; and Francis Wood- 
ham, 2200. After the declaration of the 
votes for the candidates, a supper took 
place, at which a numerous company of the 
friends and supporters of the Institution sat 
down, N. N. Sherwood, Esq., in the chair. 
After the customary patriotic toast, " The 
Queen," the chairman spoke in suitable terms 
of the aims, prospects, and present condition of 
the Institution, adverting to the satisfactory 
state of its financial affairs, its income being 
at the present time £2700, and the expenses less 
than formerly. He nursed the hope that this 
prosperity would oontinue, and inorease as time 
went on, and as the objeots of the Institution 
became more generally known and recognised ; in 
this connection making allusion to the great 
assistance which might be rendered by gardeners 
bringing the matter to the notice of their 
employers. In conclusion, the chairman stated 
that, owing to lack of funds, twenty-four cases 
have been refused, but he hoped that the day 
would arrive when no deserving applicant would 
be refused. 

Mr. II. J. Veitch, Treasurer, proposed the 
toast of " The Executive," coupling it with the 
name of the Secretary, Mr. G. J. Ingram. 
Separating himself, he said, from that body 
for the moment, Mr. Veitch alluded to the 
valuable services rendered by those gentlemen 
in very high terms, and to the excellent oom- 
mittee, who had had the arduous tas,k of counting 
52,311 votes. 



This speoies of Pine is not a 
Pinus insignis SUCO ess in parts of the country 

and Ornamental - •■ -, , - -, .. 

Planting visited by severe trost, and the 
consequence of this is, that not- 
withstanding its beauty as a garden tree, it is 
now seldom planted, except in the milder parts of 
the South and West. It is also liable to wind- 
waving, owing to its heavy massive crown, and 
unless its roots are anohored in a rocky soil, or 
amongst rocks, it is apt to be overturned. This 
calamity befalls other trees which stand alone in 
exposed sites, and may generally be obviated by 
choosing sites that are well proteoted against the 
most blusterous winds. 

Where we have seen P. insignis doing well 
were spots or clearings inside fairly extensive 
woods of deciduous trees ; and in such positions, 
unless very damp and low-lying, the tree suffers 
neither from frost nor wind. As a matter of 
fact, and one well known to the more advanced 
school of foresters, no kind of trees make rapid 
progress when planted as isolated trees, or a few 
specimens together in places exposed to much 
wind or sunshine, trees always succeeding the 
best when associated either with their own kind 
or others. 

How many mistakes are to be found in modern 
parks and gardens of planting Conifers in small 
groups of, say, from three to six, or as solitary 
specimens. It is seldom that the growth of these 
trees is satisfactory. There is a lack of moisture 
in the soil and in the air around the trees, and 
an undue exposure of the stems to wind from every 
quarter. In a close wood these conditions give 
place to others much more favourable to develop- 
ment of stem and top. The air is moister, also 
the soil; and one tree affords protection 
to another. We allude here to woods 
planted solely for ornament and as game-pre- 
serves, and where as an essential point the 
thinning of the trees should take place at a time 
when, if left longer, injury to the form of the 
trees would aocrue ; and it should not take place 
one year earlier, or the soil would become 
exposed, and the dampness of soil and air, so 
necessary to rapid and free growth, would 
disappear. In such woods, our finer Conifers 
grow into magnificent specimens, and in many old 
gardens that are rather heavily timbered, solitary 
specimens of most kinds of trees besides Conifers 
enjoy conditions almost as favourable as those 
of moderately close woods, because the much- 
needed shelter is found in them. 

In newly laid out gardens, groups of trees are 
preferable to solitary ones, only the thinning 
should take place betimes, or before injury is 
done, and after the sheltering belts have grown 
up. Taking trees of large size out of close 
woods, and planting them in small clumps or as 
solitary specimens in wind-swept park-land, is 
another plan of beautifying (?) a new place, but 
it rarely is a success, the trees becoming stunted, 
even if they should survive the change of con- 
ditions ; and once brought into this state, free 
growth is seldom made in after years ; and in 
particular is this true of coniferous trees of all 
speoies. The employment of large trees taken 
from sheltered plantations is defensible only on 
the plea of immediate effect, young smaller trees 
oarefully planted in close groups overtaking them 
in stature in, say, ten to fifteen years. 



LAQER8TRCEMIA FL08 REaiN/E (INDICA).— In 
the magnificent flowering plant depicted in fig. 8, 
p. 77, we have one that in the tropica affords one of 
the most brilliant floral displays imaginable, and that 
is made much use of in the gardens of the Indian 
potentates, and other places in the East. The par- 
ticular plant shown in the engraving, is growing in 



the Botanic Garden of Oodeypore, and to Mr. Storey, 
the Curator of this garden, our thanks are due for 
affording us the opportunity of figuring it. The 
flowers appear on axillary peduncles, usually forming 
panicles at the tips of the branches. The leaves are 
opposite and entire, oblong, glabrous, and dark green. 
The colour of the flowers is of a beautiful shade of 
rose in the morning, deepening during the day until 
thy become purple in the evening ; the petals are 
orbicular, undulated, on short claws. The plant is 
found from Malay to China. It is sometimes found 
in gardens in this country, but seldom in a flourish- 
ing condition, owing probably, to its require- 
ments not being very generally understood. 
It is a plant of large growth, and therefore 
adapted for only large glasshouses. A fine specimen 
of this species of Lagersticemia is growing in the 
parch of the Nymphsea-house at Kew, where it flowers 
abundantly in moat years. 

Veitch Memorial Trust.— At a meeting of 

the trustees, held at 171. Fleet Street, on Wednesday 
last, the following arrangements were made subject 
to future modification in minor points of detail. 
Medals will be awarded at one of the forthcoming 
horticultural exhibitions at Dublin and at Briatol, 
and medals for distinguished service to horticulture 
will be presented to Col. Trevor Clarke, a distin- 
guished horticulturist and hybridiBer; Mr. A. H. 
Kent, for eminent services rendered in the prepara- 
tion of the Manual of the Coniferoe ; and the Manual 
of Orchidaceous Plants, by Messrs. Veitch ; Mr. J. 
Maktin for services in the hybridisation of plants ; to 
Mr. C. Moore, Sydney Botanic Garden, for life-long 
services to horticulture; to Mr. Geo. Nichols n, in 
recognition of his valuable labours in the preparation 
of the Dictionary of Gardening, &c, and to Mr. T. F. 
Rivers for his exertions in the raising of new varieties 
of fruits. It is hoped that the medals will be presented 
by the President of the Royal Horticultural Society, 
at the meeting to be held on Tuesday, June 12 this 
year. 

" KEW BULLETIN."— Numbers 82 and 83, issued 
concurrently, contain amongst other articles notes 
on a botanical exploration of the Sikkim-Tibet 
frontier by Mr. G. A. Gammie. These will be read 
with great interest, not only for their own merits, 
but from the fact that they supplement in some 
respects the classical exploration of the same region 
made by Sir Joseph Hooker in 1848 — 9. On a 
future occasion we may give aome extracts from 
Mr. Gammie's report. Sir Joseph Hooker, in adding 
some comments, says that Sikkim, for its area, pre- 
sents one of the richest, if not the richest, botanical 
region on the globe, the floras of European, Siberian, 
Chinese, and American Alps being represented in 
the higher regions, whilst there alao are found illus- 
trations of the steppe and desert vegetations of Tibet 
and Central Asia. Types of Chinese, Japanese, and 
North American genera appear in force, and in the 
tropical region the Malayan flora is represented 
together with the flora of India proper and of tropical 
Africa. Australian, South African, and South 
American types are not represented. A Beventh 
decade of newly - deaciibed Orchida is added, the 
species being Pleurothallis maculata, Rolfe (Brazil) ; 
P. uniatriata, Rolfe; P. pergracilis, Rolfe (British 
Honduras) ; Scaphosepalum microdactylum, Rolfe ; 
Masdevallia pusilla, Rolfe; Polystachya Buchanani, 
Rolfe (Zambesia) ; Cyrtopera papilloaa, Rolfe, 
(Natal) ; Trichocentrum albiflorum, Rolfe (Mexico) ; 
Oncidium Sanderianum, Rolfe (Peru); Sobralia 
pumila, Rolfe (Brazil). 

County Council Work in Surrey.— The 

National Association for the Promotion of Techni- 
cal and Secondary Education," of which the Duke of 
Devonshire is President, Sir John Ldbbock Trea- 
surer, and Sir Henry E. Roscoe Secretary, has 
recognised the work in this county by publishing in 
the Record* the following digest :— Instruction in 
practical gardening in its moat useful aspects has 
been given in upwarda of fifty centres in the county 

* liecord of Technical and Secondary Education (Macmillan 



January 20, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



77 



of Surrey. 1, By Saturday morniDg lectures to 
elementary school teachers ; 2, By winter evening 
lectures to all comers ; 3. By summer garden lectures 
and demonstrations ; 4, By addresses and judging at 
cottagers' shows ; 5, By the establishment of con- 
tinuation school gardens in villages. In all these 
forms the teaching has met with the greatest accept- 
ance. Only in very few places indeed was there 
any approach to apathj, the great majority of the 



gardens. The audiences were composed of both 
sexes, males largely predominating, and the subjects 
treated were followed closely and intelligently. 
General Winter Evening Meetings. — These evenings 
lectures were attended by nearly all classes of the 
community — ladies and gentlemen, gardeners, 
artisans, and the working population generally, the 
latter section far outnumbering all others. It would 
be impossible to speak too highly of the attentive- 



insect destruction, with all essential points in prac- 
tical routine, were elucidated by large coloured dia- 
grams ; these were much appreciated, and the teach- 
ing appeared to be well comprehended. Summer 
Garden Lectures. — In gardens, the use of which was 
kindly granted by their owners for purposes of in- 
struction, meetings were held during summer even- 
ings, the trees and crops affording opportunities for 
demonstrations in pruning and other work of a 




Fig, 8, — laqebstbcemia flos resins, at the botanic garden oodeypoee. 



audiences being thoroughly earnest — and several 
warmly enthusiastic — drinking in with avidity the 
information for which they were evidently thirsting. 
In centres where second courses have been given the 
attendances increased, while the interest deepened 
and was fully BUBtained throughout. Teachers' 
meetings. — Seeing that horticulture is now in- 
cluded in the Educational Code, it could not be 
otherwise than advantageous to instruct school 
teachers in the art of soil cultivation as practised in 



ness of the audiences, and though few of the 
workers possessed the requisite aptitude for taking 
notes for examinations, they acquired information 
that was new to them, and are turning it to account 
in their gardens and allotments. Methods of Wiater 
Teaching. — The principles which govern the success- 
ful cultivation of the different kinds of fruits, vege- 
tables, and, in a few instances, popular flowers, were 
pointed out as clearly as possible ; and the details 
of soil preparation, propagation, planting, pruning, 



directly useful character. These garden meetings 
were well attended, and greatly enjoyed. Judging 
and teaching at Shows. — By the awards of competent 
judges for garden produce at cottagers' shows, correct 
standards of excellence are established, and in 
addresses given on these occasions the faults and 
merits of exhibited specimens are pointed out, the 
chief causes of failures being at the same time indi- 
cated, when the minds of workers are peculiarly 
receptive of the lessons conveyed. Continuation 



78 



THE GA R DENEB 8' 0ER0N1 GL E. 



[January 20, 189-4. 



School Gardens. — This method of teaching the 
routine of practical gardening to youths who have 
ceased attendance at school, and are engaged in 
farm or other work, was commenced on a small 
scale in the spring of 1S92. The experiments proving 
in every respect satisfactory, similar small gardens, 
were and are, being established in many other dis- 
tricts. Ground is enclosed, where practicable, and 
divided into plots of about a rod each for cultivation 
by boys, a larger plot being reserved where this can 
be done, and the portion is suitable for teaching 
fruit-growing to them all. These small plots are in 
great demand, and are devoted almost wholly to the 
cultivation of uselul vegetables, though a few flowers 
are at the same time permissible — indeed encouraged. 
The boys work under local instructors, and excellent 
results have been attained — in some instances the 
vegetables produced being of exhibition quality. 
The necessary implements and seeds are provided, 
the plots and tools periodically inspected, faults 
pointed out, and advice given that may be helpful 
to the workers. As a body, they take great interest 
in their gardens ; a spirit of emulation is excited and 
encouraged, healthy, wholesome exercise afforded, 
and knowledge imparted that may be of considerable 
service in the after-lives of those who are sedulous 
in its acquisition. General Results. — Apart from 
the above gardens and the produce obtained from 
them — which in most, if not in all, cases was a 
hundredfold greater in value than that which the 
land previously afforded — there have been in the 
aggregate at least 15,000 attendances at the several 
meetings. The first examination of school teachers 
(mainly under the auspices of the Royal Horticul- 
tural Society) was pronounced satisfactory, and a 
shilling Primer on Horticulture (Macmillan) has 
been produced that it is hoped will be serviceable to 
persons who are seeking instruction in the manage- 
ment of land and the production of garden crops in 
various parts of the country. Garden Work. 

" The Orchid Album."— With the 120th part, 
lately issued, this valuable publication concludes its 
tenth volume. It is dedicate!, by permission, to the 
Princess of Wales, and contains a general index to 
all the ten volumes, a boon for which Orchid-lovers 
will be grateful. The cultural notes add greatly to 
the value of this publication, which is too highly 
appreciated to render it needful for us to belaud it. 

"The Rosarian's Yearbook."— The year- 
book for 1894 opens with a portrait and notice of 
Mr. Frank Cant. From this we learn that from 
small beginnings Mr. Cant has so increased his 
business that now he plants 100,000 dwarfs and 
25,000 standards and half-standard stocks. Of the 
dwarfs, 40.000 are Briar cutting?, 30,000 seedling 
Briar, and 30,000 Manetti, figures which show that 
Mr. Cant is a strong advocate for the Briar in 
preference to the Manetti. Other articles include 
gossiping articles on Hybrid Perpetuals; a review, not 
too rosy, of the doings of the National Rose Society 
for the year; a chat on garden Roses; a humorous 
collection of jottings by Mr. A. H. Gray, chiefly 
dealing with Roses as grown in the Channel Islands ; 
and last, but no means least, an article on the 
weather of the past Rose Year by Mr. Edward 
Mawi.f.y. We trust Mr. Mawley may be induced 
to reprint, in one booklet, the series of articles he 
has contributed on this subject from year to 
year. Without depreciating the other articles, it 
may be said that they are mostly of ephe- 
meral interest; but Mr. Mawluy's notes deserve 
preservation as precious documents for future 
reference. The Rose season of 1893 was the 
most abnormal of the series since the establishment 
of the National Rose Society seventeen years ago. 
It waB the earliest, and the mean temperature was 
the highest, February was wet, but after March 12 
the rain was conspicuous by its absence until the 
beginning of August, so that there was a deficiency 
from the local average of no less than 5 inches. 
The Dog Rose was observed in bloom on May JO a 
month in advance of its ordinary time of blossoming. 
The First Tea Rose on May 29, a fortnight earlier 
than the average; and the first II. P. on May 31, 
three weeks in advance of the average. 



Royal Horticultural Society of Aber- 
deen. — It is proposed to hold a Congress in 
Aberdeen of Horticultural Societies in March or 
April, 1894, at which representatives from the lead- 
ing societies in Great Britain have been invited to 
attend, for the discussion of matters relating to the 
advancement of horticulture and kindred subjects. 
It is especially desirable that views be exchanged as 
to the best means to be adopted for popularising 
annual shows. The summer show is to be held in 
Aberdeen on July 24 to 27 inclusive, and the 
autumn show on September 7 and 8. 

The Surveyors' Institution.— At the ordi- 
nary general meeting, held on Monday, January 8, 
1894, Mr. Daniel Watney (Vice-President) in the 
chair, a paper was read by Mr. E. J. Harper (Pro- 
fessional Associate), entitled " Trade Claims." A 
vote of thanks was unanimously passed to Mr. Harper 
for his paper, the discussion on which was postponed 
to the next meeting. The next ordinary general 
meeting will be held on Monday, January 22, when 
a discussion will take place on the paper read by 
Mr. E. J. Harpir (Professional Associate) at the 
last meeting, entitled " Trade Claims." The chair 
to be taken at S o'clock. 

PRIMULAS AT SWANLEY — Messrs. H. Cannell 
& Sons inform us that their show of Primulas is just 
now very lovely, and they will be pleased to welcome 
as mauy as may make it convenient to view them. 

Presentation to Miss Sander.— On the 

occasion of the marriage of Miss Sander on Wednes- 
day, January 17, the staff of the St. Albans Orchid 
Nurseries presented her with a handsome ornamental 
marble and bronze mounted clock, with the following 
inscription attached : " Presented to Miss Sander 
on her marriage, by the emplojej of F. Sander & 
Co., with hearty good wishes from all. Wednesday, 
January 17, 1894." 

Finely-grown Cyclamens. — We received 
lately some finely-grown flowers and leaves of Cy- 
clamen persicum var. grandiflorum, in rosy-purple, 
white, and purple and white colours, excellent 
examples of cultivation, sent by Mr. T. Worb, gar- 
dener at Aston Bank, Hawarden. 

Eastbourne Horticulturists.— We learn 

from the Sussex Daily News that the annual general 
meeting of the Eastbourne Horticultural Society 
took place on the evening of the 8th inst. in the 
Museum, Lismore Road. Mr. W. Sharp, Vice- 
President, was in the chair. Several new members 
having been elected, the Hon. Treasurer made a 
statement showing that the honorary and ordinary 
members' subscriptions for the year amounted to 
£94 12s. 6<2. ; that £12 13s. accrued to the Society 
from the spring show at Devonshire Park, and 
£10 5s. 5d. from the Chrysanthemum show. The 
balance in hand, after payment of the usual expenses, 
was £19 8s. 8d. The benefit-fund at present was 
worth £12 lis. 3d., and there was 10s. in hand on 
the paper-fund. It was resolved to pay a further 
dividend of 5s. in the pound to the prize-winners, 
making the proportion paid to them 15s. in the 
pound, and bringing up the expenditure of the shows 
to £32 19s. on the first, £40 14s. 3d. on the second, 
in prize-money, together with £42 17s. 6d. as general 
expenses. The report was then adopted subject to 
audit. Mr. Mills brought forward the motion of 
which he had given notice — that the monthly shows 
be discontinued. After a brief discussion, the 
motion was lest, 

Bournemouth and District Gardeners' 

ASSOCIATION— At the first meeting of the new 
session, held on Monday, Jan. 15, Professor J. M. II. 
Munro, D.Sc, of Downton Agricultural College, 
gave a lecture on the "Chemistry of Soils," under 
the auspices of the Technical Instruction Committee 
of the Hampshire County Council. The Chair was 
occupied by Mr. T. J. Hankinson, J.P., one of the 
Vice-Presidents of the Association. After dealing 
with the properties of sand, clay, limestone, and 
organic matter, Dr, Monro considered the plant 



foods, illustrating his remarks by reference to an 
analysis that he had made of the Bournemouth soil, 
a sample of which had been submitted to him for 
that purpose. A poor analysis was anticipated by 
all who had had any experience with the "Bourne- 
mouth particular," but the results obtained by Dr. 
Monro were worse than might have been expected 
by the least sanguine. That the lime present should 
be almost nil (094 per cent.), is of course not sur- 
prising in view of the fact that Rhododendrons, Azi- 
leas, and other lime-hating plants, should thrive so 
well in the neighbourhood, but the amounts of nitro- 
- gen ( 081 per cent.) and potash (-094 per cent.) are 
very disappointing. It is only fair to remark, by 
the way, that the sample analysed by Professor 
Munro was taken from the Poors Common (which is 
about to be laid out as a public park), and that it 
probably represents as poor a soil as the district 
contains. Much of the Bournemouth soil, perhaps 
the bulk of it, would yield a much larger amount of 
organic matter (and consequently nitrogen) than the 
4'34 per cent, containing nitrogen, 081 per cent., in 
the sample in question. At the close of the lecture, 
which was listened to with close attention, questions 
were asked and answered, and on the motion of the 
chairman, seconded by Mr. Greaves, a hearty vote of 
thanks was accorded the lecturer. A vote of thanks 
was also unanimously passed to Mr. Hankinson for 
presiding. Dr. Munro will lecture again on Monday, 
29th inst., at 7.30 p.m , and it is hoped that there 
will be a larger attendance than at the last lecture, 
when, owing to the very bad weather, there were not 
many more than forty present. The County Council 
lectures are open to the public, admission free. 

Fledglings and Trees Budding Now — 

Mr. J. G. Sandeman writes to the Times from 
Whin- Hurst, Hay ling Island, to report that a star- 
ling's nest was found in the slated roof of a house 
close to South Hayling Railway Station ten days 
ago, and the young birds being nearly fledged, must 
have been about a fortnight old when they were de- 
stroyed last week. " Several Pear trees in my 
garden (he adds), adjoining the South Beach, are in 
blossom, and the buds of the Sycamores are almost 
ready to burst into leaf. Wallflowers and Stocks in 
sheltered spots are in full bloom." 

" Revue de Viticulture. "—This is a new- 
comer in the journalistic world, is edited by MM. P. 
Viala and L. Ravaz, and published in Paris. The 
subject of Vines and Vine-culture is of such extreme 
mportance in many districts of France, that we 
venture to prophesy a useful and successful life to 
this new paper devoted to such interests, while 
M. Viala's well-known name is sufficient guarantee 
for the reliability of the information contained in it. 
The first number contains a list of the principal 
contributors, an introductory notice by the editors, 
notes on last year's vintage, and a prospectus of 
future plans; the second number includes an article 
on "Mildew on Vines," and much other important 
matter. The correspondence column should also do 
much good service to its readers. 

MAURITIUS. — Mr. William Scott, formerly of 
the Royal Gardens, Kew, and lately Assistant- 
Director of Forests and Botanical Gardens, has, we 
learn from the Kern Bulletin, been appointed Director 
in place of Mr. J. Horne, resigned. 

The Devon and Exeter Gardeners' Asso- 
ciation. — The members of the above met on Friday 
evening, the 5th inst., at the Castle Hotel, Exeter. 
There was a full attendance of members, and we are 
enabled to learn from the statement made after the 
supper that the Association, in regard to its funds 
and membership, is in a very satisfactory condition, 
and is doing much good in the district. 

Horticulture in Surrey.— Much interest is 

being aroused in parts of Surrey by the lectures 
which have been given during the autumn and 
winter under the auspices of the County Council. 
At Effingham, a village near Leatherhead, a Mutual 
Improvement Society has been formed, with F. 
Mum, Esq, Effingham Lodge, as President; and 
Secretary, Mr.W, R. Goi'F, The Cottage, Effingham. 



January 20, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



79 



Planting at Barry.— We learn from the 
Scotsman of January 13, that the War Office have 
resolved to plant another section of the links at 
Barry camp for the purpose of shelter, last year's 
experimental planting having turned out so success- 
fully, Messrs. Thomas Methven & Sons, nursery- 
men, Edinburgh, have again been entrusted with the 
work of both planting and fencing. 

The Deepdene, Dorking. — We understand 
that Deepdene, Dorking, the late residence of Lord 
F. Clinton Hope, has been leased to Her Grace 
Lily, Duchess of Marlborough ; and that Mr. Cham- 
berlain, foreman to Mr. Whillans at Blenheim 
Palace, has been appointed head gardener. 

Torquay District Gardeners' Associa- 
tion. — The second annual dinner of the above was 
held at St. George's Hall, Torquay, on Wednesday, 
January 10, when about eighty attended. The 
Mayor presided, and Mr. W. B. Smale was Vice- 
Chairman. Several toasts and songs were given, 
and a very enjoyable evening was spent. The Society 
holds a substantial balance in hand, and has increased 
its membership during the present session. 

Brighton and Sussex New Horticul- 
tural SOCIETY. — Mr. Mark Lonqhobst, Secretary, 
wishes us to announce that the shows for this year 
will be held as follows : — The spring show, on 
April 3 and 4 ; summer show, on August 28 and 29 ; 
and the Chrysanthemum show, on Nov. 6 and 7. 

Publications Received. — Bulletin of the 

Botanical Department, Jamaica.. — Report upon the 
Insecta Arachnida and Myriapoda, collected in the 
U.S. Eclipse Expedition to West Africa, 1889—90. 
By C. V. Riley. — A Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Harvest Spiders {Phalangidce) of Ohio. By Clarence 
Weed, D.Sc. — Contributions from the Botanical 
Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania. — Bulletin 
of the Vermont State Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Burlington, Vermont, contains reports of 
various experiments with spraying Potatoa. The 
result is highly favourable to the adoption of the 
practice. The botanist, Mr. L. R. Jones, contrasts 
the appearance presented by the early blight 
(Macrosporium Solani) with those of the late blight 
(Phytopthora). The early blight attacks early 
Potatos at an earlier period than the late blight ; 
it injures the leaves only, and does not descend to 
the tubers. A disease of Cucumbers, caused by a 
fungus (Cladosporium cucumerinum) is also noted. 
The fruits are attacked with depressed spots, which 
become covered with a greenish- black velvety coat- 
ing. Two forms of "rot" in Lettuces are men- 
tioned, one due to a fungus (Botrytis), the other to 
Bacteria. — The Tokyo Botanical Magazine. — The 
Apple- Sucker (Psylla mali) ; Board of Agriculture 
Leaflet, December, 1893. — A Contribution to the 
Flora of Greenland. . By W. G. Meehan. — Contribu- 
tions from the U.S. National He-barium, vol. i., n. 8 
(chiefly descriptions of grasses from various Ameri- 
can States, by the late Dr. Vases). — Emile Sau- 
vaigo, Lcs Cultures sur le littoral de la Neditertanee. 
(Paris: J. B. Bailliebe.) We shall allude to this 
publication on a future occasion. — List of Fruita 
Grown in the Open Air at Duffus House, Elgin, N B. 



PLANT PORTRAITS. 

Aganisia lepida, Lind. and Rchb. f., Lindenia, 
t. 400. Brazil. L' Horticulture Internationale. A 
terrestrial Orchid, with leaves linear; racemes 
many-flowered ; flowers 2 inches across, flattish, 
white ; segments ovate-oblong ; anterior lobe of lip 
roundish, with a yellow crest; column violet. 

Apple, Count Orloff, Bulletin d 'Arboriculture, 
$c , December. 

Bebeeris Frfmonti, Torry, Xcubcrt's Garten 
Magazin, n. 22, 1893. 

Catasetdm athatum, Lindley, Orchid Album, 
t. 480. Flowers greenish, thickly spotted with small 
purple dots. 

Cattleya Acklandije var. salmonea, Lindenia, 
t. 399 (mislabelled 309). Flowers about 3 inches 
across; segments orange coloured with purplish- 
brown blotches ; lobes of lip violet. 



Cypripedium Claudii X, L. Lind., Lindenia, 
t. 397. C Spicerianum ? x C. vernixium $. 

Cypripedium Lathamianum X, Rchb. f., Lindenia, 
t. 397. C. Spicerianum $ x C. villosum $ . 

Cypripedium Weathersianum X, L. Lind., 
Lindenia, t. 397. C. Leeanum superbum X ? O. 
hirsutissimom 3 . 

Eranthemum Andersoni, Mast., in Gardeners 
Chronicle, 1869, 134. Malaya. Garden, January 6. 

Incarvillea Delavayi, Bureau and Franchet, 
Gartenflora, t. 1398. 

L;elia anceps Schroderiana, Orchid Album, 
t. 473. 

Maxillaria striata, Rolfe, Lindenia, t. 398. 
Peru. L 'Horticulture Internationale. Flowers 6 inches 
across ; segments oblong-lanceolate, yellowish, closely 
striped with purplish-brown ; anterior lobe of lip 
ovate-acuminate, shorter than the segments, white, 
with violet stripes. 

Melittis melissophyllum, Garden, December 30. 

Nerine excellens, Moore, Wiener Illustrierte 
Garten Zeitung, December, 1893. 

Nymph.t.a Marliaoea carnea, Garden, De- 
cember 23. 

Odontoglossum prionopetalum, Orchid Album, 
t. 474. Flowers flat, pentagonal in outline ; seg- 
ments oblong or obovate-oblong, yellow, with large 
chocolate blotches ; the lateral petals are irregularly 
toothed, whence the name. 

Oncidium sarcodes, Orchid Album, t. 477. Panicles 
many-flowered ; flowers 1 J inch across, flat, roundish, 
yellow, barred with chocolate ; anterior lobe of lip 
transversely oblong, two-lobed, rich yellow. 

Phaius CooksoniX, Orchid Album, t. 478. Phaius 
Wallichi 5 X P. tuberculosus. Segments spreading, 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, cream-coloured, 
flushed with rose ; lip projecting, convolute at the 
base, and with the front lobe oblong, rich violet, 
with a yellow throat. It was raised by Mr. Cookson. 

Pleurothallis Roezlii, Orchid Album, t. 476. A 
species from Sonson, in the mountains of New 
Granada, where it is exposed to frost and fog. The 
flowers are in long one-sided racemes, each noddiDg, 
lj inch long, tubular, bell-shaped, purplish plum- 
coloured. 

Teichopilia hymenantha, Rchb. f., Orchid Album, 
t. 479. A species remarkable in the genus for the 
absence of pseudobulbs. Leaves linear ; racemes 
many-flowered, pendulous; flowers nearly 2 inches 
across, white, star-like, flat; segments linear; lip 
broadly ovate, acute, spotted with pink. Native of 
New Granada. 

Vanda teres Andersoni, Orchid Album, t. 474. 
Somewhat more free in flowering, with larger and 
more richly and brightly-coloured flowers than in the 
ordinary type. 



Book Notice. 



Weather Lore, a Collection of Proverbs, 
Sayings, and Rules, concerning the 

WEATHER, compiled and arranged by Richard 
Inwards, F.R.A.S. (Elliot Stcck, 62, Pater- 
noster Row, E.C.) 
The scope of this book can be best described by 
quoting the author's own words in the Introduction. 
He says that : — " From the earliest times, hunters, 
shepherds, sailors, and tillers of the earth have, from 
sheer necessity, been led to study the teachings of 
the winds, the waves, the clouds, and a hundred 
other objects from which the signs of coming 
changes in the state of the air might be foretold. 
.... There6ult has been the framing of a rough set 
of rules, and the laying down of many ' wise saws ' 
about the weather, and the freaks to which it is 
liable. Some of these observations have settled 
down into the form of proverb?, others have taken 
the shape of rhyme?, while many are yet floating 
about, unclaimed and unregistered, but passed from 
mouth to mouth, as mere records of facts, varying in 
verbal form according to local idiom?, but owning a 
common origin and purport." 

By the collection of so many facts and legends 
into one handy volume, Mr. Inwards has done good 
service. He truly says (to quote again from the 
introduction), that "meteorology itself, especially 
as regards English weather, is very far from hav- 
ing reached the phase of an exact science;" still, 



it is only by careful observations taken in the past 
that much can be done to predict the future ; the 
truth of which remark is evidenced by the usual 
unanimity of opinion regarding the explanations 
of certain signs and portents, contradictory pro- 
phesies being rather rare than otherwise. 

Not merely are the weather phenomena — storms, 
clouds, rain, wind, frost, fog, &c, commented on 
here, but there are chapters devoted respectively to 
common plants, and the dates at which they ought 
to flower; flowers which should open on certain 
Saints' days, common flowers, and the times at which 
they open and close their petals ; birds, animals, 
fish, reptiles, insects, &c. ; all treated with reference 
to their habits, or peculiarities as influenced by or 
as supposed to predict the state of the weather. 

Great research must have been necessitated by 
the preparation of such a book as this, as, indeed 
ia plain from the number and variety of autho- 
rities quoted. Those sayings whose origin is lost 
are wisely referred to the districts in which they are 
prevalent. All the quotations are conveniently 
classified, and there is an index, so that readers 
should have no difficulty in finding what they seek. 
The book closes with a bibliography, which 
also should prove both interesting and valuable to 
students of meteorology. 



NOTES ON NORWAY.— I. 

In his quaint and amusing Instructions for Forrcine 
Travell( 1642), the first English Guide to the Con- 
tinent, James Howell, delivers himself to the follow- 
ing effect (in which, however, we have modernised 
the orthography) : — " To be a sedentary traveller 
only, penned up between walls, and to stand poring 
all day upon a map, upon imaginary circles and scales, 
is like him who thought to come to be a good fencer 
by looking on Agrippa's book-postures only ; as also 
to run over and traverse the world by hearsay and 
traditional relation with other men's eyes, and so 
take all things upon courtesy, is but a confused and 
imperfect kind of speculation, which leaveth but 
weak and distrustful notions behind it." There is a 
good deal of force in James Howell's arguments, but 
this taking upon trust i?, unfortunately, too often the 
only one available. Much, however, may be done 
'with other men's eyes;" and it is said that the 
most interesting account ever published of a tour 
around the world was written by a man who had 
never left England, except in imagination. Even 
the most facile " book-maker " is constantly meeting 
with difficulties in his graphic pen-pictures of lands 
which he has never visited, in spite of the most 
elaborate maps and a whole library of works on 
travel. There are, nevertheless, certain countries in 
Europe which so closely resembles one another in 
physical conformation, that the clever ex cathedra 
author of Travels may be given a perfectly free hand, 
and not much fear need be entertained as to possible 
blunders. 

Norway, however, does not come within the fore- 
going category. It is absolutely unlike anything 
which even a vivid imagination conceives. Some 
notion will be gathered from the fact that in area 
Norway alone is nearly twice the size of England and 
Wales put together, although the entire population 
of this extensive country was only about 2,000,000 
in 1891 — or less than half the population of London. 
On the other hand, only about 2 per cent, of the 
total area of that country has been brought 
under cultivation, of which only - 84 per cent, 
consists of arable land, the remainder being artificial 
meadows, &c. The greater part of the surface of the 
country is quite bare, or is covered with a scanty 
vegetation of Lichen, mosses, and alpine plants, 
whilst rather over 30,000 English square miles is 
covered with forests. These forests consist of only a 
few species, which are pretty much the same through- 
out the whole country. The Birch is the most 
widely distributed tree for it extends to the ex- 
tremest northern point, and ascends to the greatest 
height. Dr. Brunchorst points out that at Varan- 
gerfjord, in E*st Finmark, the Birch limit still lies 



-,'" 



80 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 20, 1894. 



at somewhat more than 660', in the southern part at 
about 3600', and a few stunted examples may be 
found at a greater height. The Pine is the next 
most widely- spread tree in Norway, and is absent 
only in the northern parts of the country. It ascends 
to 3090', which is, in most places, about 330' higher 
than the Spruce. The second group of indigenous 
trees and shrubs includes the Alder, the Oak, Ash, 
Elm, Maple, Aspen (Populus tremula), Mountain 
Ash, Bird Cherry, Hazel, Willow, and Beech. 

The flora of Norway is of an exceedingly interest- 
ing character, both on account of its richness and of 
its variety. Those who have had occasion to consult 
Professor Blytt's Korges Flora, will have a very clear 
idea of its extent. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that the geographical position of the country 
extends from north to south through over 13° of 
latitude, or 200 geographical miles, and is compassed 
on three sides by the ocean, which, "through num- 
berless indentations, penetrates deep into the rocky 
wall of the coast, and derives along almost the whole 
extent of the shores it laves an augmentation of heat 
from the Gulf Stream." The courteous Professor 
above mentioned divides the flora of the country into 
six groups : 1, arctic species growing in North Green- 
land, Spitzbergen, and other arctic regions of the 
fjelds and northern parts of Norway ; 2, the sub- 
arctic, from which he omits those two regions, but 
includes the whole of Norway, both the fjelds and 
the lower parts of the country, more particularly the 
shady wooded valleys and the slopes or mountains ; 
3, the boreal section, which includes a very extensive 
area in the lower part of the country, particularly where 
wood-clad rocks prevail, omitting, however, the 
outer line of the west-coast region; 4, the sub- 
boreal, or the lowest south-eastern parts of the 
country, such as the Christiania fjord ; 5, the 
Atlantic, which includes the flora of the coast dis- 
trict from Stavanger to Christiansund ; and, 6, the 
sub-Atlantic, by which is indicated the coast flora 
between Stavanger and Krageid, as well as the 
Scnaalene prtfecture, east of the Christiania fjord. 
These divisions are, to a certain extent, artificial, 
just as the differentiation of the two floras of, say, 
Cornwall and Hampshire ; but each group possesses 
quite sufficient individuality to justify this division. 
Another careful investigator into the flora of Nor- 
way, Professor Schubeler, has arrived at the inte- 
resting conclusion that in the northerly districts 
vegetation has the advantage of a rapid development, 
and of heavier, darker- coloured, more aromatic fruit 
(although less sweet) flowers, and leaves. 
Gabdeniko in Norway. 
From what has been said, it will be seen 
that Norway is scarcely a likely place in which to 
look for parks and gardens, public or private. But 
in addition to the geographical inadaptability, 
there is another of as great or greater 
importance. Norway is the most democratic 
country in the world ; it has done away with 
its aristocracy, it has abolished such luxuries 
as first-class railway-carriages, and it has no 
' upper " house of representatives. However much 
these phases of Progress (with a capital P) may 
be good for the commonwealth —and the country itself 
may be considered as the best judge of its own 
affairs — they are certainly not favourable to the mul- 
tiplication of country gentlemen's houses, with their 
attendant parks and gardens. In a country almost 
entirely populated by peasantry, whose struggle for 
existence is so keen, and whose hardships are so 
grinding, the presence of an aristocracy would cer- 
tainly be an anomaly, one might even say a super- 
fluity. The visitor might, like the present writer, 
travel for weeks without meeting with the faintest 
•uggestion of anything in the way of a gentleman's 
house ; the only structures, indeed, above the ordi- 
nary cottage being hotels, and entirely dependent on 
the influx of visitors, mostly English, during about 
four months in the year. The scenery on all hands 
is deecribable only as extravagantly picturesque, and 
oftentimes beautiful beyond words. But so far as 
life and animation are concerned, one might be tra- 
velling in the land of the dead, with only the roaring 
of an occasional wayside waterfall, or with only a 



very occasional sign of animal life to recall one's 
thoughts to la lutte pour la vie. Norway, indeed, is 
like a vast prison, in which the prisoner has every- 
thing except liberty. In the country, indeed — and 
it is nearly all country where the occasional presence 
of a small town is an irritating incongruity— it is by 
no means difficult to imagine one's-aelf back in the 
times of Signrd the Volsung. 

A comparison between the rural cottages of Nor- 
way and those of England can only result in a 
verdict distinctly unfavourable to the former. Cot- 
tage gardens in Norway are absolutely an unknown 
quantity as regards floriculture, and all but so in refer- 
ence to the cultivation of either vegetables or fruit. 
The opportunities or possibilities of the two are, it is 
true, not identical, but the Norwegian peasant is 
content with growing a few patches of Potatos, 
reserving the greater portion of his tiny encroach- 
ments upon Nature for the production of grass, which, 
in the winter months, serves as the fodder for his 
goats. It is stated, by one writer, that "the Potato 
is extensively grown over a considerable area of the 
arable land in the south of Norway, and almost one- 
half of such land in the north is devoted to its culti- 
vation. So far as fruit is concerned, the Apple is 
cultivated to some extent, and in most of the villages 
one comes across small orchards comprised chiefly of 
Apple trees, or a few Pears and Cherries; Goose- 
berries and Currants are grown also in many places, 
but they cannot be said to be cultivated, for no 
attempt apparently is made in the direction of 
training or pruning, and the fruit do not appear 
to be at all cared for by the Norwegians. Iu 
some districts the wild Raspberry, or hringe liter, 
is as common as the Blackberry in England, and 
is quite as delicious as the form cultivated so 
extensively in this country. The number of wild 
berries which the traveller meets with in Norway 
during the autumnal months is very great, and in- 
cludes the Cloudberry, or, as it is locally called, the 
mulle-hter ; Rubus Chamasmorus, the blaar-bcer, or Bil- 
berry ; Vaccinium myrtillus; the mikkeh-hter, or 
Whortleberry ; the tytte Iter, or Cowberry; Vaccinium 
vitis-id3ea;audthefraKe-te/-, or Cranberry, Oxj coccus 
palustris. A very considerabls trade is done in moat 
of these berries, although as it is many million 
bushels are wasted annually, partly from the absence 
of people to gather them, but chiefly, perhaps, because 
the high price of sugar prevents their being made 
into preserves. The fruit of the Cloudberry are 
packed up in wooden vessels, and exported from 
Norway to Sweden and possibly to other places, but 
not so far, as the present writer can discover, to this 
country ; the Laplanders bruise and eat these berries 
with the milk of the reindeer. The Cowberry is in 
great request in Norway as a sauce for venison, and 
in this respect is said to be much superior to Currant- 
jelly — which is, perhaps, altogether a matter of taste. 
Although J. C. Loudon included a section headed 
" Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gar- 
dening in Sweden and Norway," in his Encyclopedia 
of Gardening, and published over sixty years ago, 
there is very little information in it relative to the 
latter country — possibly because, like the "Needy 
Knife- Grinder," it had no story to tell. Loudon 
is of the opinion that the ancient style of gardening 
was introduced into Sweden previously to 1671 ; for 
Hermand, who published his Bcgnum Svecim in that 
year, mentions the gardens of the palace, as well as the 
" vivarium " or park. The gardens, Hermand says, 
were used for delight and recreation ; they lay 
between the " palatium " and vivarium, and the 
latter contained some wooden buildings, in which 
were kept lions, leopards, and boars. This garden 
and park appear to have been formed by Gustavus 
Adolphus about 1620. Charles XII. procured plans 
from Le Notre, and had the trees and plants sent 
from Paris. So far as Sweden is concerned, also, 
what Loudon describes as the " mixed style " of 
gardening is exemplified in Haga, formed in a rocky 
situation, about the middle of the eighteenth century, 
by Gustavus III., with the assistance of Masretier ; 
it is the Trianon of that country. The approach is 
a winding walk through rocks and luxuriant verdure. 
Urottningholm is a royal palace, formed by the eame 



monarch on the island of that name; the gardens 
are in a sort of Anglo-Chinese manner, but, as far as 
Art is concerned, in no respect remarkable. Both 
these gardens are surrounded or intermingled with 
water, rocks, Scotch Pine, Spruce Fir, and buildings, 
forming a picturesque assemblage of saxatile and 
verdant beauty. The introduction of foreign phases 
of gardening into Norway was probably of much 
later date than was the case in Sweden. Early in 
the present century, however, there were " some 
confined spots laid out in the English taste, 
chiefly by British merchants, in the neighbourhood 
of Gotenburg, as there are also near Christiania and 
Trondbjem, in Norway. But it may be remarked, 
that this style is not likely to be generally adopted 
in either country, because they already possess much 
greater beauties of that kind which it is the aim of 
landscape gardening to create, and with which those 
created by Art would not bear a comparison." Capel 
Brooke, writing over sixty years ago, on July 8, de- 
scribes the villa of Mr. Kaudtzon, in the environs of 
Trondbjem, and states, "The weather was very fine and 
even hot, and the different fruits in the garden were 
fast ripening. I tasted some very excellent Straw- 
berries and Cherries, quite ripe, lat. 63°. There was 
also a flourishing plantation of Oaks, Ashes, Limes, 
Chestnuts, and Laburnum?, brought from Scotland. 
The Firs alone, from the same country had died, 
probably from the length of time that they had been 
taken up, and their roots drying more quickly than 
those of the other trees." 

Parks at Bergen. 
If, from a horticultural point of view, Norway has 
been slumbering whilst the less northern countries 
of Europe ha7e been up and doing, the reproach is 
at length being rapidly removed. Although Bergen 
is the second in population as well as in commercial 
importance, it is, in respect to parks and private 
gardens, the first in the kingdom. It has no fewer 
than three public parks, in neither case of any con- 
siderable size, it is true, but quite sufficiently large 
to justify the title. The oldest is a tiny enclosure of 
about one acre or less, at Lille Lungegaardsvand, 
between Olaf Kyrre and Christie gades or streets, 
and pleasantly situated near a lake, from which 
it takes its name. It is the principal rendezvous of 
the Bergensers, one of the summer attractions being 
the regimental band, which plays usually every day, 
including Sundays. There is nothing remarkable 
about this park, which is chiefly laid down in grass, 
varied with a few well-arranged beds of semi-tropical 
plants, among which the Aralia flourishes with great 
vigour, the excessively humid temperature of Bergen 
being peculiarly suitable to its welfare. 

The second, and by far the most important, public 
ground is the Nygaard (or new) Park at the west 
end of the city, and from the heart of which it is 
about twenty minutes' walk. This is remarkable as 
one of the few parks in Europe in which theimproving 
hand of the landscape gardener has not been required. 
It certainly possesses advantages to which no other 
place on the Continent can lay claim, for Nature has 
already formed the park, and man has only to make 
good a few of the inevitable gaps and deficiencies. 
It is extremely difficult to estimate its exact or even 
approximate size, for there is scarcely a square yard 
of level ground in the place ; it may be anything 
between 5 and 10 acres. Whatever may be its exact 
size, there can only be one opinion as to its inhe- 
rent beauty, and the numerous extremely beautiful 
views which it at various points offers. The many 
cleverly-arranged paths give one an altogether fa'se 
idea as to the real area of the Nygaard Park, and 
whoever laid the place out deserves the greatest credit 
for having mended Nature without violating first 
principles. 

Bergen is in reality surrounded by seven "fields," the 
loftiest of which is 2,000 feet— its name is derived 
from Alfebortjagende, or " the chaser away of elves," 
— and as the Nygaard Park is situated on one of the 
highest parts of the city's outskirts, it possesses a 
number and variety of panoramic views which can 
only be described as wonderful. No two views are 
alike, and the conjunction of field and fjord are here 
seen at a greater advantage than perhaps any other 
place in Norway, There in nothing remarkable in 



Januaby 20, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



81 



the way of trees and shrubs in the Nygaard Park, 
which has not been open many years, and is still, 
therefore, in a " growing " state, for its generally 
exposed situation neither the trees nor the shrubs 
appear to attain the heights at which they grow in 
England, but they are sturdy and healthy. The Maple 
and the Mountain Ash flourish remarkably well. No 
attempt at bedding-out is made, and wisely, for the 
climate is too damp to permit of this being done 
effectively. 

All the best villas of Bergen are in the immediate 
vicinity of Nygaard Park, just as the best London 
houses are not far distant from Hyde and Green 
Parks and Kensington Gardens. There are some 
charming effects in the way of window gardening in 
the west end of Bergen, and many of the balconies 
strongly remind one oi Seville and other cities of 
•unny Andalusia. The most effective are those in 



cumference, we meet with a little shrub or Fir, 
apparently quite established. In a few years the 
Nordntes Park will present a very different appear- 
ance to its present one of barrenness. W. Roberta. 
{To be concluded.) 



Home Correspondence. 



MIXEO HARD - WOOD TREE8. — Your corres- 
pondent, " S.," says that Oak, Asb, Elm, &c, grow 
in exactly the same way either by themselves or 
mixed. I should be very much obliged to ' S." to 
tell me at what distance apart he would plant a wood 
of equal quantities of Ash and Oak, whether he 
would ever thin them, and, if so, how ? and how many 
of the Oak would be alive at the end of twenty-five 
years, and what they would be worth under any 
system of management whatever? I think that " S." 



and for various purposes. Your correspondent 
admits this difficulty of going into details in limited 
space, as in his note he sayB : — " I need not go on ; 
every different kind of tree requires a separate 
chapter in which its peculiarities of growth must be 
considered, whether it be grown for profit, or for 
shelter, or for ornament." With that I quite agree, 
but so far as I am concerned, I had no intention of 
going into details. With an object-lesson of hundreds 
of thousands of trees blown down all over the 
country, it occurred to me it might be of advan- 
tage to planters and others if I pointed out some of 
the lessons taught us by the storm. Your corre- 
spondent gives an instance in bis own neighbourhood 
of the results of neglecting timely thinning. He 
says of a wood of between 20 and 30 acres of Spruce 
which had never been thinned — " that the January 
storm of 1839 blew the whole down together, a large 
part of them being snapped off at various heights 
like so many Carrots. The very few that were left 
standing died of starvation within the next five years." 




FlQ. 9. — VIEW OF PABK AT BEBGEN, NOBWAV, 



which quite common plants are employed ; we find, 
for instance, the Virginian Creeper, the Honey- 
suckle, the common white Convolvulus, the Ivy, and 
the ordinary Scarlet-runner Bean less frf quently. The 
window-boxes are well supplied with Pelargoniums, 
LobeliaB, Pinks, Petunias, and Stocks, all disposed 
in a kind of orderly disorder. The houses, or their 
outBides at all events, are scrupulously clean, the 
wood portions being painted white, as are the boxes, 
facts which considerably add to the generally effec- 
tive appearance of the tout ensemble. The third 
Bergen Park is that of Nordnses (i.e., North Nose), 
at the extreme northern end of Strand-gade, and 
from which some very splendid views of the neigh- 
bourhood may be obtained. This park is still in its 
infancy, and is being formed under very great draw- 
backs. The area is quite unprotected, and there is 
only a very thin coating of earth over the huge 
masses of rock. But the ingenuity of the Bergenser 
is rarely beaten, for in many scores of tiny crevices, 
often of not more than a few square inches in cir- 



can have had very little experience of the manage- 
ment of mixed hard-wood trees, otherwise he must 
have found out that every different mixture requires 
a different treatment in the matter of thinning ; and 
though it is perfectly true, as " S." says, that they 
will all grow in a great variety of soils and situa- 
tions, still the same mixture will grow differently, 
and require very different treatment in different 
soils. As to hedge-row timber, I have sold a good 
deal for many years, and always got a fair price for 
it ; especially considering that if it be planted so as 
to do no iDJury to adjoining crops, it has cost nothiog 
whatever except, perhaps, the cost of putting in the 
young tree, and the cost of cutting it down. C. W. 
Strickland,, Hildenley, Malton. 

WOOD MANAGEMENT. — Your correspondent, Sir 
C. W. Strickland, appears, from his note on this 
subject at p. 808, in the last volume of the Gar- 
deners' Chronicle, to be somewhat difficult to please. 
He could scarcely expect, within the compass of a 
short article on the damage done to growing timber 
by a destructive storm, details as to the treatment 
required by different trees grown in varying positions 



This goes to prove the need of timely thianing, 
which I advocated. Briefly I advised — 1. Atten- 
tion to the pruning of young hardwood trees occa- 
sionally, when necessary, to concentrate the energies 
of the tree into forming a sturdy well-rooted 
trunk or bole, with a single leader. This is 
as necessary for the well-being of the tree and pro- 
duction of timber as for resistance to wind-storms. 
2. Thinning out the heads of old and valued trees 
where top-heavy. 3. Timely thinning, in the case 
of coniferous woods and plantations, to ensure the 
healthy development of the plants left for a crop. 
4. Planting a succession of young trees annually or 
occasionally, to take their part in the economy and 
amenity of the estate, in lieu of timber cut or blown 
down. Surely it is better for all concerned to have 
trees coming on in successive stages, than to have 
all the plantations on an estate of one age and size, 
like the man who carried all his eggs in one basket. 
I should say those points to which I directed atten- 
tion are part of the practical A B C of forest 
management. Any one who takes an interest in 
trees, and keeps his eyes open when visiting and 



82 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 20, 1894. 



travelling, can see cases where one or other of the 
general principles noted above might be applied 
with profit. D. Melville, Dunrobin. 

TOBACCO LEAVES AS AN INSECTICIDE — 
Apropos of Mr. H. A. Burberry's (p. 41) high esti- 
mation of Tobacco leaves used for the destruction of 
thrips, it may be additionally interesting to state, 
that my brother (Mr. F. A. Gardiner, not W. Gardi- 
ner as given in Gardeners' Chronicle), late of Brook- 
lyn, New York, informed me that he extensively 
made use of the refuse Tobacco parings made at the 
cigar manufactories there, strewn under the plant- 
stages, and kept moist or otherwise according to 
requirement, and which always proved an efficient 
preventive, as well as destroyer of thrips, aphides, 
and red-spider. Possibly the chief objection to the 
constant presence of the Tobacco leaves would be 
the objectionable pervading smell. William Gardiner, 
Harbornc, Birmingham. 

L/ELIA ELEGANS WEATHERSIANA — In noting 
this plant last week as originating with Messrs. 
Lindtn, a slight error was made. This variety is one 
of a small importation which was got home by 
Messrs. Lewis, and sold by me to Mr. Measures, of 
Streatham, about two and a half years ago. The 
plant flowered during the recent autumn, and proved 
a good thing, Mr. Measures paying me the com- 
pliment—not a small one — of attaching my name, 
P. Weathers. 

8EVERE FROST IN THE SOUTH OF IRELAND.— 
Some particulars concerning the most unusual and 
disastrously severe frost with which we were visited 
in this usually mild region during the first week of 
the new year may be interesting to your readers. 
Wednesday, January 3, was one of the most bit- 
terly cold days I ever remember here, and on Thuis- 
day morning Bnow commenced to fall, and con- 
tinued falling during the greater part of that and 
the following day, covering the ground to a depth 
of about 3 inches. On Thursday night we had 
by far the severest frost I ever remember here 
during a residence of over forty years, the thermo- 
meter standing at 3 a in my walled - in kitchen 
garden, or 20° of frost. Even during the 
severest winter I remember previously, that of 
1879—60, the severest frost was only 23°. During 
the two succeeding nights, Friday and Saturday, there 
were 25° and 23° respectively, the snow lying un- 
melted during all those days, which is quite unusual on 
this mild sea-board. On Sunday afternoon the thaw 
commenced, with rain during the night, and ever 
since the weather has been quite mild, opeD, and 
showery. It is too soon yet to speak with any cer- 
tainty of my shrub losses, but I greatly fear that the 
list will be a grievously long one. All the Veronicas, 
the New Zealand Olearias, and Desfontainea Hookeri 
look quite black, and, if not killed, will, I fear, be 
most seriously injured. On the other hand, my large 
six-stemmed specimen of Dracaena australis, which is 
over 12 feet high, and which was killed to the ground 
in 1879—80 by 23°, Beems now quite uninjured by 
a frost 6° more severe, which is hard to understand. 
W. E. Gumbleton. 

THE MILD WEATHER.— The following notes 
may be of interest as showing the mild weather ex- 
perienced in the North of England early in January, 
changing to very severe frost. A hen at Church 
Fenton, Yorkshire, on Saturday, January 6, hatched 
six chickens out in the open on a heap of straw ; the 
chickens are strong and healthy. On Saturday the 
cold was intense, the thermometer registering, in 
two places near Tadcaster, respectively 3G° and 37° 
of frost; considered to be the most severe since 
1879. It has a'.BO completely blackened the ever- 
green Privet about here. John Snail, Qrvmston Park 
Gardens. [Is there not some mistake here ? Ed.] 

CAULIFLOWEr.8. — Those who know the value of 
sowing seeds at the proper time, bo as to have no 
breaks in the supply of any kind of vegetable, are 
mnch aided if perfectly trustworthy varieties, true to 
kind, are furnished by the trade. As a distinct 
variety, that a gardener may fully depend on, I have 
found Veitch's Extra Early Forcing one of the very 
beBt; and seeds of this variety, sown in heat at this 
date, will furnish plants that will have heads fit for 
use by the end of the month of May, if protected by 
hand-glaBBes, cloches, or frames ; and other plants 
from the same sowing, planted without protection, 
will be fit for table a fortnight later. This is a strain 
with small to medium close white heads, of delicate 
flavour ; it may be planted at 18 inches apart. My 
next selection is Veitch's Pearl, a remarkably fine 
variety, of good flavour. Seed of this sown under 



glass the first week in February, at the same time as 
a second sowing of the first-mentioned is made, will 
afford heads in succession. Another small Bowing 
of the Pearl and of Autumn Giant may be made 
under glass about the end of February, which 
will afford a succession of plants until the 
outside sowings are ready for use. In this 
part of the country I find that about the 
third week in March is quite early enough 
for sowing out of doors of the Pearl and Autumn 
Giant. Early in April seeds of Veitch's Self- 
Protecting Autumn Broccoli may be Bown. I still 
have some nice heads, the latter white, compact, and 
self-protecting. Whether all of these varieties can 
b? successfully grown, and come into use succes- 
sionally in all parts of the country, I am unable to 
say ; but here nothing could be more satisfactory 
than these have been. J. Easter, Nostcll Priory 
Gardens, Wakefield. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM SOCIETY FOR GLASGOW — 
I notice in the Gardeners' Chronicle of January 13, 
at page 46, a paragraph under the above heading, 
the last sentence of which is as follows: — "The 
Horticultural Society was asked to take the initia- 
tive in the matter, but preferred not to enter upon 
this new field." Now this is information to me 
of which I have heard nothing whatever. When 
and by whom was the Horticultural Society 
asked to take the initiative in the matter ? 
As a director I attend the meetings of the 
Society regularly ; and neither by deputation or 
otherwise, to my knowledge, has the subject been 
brought up by any outsider whatever. The directors 
as a body are fully alive to the fact that a Chrysan- 
themum Society should have been established in the 
city of Glasgow years ago, therefore wish the 
Bociety now formed every success. Nay, more. If 
I am not mistaken, more than one of them are to 
support it financially. There is a wide enough field 
in Glasgow alone for both societies to flourish and 
prosper. And it even might be through a little 
healthy rivalry that each in its own sphere will do 
good and excellent work in the future. Donald 
McBcan, Craigends Gardens, Johnstone. [Our infor- 
mation was derived from one of the local papers. Ed.] 

SCHIZOSTYLIS COCCINEA.— In Scotland this 
hardy herbaceous plant is usually so late in blooming 
that the flowers are always more or less damaged by 
frost soon after they begin to open. Last autumn I had 
a bed of it Bhowing a splendid crop of Bpikes, which 
were lifted carefully in clumps and placed on a 
greenhouse border. The result has been very grati- 
fying. It has produced a constant crop of its scarlet 
miniature Gladiolus-like flowers for over two months, 
and the laBt are not cut yet (December 11). When 
flowers are getting scarce in the cool greenhouse in 
October and November, this plant, with very little 
trouble, can be made help to chase away the dullness 
of the season. In spring it should ba divided into 
single pieces and planted several together in clumps 
of a size likely to become suitable for potting-up at 
the end of the month of September. Grown this 
way and in good soil it requires little attention, and 
when potted and placed under glass its pretty blooms 
come to great perfection. It is, like its near rela- 
tion the Gladiolus, a suitable flower for cutting, as 
it continues fresh in water till fully developed. To 
amateurs with small greenhouses and few opportu- 
nities for raising autumn and winter-blooming 
flowers, the plant is a valuable one. In a standard 
work on gardening, I noticed recently this plant 
described as half - hardy. Though a South 
African plant, it need not necessarily be so. 
For ten years I have grown it both in my Public 
Park and Sunny Park Nurseries, where soil and 
situation are widely different, and have never lost a 
plant with frost. Perhaps some of your corre- 
spondents who are herbaceous growerB might give 
their experience, and help to settle what seems a 
doubtful point. Michael Cuthbertson, Hothesay. 

DIMORPHANTHUS MANDSHURICUB.— This de- 
ciduous shrub, referred to at p. 492, vol. xiv., grows 
extremely well here in our heavy soil. It is easily 
increased; the aucker-like growths springing from 
the base quickly grow into stout bushes if taken up 
in the autumn with roots attached. The beBt way 
to treat this subject is to plant it amongst a thick 
base of Berberis aquifolium, the bare stems are not 
noticeable then at any time of the year ; the leaves 
of this Mahonia are a good contrast in point of 
colour. E. M. 

PINU8 IN8IGNIS. — It is a great pity that this 
species of Pine is so Biisceptible to injury from 



severe frost after it has reached a height of about 
10 feet. There were here, South Hants, in the 
year 1890, one dozen handsome trees of about this 
height, but the severe frost of that winter killed half 
of the number. Since that year two or three others 
have died, owing to injury the atems received at that 
time. The bark does not appear to be strong enough 
in some situations to withstand the severity of 
several nights of frost of 22°. The reBult then is an 
exudation of sap from the wounds caused, and the 
loss of the tree. In our case, too, the trees were 
sheltered from the north by a row of Spruce Fir. 
Perhaps this protection did more harm than good, as 
it would render the trees less hardy. Coupled with 
this, the soil here is heavy and retentive of moisture, 
although water does not actually lie about on the 
surface, and soil of this character is not of the best 
kind for this species of Pinus, although in its young 
Btate the tree makes rapid growth. It has been said 
by some that it is easily blown over, but this is not 
true of the tree, so far as my experience goes, for in 
the park at Rooksbury, near Fareham, a tree is 
growing on a sharp declivity, and it is fully 50 feet 
high ; it was planted by the preaent proprietor of 
Rjoksbury twenty-four years ago, and is fully ex- 
posed to the fury of the south-west winds. Its uni- 
formity and luxuriance of growth show that this 
Pine can withstand strong winds, E. M. 

ARTIFICIAL COLOURING OF FLOWER8.— With 
reference to the note on this subject on p. 779 of 
the last volume of the Gardeners' Chronicle, I made 
some experiments three years ago, when green- 
splashed Carnations were sent here from France, and 
sold at very fancy prices. Tne method of intro- 
ducing colour by the stalks was very uncertain and 
unsatisfactory; many of the soluble colours were 
either decomposed or unable to pass up the stalks. 
The specimens I had from Paris were simply painted 
or splashed with solutions of aniline dyes, the 
colour was on the surface of the petals, and was 
easily dissolved by alcohol, leaving the petals quite 
white. I reproduced the effect and appearance of 
the French samples by splashing and painting with 
a camel-hair bruBh, using solutions of aniline dyes, 
but the experiment is not worth repeating, except 
for the edification of the boys in the potting-shed 
on April 1. Matters are getting to a very low ebb 
when a penny Carnation painted green can be sold 
for lfr. 50c. Thos. Fletcher, Grappcnhall, Cheshire. 

A FIRE CAUSED BY A BIRD'S-NEST. — The 
house of Mrs. Clutton, Whitchurch, Salop, was 
recently partly destroyed by fire, considerable 
damage being done to the root. It was caused by 
some sparka coming in contact with a bird's-nest, 
which set some wood in the roof on fire. If jack- 
daws begin to build in a chimney, a piece of wire- 
netting should be neatly bound over the top of the 
chimney-pot. C. L. 



Nursery Notes. 



MESSRS. J. VEITCH and SONS' NURSERY. 

The King's Road establishment never lacks inte- 
rest to the admirer of flowers, Orchid or other, and 
foliage plants. The feature of the present time is 
undoubtedly the houses of Nepenthes, which are 
crowded with numerous plants well-furniBhed with 
pitchers. A few of the finer or more novel varieties 
may be named, viz, N. mixta, the Veitchian cross 
between N. Northiana X N. CurtiBii ; N. Amesiana, 
another obtained from N. Raflhaiana and N. 
Hookeriana ; N. Burkei excellens, with bulbous-like 
pitchers of a green tint splashed with brown, the 
opercule or lid green. N. Dicksoniana is another 
cross obtained by the firm from N. Veitchi. Many 
other species and varieties reward the visitor during 
his walk through the houses. 

A few Orchids were in flower, including Lycaste 
coBtata, with pale creamy flowers, very free ; Coilo- 
gyne barbata, Lrelia Sanderiana alba, a fine piece in 
excellent bloom ; Phalamopsis leucorhoda, many of 
Angrajcum sesquipedale, A. eburneum, the pretty 
purple and white-flowered Saccolabium venustum, 
Vanda Insleayana, fine always, but paler in colour 
now, owing to the deficient Bunlight. 

The collection of Phyllocactus now forming is 
growing fast, and contains numerous novelties of 
excellence, many of them raised in the nursery. 



January 20, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



83 



The warm-houae Rhododendrons are also coming 
in for their share of improvement, and several were 
remarked of close bushy habit of growth, and which 
flower whilst still quite small and young. Of this 
type is Mrs. Heale, a pure white flower, the only one 
of the kind. These spring from R. multicolor on the 
one side. There were noted in bloom on very small 
plants, R. Primrose, true primrose-yellow; R. Ceres, 
golden-yellow, with more substance than the former — 
a fresh break ; R Imogene, whitish-blush, tabular- 
shaped blooms, and the segments of the same not 
greatly reflexed. Several of the Javanese Bpecies 
and crosses were likewise flowering, especially fine 
being Ne plus ultra, a large-trussed orange-scarlet- 
coloured variety. 

Winter-flowering Begonias afford an interesting 
section ; they have roots not unlike those of B. 
discolor, not needing drying off like B. tuberosa, but 
behaving more like the Fuchsia in winter. Aimng 
these, the following were showing flowers : — John 
Heal, pink; Adonis, cerise; and Winter Gem, crim- 
son; B. Gloire de Sceaux was still in bloom. 

A pretty flower for the early winter season is 
iEschynanthus obconica; and some good dwarf, 
bushy examples of the once much cultivated Eran- 
themum pulchellum, were masses of dark blue 
flowers ; also Jasmimum gracillimum, equally well 
grown and flowered. Several Tillandsia vera were 
in flower, or had protuberant spikes not yet opened, 
and they are as pretty almost at that stage as later. 
Another Bromeliad noticed was Vriesia Morreniana, 
with scarlet and yellow bracts and yellow flowers. 
The almo3t-forgotten Goldfussia aniaophylla, in nice 
compact bushes, was loaded with its pale blue 
flowers. 

A few bright Tree Carnations, in Mdlle. Franco, 
Mdlle. Theieie Franco, Winter Cheer, Delicato, and 
General Boulanger, gladden the eyes, as do the fine 
big bushes of Camellias, loaded with blossoms, in the 
entrance to the nursery from the north. 

Mb. K. Dbost's, Richmond, Suehet. 
At the present time the chief specialty of the 
above is forced Lilac, and some thousands are 
grown, about the number of plants required per 
week being 1200, and October to March are the 
months in which the demand is greatest for 

these deliciously-scented, pure-white flowers 

although Mr. Drost forces the Lilac during the 
greater part of the jear. A glimpse at a batch of 
plants about to be forced revealed shoots bristling 
with flower-buds, the plants being about six years 
old ; and the bloom appears in about two weeks 
after being placed in the forcing- houses. After the 
forcing season is over, the plants are planted out- 
doors, some four or five years elapsing before they 
are again considered to be in condition to be forced. 
Amongst other flowering shrubs forced in quantity 
maybe mentioned Hydrangea paniculatagrandiflora, 
its great panicles of white flowers being produced 
during April, May, and June. Clethra alnifolia is 
a good plant for slow forcing, bearing spikes of 
white blossoms deliciously fragrant. Viburnum 
opulus produces its fine flowers very freely, and is 
a very desirable plant for cutting or decorative pur- 
poses. Azalea mollis in fine shades of orange, 
flesh, and pink, is grown in quantity, and a good 
U'.ch of the useful A. pontica, with its orange- 
yellow, very fragrant and freely-produced flowers 
deserves a word of praise. Rhododendron hybrida 
var. alba superba is the favourite forcing variety. 
We do not often hear of Magnolias being much 
forced, but that superb variety, M. L°nnei is quite 
amenable to this course of cultivation here. Cle- 
matis Madame Crousse, a white-flowered variety 
requires great care to be successfully forced. Of 
Spinea japonica— that best of forcers— a large quan- 
tity is grown. Acer negundo variegatum : the foliage 
of this plant forms a pretty contrast to flowering 
plants. Roman Hyacinths and Tulips are very 
largely forced ; about forty varieties of the latter 
are grown, and amongst those in bloom at the time 
of our visit we specially noted, Couronne d'Or, 
fine double orange ; that queen of Tulips, Proser- 
pine, deep glossy violet-shaded ; Yellow Prince, a 



very sweetly-scented variety ; Thomas Moore, of a 
shade of terra-cotta; Prince of Austria, like the 
preceding variety, but of a more fiery colour ; Rose 
Gris de Lin, pure pink ; Pottebakker, red, white, and 
yellow; and Keizsr's-Kroon, with blooms red and 
yellow. Good whites were noted in La Reine and 
Immacul6>. Murillo, a double flower, is rose-pink, 
and almost as large as a Pteony ; a beautiful pink is 
Salvator rosa ; and Canary Bird a flower of citron- 
yellow. Lily of the Valley attracted attention by 
its great numbers, the flower- spikes being in demand 
from October until EaBter-tide. Lilium lancifolium, 
white and red, was represented by a good stock ot 
plants. To refer briefly to the foliage plant depart- 
ment ; as is generally known, this is quite an 
emporium for Palms in all the best species for 
market and other purposes. None are imported, 
but are all grown from seed, consequently quite an 
interesting diversity of growth is witnessed — from 
seedlings in 'thumbs" and onwards to the mag- 
nificently furnished specimens in No. 8 sized pots. 
It is generally conceded that a finer stock of Cocos 
flexnosus is not to be seen in this country — -perfect 
specimens, some 16 feet in height ; in fact, they 
have outgrown their present quarters, and a com- 
modious structure, 80 feet by 50 feet, and 25 feet 
in height, is being prepared for their reception, as 
well as for other members of the Palm family, which 
are all grown quite " cool." Although necessarily of 
slower growth under this system of treatment, much 
healthier and more enduring plants for the various 
purposes required are the satisfactory results of 
it. The favourite Dracieaas are D. Bruantii and 
D. Cantwellii, the latter a bold and striking sort, with 
broad and erect leaves, margined and striped bright 
crimson, terminal leaves vivid crimson. An effective 
variegated long-leaved grass is Carex japonica fol. 
var, much used in a small state as grown here for 
vases and similar styles of decoration ; another good 
and very graceful variegated grass, largely in request 
for hanging baskets, is'a species of Stenotaphrum (?). 
That useful plant for cutting purposes, Asparagus 
prostratus var. plumosus, so attractive with its 
light feathery style of growth, has a largo space 
devoted to its culture, showing its popularity. Those 
most durable, handsome foliaged and useful room 
plants, the green and variegated Aspidistra lurida, 
deserve a passing note, and a final reference may 
be found in recording the fact, although it is early 
yet to do so, that outdoors Mr. Drost has consider- 
able space devoted to Spanish and German Irises, 
the Spanish section being the favourite one, on 
account of a greater diversity in colour in the 
flowers, and that they "last" longer than the 
German. J. B. 



SOCSETSE 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 

January 16. — Favoured with remarkably mild 
weather, the first meeting of the year, held on 
Tuesday last, in the D/ill Hall, James Street, West- 
minster, was a good one. Orchids constituted half 
the show, being exhibited in unusual quantity for 
the season. As will be seen from the tables below, 
the members of the various committees were present 
in more than usual numbers. 

Floral Committee. 

Present : W. Marshall, Esq , in the chair ; and 
Messrs. H. H. D'Ombrain, Jno. Fraaer, Owen 
Thomas, H. Herbst, R. D^an, H. B. May, J. H. 
Fitt, Geo. Stevens, W. C. Leach, C. F. Bause, 
Chas. Jeffri»8, J. Jennings, Peter Barr, Geo. Nichol- 
son, Jaa. Walker, C. J. Salter, E. Beckett, H. J. 
Jones, Henry Cannell, Thos. BaineB, Robert Owen, 
J. T. Bennett Pcii, Geo. Paul/Ed. Mawley, Harry 
Turner, Geo. Gordon, and W. Selfe Leonard. 

A very pretty group of miscellaneous plants was 
set up by Messrs. J. Laing & Sons Forest Hill 
LondoD, S.E., and included some nicely grown 
plants of Dracaenas, Heath, Anthuriums, JEchmeas, 
Begonia Gloire ce Sceaux, Cyclamens, Azalea 
mollis, and a few capital plants of Bertolonia in 
variety. t The group was brightened by a few 



Orchids, such as Odontoglossum grande, O. 
glorioaum, D<mdrobium heterocarpum, Zygope- 
talum Mackayii, &c. (Silva Flora Medal). 

N. L. Cohen, Esq., Round Oak, Eiglefbld Green 
Nursery (gr., Mr. J. Sturt), sent forty-eight pota of 
Freesia refracta alba in bloom. They were 
deservedly awarded a Silver Flora Medal, as 
exhibiting remarkably good culture. The bloom 
was abundant and even in height. 

From the Hon. W. F. D. Smith, Greenlands, Henley- 
on-Thames (gr., Mr. H. Perkins), came a group of 
Seedling Amaryllis. The flowers were good, and 
made a nice show. Also a well-flowered plant of 
Dendrobium Cooksonii (Silver Banksian Medal). 

Messrs. Sutton & Sons, Reading, showed some 
varieties of the moss-curled Primula sinensis alba- 
magnifica. The foliage appears not to keep its fern- 
leaf character when double flowers are secured ; but 
the leaves on the single variety are remarkably 
pretty, whilst those on Sutton's double Lilac, and 
Sutton's double alba are pretty in a less degree, 
which is balanced by the nice double flowers they 
produce. 

Messrs. H. Cannell & Son?, Stanley, also staged 
a group of Primulas of very excellent strain. The 
plants were dwarf, and flower spikes strong and well 
above the foliage. Although the blue Primula has 
not yet been seen, a variety called Swanley Blue 
appears to promise yet further advance in that direc- 
tion ; and Primrose Day, a development in another 
direction, has the centre of the flower yellow, 
bordered with white. Canterbury is a beautiful 
white, and high and deep-coloured forms were well 
represented (Bronze BankBian Medal). 

Messrs. E. D. Shuttleworth & Co. had a group of 
miscellaneous plants, bordered with pots of Lily of 
the Valley (Silver Banksian Medal). 

Mr. Robert Osven was responsible for Chrysanthe- 
mums, exhibiting a few blooms of late-flowered 
kinds, including Madame H. de Fortainier, a large 
Japanese, white with yellow centre; a bloom of 
Good Gracious, a variety described at the laBt meet- 
ing ; Goldfinch, a deep flower of red and bronz? ■ 
New Year's Gift, a white Japaneae, with pale lemon 
centre ; and M. Maurice Dally, a large flat bloom, 
with pale lemon centre and lilac margin. 

Mr. T. Whillana, gr. to the Duke of Marlborough, 
Blenheim, Woodatock, sent three varieties of Car- 
nations, two of which received Awards of Merit, 
John Peter Rugus, a bright crimaon, and Sir H. 
Calcroft, a crimson of darker shade. Both varieties, 
as shown, had a tendency to split the calyx. Presi- 
dent Carnot, the third variety, was an exceptionally 
dull crimson. 

Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, exhibited a 
fine plant of Balantium (Dicksonia) culcita. 

Mr. J. Crooke, gr. to W. H. Evans, Esq., Forde 
Abbey, Chard, sent cut flowers of several varieties 
of plants, including Euphorbia jarquiniflore, double 
Primula Marchionees of Exeter, aeedling Primula 
obconica, of pretty lilac colour ; and seedling Primula 
floribunda. 

Mr. Earp, gr. to the Right Hon. Joseph Cham- 
berlain, Highbury, near Birmingham, had spathes 
of three hybrid Anthuriuma, one of which was large 
and pink or flesh-coloured, and another dark red. 

F. R. Robinson, Esq., Blagdon House, Sneyd Park 
(gr., Mr. Ambrose), staged blooms of a perpetual- 
flowering Tree Carnation, named Blagdon Sur- 
prise, a capital white variety, and possessing very 
strong fragrance. 

A flower of Cyrtanthus flavescens came from Mr. 
Moore, Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin ; the 
flowers are sulphur-yellow, with long slender tube 
and a small recurved limb. A Japanese Chrysanthe- 
mum bloom was from Mr. Smythe, Basing Park 
Gardens. Alton. 

Mr. Stevens, gr. to W. Thompson, Esq, Walton 
Grange, near Stone, exhibited a few plants in flower 
of Eucharis Stevensii, a species somewhat resembling 
E. Mastersii. 

Orchid Committee. 
There were present on this committee: — Harry J. 
Veitch, Esq , in the chair; and Messrs. J. O'Brien 
(Sec), Dr. M. T. Masters, Sydney Courtauld, John 
T. Gabriel, T. B. Haywood, De B. Crawshay, R. 
Brooman- White, H. Ballantine, H. M. Pollett, 
A, H. Smee, E. Hill, H. Chapman, W. H. Protheroe' 
T. Statter, W. Cobb, T. W. Bond, W. H. White, and 
J. Douglae. 

This was the best show of Orchids which we 
have seen at the Drill Hall in January, and about 
seventy subjects were entered to go before the 
committee. The feature of the show was a mag- 
nificent group of white forms of Loelia anceps, from 
Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans including L. a. 



84 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 20, 1894. 



Schroderiana, L. a. Sanderiana, and others of that 
class. Altogether, the specimens exhibited bore 
about 220 grand flowers, borne on over 60 spikes. 
Bat more interesting than the great show of known 
varieties were the two beaatifnl forme, L. a. Ash- 
worthiana and L a. Hollidayana, exhibited to indicate 
their new strain of L. anceps from the Orizaba dis- 
trict, and which have more beautifully formed flowers 
than those from the other side, the labellurus espe- 
cially being broad and square in the front lobe. L.a. 
Ashworthiana bad snow- white flowers with slate-blue 
veinings at the base of the lip, unlike the colour in 
others, but more nearly approaching in that respect 
L. a. Veitchii (First-class Certificate) ; L. a. Holli- 
dayana had flowers similar in form, but with crimson 
veins in the lip, and crimson blotch on the front lobe. 
The group also contained L. a. amabilis ; a fine speci- 
men of Cycnoches peruviana ; the very pretty new 
Phaio-Calanthe X Arnoldia; (C. Regnierii X P. 
grandifolius) (Award of Merit); the very beautiful 
Cypripedium x Calypso, Oakwood var., &c, and it 
was awarded a Silver-gilt Flora Medal. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Burford, Dorking 
(grower, Mr. W. H. White), showed the singular 
Mormodes Rolfeianum (Botanical Certificate); Epi- 
dendrum polybulbon (Botanical Certificate), Dendro- 
bium X Hebe, and D. X Dido, both, although very 
dissimilar, the result of crossing D. Findlayanum 
and D. x Ainsworthii. D. x Hebe had charming 
cream-coloured flowers, tipped with pink, and it 
received an Award of Merit. Cut spikes of Angne- 
cum eburneum, Phalrenopsis intermedia Portei, and 
plants of Dendrobium x Burfordianum, Cypripedium 
X Calypso, Oakwood var., and a fine plant of Coelo- 
gyne graminifolia were also shown by Mr. White. 
The group received an award of a Silver Banksian 
Medal. 

Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Son, Royal Exotic Nursery, 
King's Road, Chelsea, showed a number of rare new 
hybrid Orchids of great beauty ; and amongst them 
were the first hybrids obtained with Cypripedium 
Stonei platytcenium as one of the parents named 

C. X Morganite Langleyense (superbiens X Stonei 
p'atytKnium).and distinguished by its broader petals, 
and fewer and larger spots (First-class Certificate) ; 
and C. X AdraBtus (Boxalli $ , Leeanum £), finely 
formed and beautifully coloured cross (First-class 
Certificate) ; the pretty violet and white Epiden- 
drum X Endresii-Wallisii ; the vermilion coloured 
Sophro-Cattleya Veitchii (Sophronitis graudiflora <j> , 
L. C. Scbilleriana <J ) ; Dendrobium euosmum; 

D. C. roeeum, Cypripedium X Niobe, and C. X 
Germinyanum. 

Messrs. B. S. Williams & Sod, Victoria and 
Paradise Nurseries, Upper Holloway, N , staged a 
good group, in which were about twenty distinct 
species and crosses of Cj pripedium, the best as usual 
being C. X Pitcherianum. William's var.; fine 
plants of Dendrobium Wardianum, Oncidium 
Forbesii, Odontoglossum?, &c. (Silver Banksian 
Medal). 

R. I. Measurep, Esq., Cambridge Lodge, Camber- 
well (gr., Mr. H. Chapman), sent a fine group of select 
Cypripediumf, among which the golden yellow 
flowered C. insigne Ernestii was very remarkable ; 
C. Boxalli dilectum, C. Leeanum illustre, C. X 
fascinatum, C. X Buchanianum, C. X Celeus and 
other rare crosses were included, besides the pretty 
Pleurothallis punctulata, and the singular looking 
Masdevallia cupularis (Silver Flora Medal). 

An interesting group of Orchids was staged by 
Mesers. Hugh Low & Co., Clapton, including several 
fine pieces of Cattleja Percivaliana, Angrjccum 
leequipedale, Saccolabium bellinum and S. b. album, 
Miltonia Roezlii, Vanda Amesiana, and Cypripe- 
dium bellatulum (Silver BankBian Medal). N. C. 
Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wjlam-on-Tyne (gr., Mr. 
W. Murray), sent some plants of hybrid Calanthes, 
of which the best were C. X Wm. Murray, with white 
petals and a dark crimson lip, to which an 
Award of Merit was given ; C. X Bryan, white with 
purple eye (Award of Merit) ; C x Sybil, pure white ; 
and C. X Pi ojbe, of the colour of C. X Veitchii, and 
with nearly round flowers. Mr. J. H. Fitt, The 
Gardens, The Frythe, Welwyn, likewise showed a 
hybrid Culanthe, with flowers mottled with deep 
purple and named C. X Florence. An Award of 
Merit was given him for it. 

T. Stattt-r. Esq., Stand Ildll, Whitefield, Man- 
chester (gr , Mr. K .Ii.hnson), showed the fine Cypri- 
pedium X I'Mwaidi superbum ; C. X Ariadne 
(Spicerianuni x selligerum majus) Lrelia X 
Euterpe, Cypripedium x l.ucianum superbum, and 
C. X distinctum. I)e B. Crawshay, Esq , Rosefield, 
Sevenoaks (gr., Mr. S. Cooke), showed Odontoglos- 
sum Kuckerianum, Crawshay 'a var., very fine a form 



which is richly spotted ; 0. Andersonianum loba- 
tum, and the true Lxlia Crawsbayana, Rchb. f. 

W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, Stone, 
Staffs, (gr., Mr. W. Stevens), sent OdontogloaBum 
Rosbi Ssevensi, a plant with many flower spikes, a 
fine white form of Lselia anceps, and two natural 
hybrid Odontoglossume. C. W. Fincken, Esq., 
Hoyland Hall, Barnsley (gr., Mr. J.Milburn), showed 
varieties of Odontoglossum Rossi and of Lselia 
anceps Schroderiana. A. J. Hollington, Esq., Forty 
Hill, Enfield (gr., Mr. Ayling), sent three crosses of 
Cypripediums. F. Wigan, Esq., Clare Lawn, East 
Sheen (Orchid grower, Mr. W. H. Young), exhibited 
a well-flowered plant of the handsome violet-lipped 
Dendrobium atro-violaceum (First-class Certificate). 

Mr. Jas. CrispiD, Fishponds, Bristol, staged a 
stand of many varieties of Cypripedium, and some 
plants of C. insigne Crispiniana and C. X Sedeni 
(Bronze Banksian Medal). 

F. A. Bevan, Esq., Trent Park, Barnet (gr., Mr. 
W. H. Lees), showed a Bpike of Dendrobium Pha- 
lsenopsis, Trent Park var., a flower of pure white, 
with purple lines on the lip. Messrs. W. L. Lewis 
& Co., Chase Side, Southgate, sent a pretty form of 
Cypripedium insigne, and flowers of C. Percivalianum, 
Southgate var. Mr. Head, Superintendent, Crystal 
Palace Gardens, sent a fine, nearly white, Cattleya 
Trianaii albens. W. R. Lee, Esq., Beech Lawn, 
Audenshaw, Manchester, Bhowed Cypripedium X 
Leo, like a very pale form of C. X Lathamianum ; 
and Mr. J. R. Richardson, Sunderland, sent flowers 
of a form of Dendrobium nobile. 

F. W. Moore, Esq., Royal Botanic Gardens, Glas- 
nevin, Dublin, showed fine spikes of Bulbophyllum 
como8um and Cyperorchis elegans ; and W. M. 
Appleton, Esq., Tyn-y-coed, Weston-super-Mare, 
showed Cypripedium Appletonianum, Ltelia albida, 
L. a. sulphurea, and a flower of Cattleya Walkeriana. 

Messrs. Linden, Brussels, sent a few interesting 
plants which were too late for consideration by the 
Committee. Among them were Maxillaria Lin- 
denise, a large- flowered, milky-white species, with 
the faintest trace of pink on the lower side of the 
petals, the individual flowers were 5 inches across, 
this is a fine addition to this genus. A new Zygo- 
petalum, named Claesianum, having intensely blue 
lip ; two plants of the pretty Stenia fimbriata were 
much admired on account of their pale yellow silky- 
looking flowers, the lip being a mass of silky fibres. 
Odontoglossum Jenningsianum var. pauci-guttatum 
(Rolfe), had a fine spike of flowers, the half of which 
were yellow and other half white, spotted throughout 
with chocolate. 

Fruit Committee. 

Present : Philip Crowley, Esq , in the chair ; and 
MessrB. Jno. Lee, Chas. Herring, Harrison Weir, 
G. W. Cummins, Jas. H. Veitch, Jos. Cheal, Geo. 
Tabor, T. J. Saltmarsh, J. Wright, A. Dean, Jno. 
A. Laing, J. W. Bates, Geo. Wythes, Jas. Hudson, 
G. II. Sage, F. Q. Lane, H. Balderson, T. Smith, 
G. T. Miles, Rjbt. Hogg, Geo. Bunyard, and 
J. Willard. 

Mr. W. C. Leach, gr. to the Duke of Northumber- 
land at Albury Park, Guildford, was the principal 
exhibitor, and staged twogood bunches each of Grapes 
of Gros Colman and Lady Downea. They were pretty 
bunches, and highly coloured ; also a number of 
Apples, Albury Park Nonsuch, described as a good 
cooker, of fine flavour. It received an award of 
merit laBt year. Another Apple, called Warkworth 
Castle, was a seedling from Northern Greening, 
Baid to be a heavy and sure cropper, and keeping 
in condition until May ; the fruits were of medium 
size. A'ao young Cabbages of Union Jack and 
Edam's Early, and Celery Standard Bearer ar,d 
Major Clarke (Bronze Banksian Medal). A large 
Christmas Drumhead Cabbage was sent from the 
Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens at Chiswick. 
The R iv. II. C. Brewster ',Kelsey Rectory, Lincoln- 
shire, sent a dish of a new Apple, called Jenny 
Brewster. Tha committee wished to see the fruits 
again in better condition. 

Mr. J. Dumble, gr. to Sir Chas. Phillips, Picton 
CaBtle, Haverfordwest, sent some good clean fruits 
of an Orange described as Bahia Navel Orange, with 
the following noteB ; — The fruits were taken from a 
young tree in a 15-inch pot, the tree was from 
Brazil, and was now carrying two dozen fruits. In 
181)2, the tree flowered in February and again in July, 
and carried two crops of fruit. Two of the fruits 
shown were part of the second crop of 1802, and 
have been ripe Borne monthB. The other fruits 
which were larger ones, were from the February 
flowering of 1803. The fruits contain no seeds, and 
are of very superior flavour (Cultural Commendation ) . 



Mr. W. H. Bannister, gr. to A. St. Vincent Ames, 
Esq., Cote House, Wesbury-on-Trym, had four good 
fruits of a new Apple Standard Bearer. 

Messrs. Osman & Co.. 132, Commercial Street, 
London, E,, showed the Cazenove Bouquet frame for 
vases, to prevent the flowers from falling about 
loosely ; and a sample of their circular weed extractor. 



Foreign Correspondence. 

PAVIA MACROSTACHTA AT LA.EKEN. 

Few flowering shrubs are more beautiful than the 
Pavia macrostachya, of which you gave a supple- 
mentary illustration in last week's number. I may 
be excused for calling further attention to it, since 
we have here in various portions of our park immense 
clumps — masses of it, indeed, from 30 to 40 feet in 
diameter, and in its season laden with thousands of 
flowers. For some years I have been in the habit of 
surfacing, top-dressing, these masses of vegetation, 
as I do our Rhododendrons, with rotted horse-stable 
manure, and this surface-dressing encourages suckers, 
layers, in short, extension which naturally enhances 
the beauty of our lake- margins in the month of July, 
when comparativey few hardy trees or shrubs are in 
flower. Moreover, the leaves are beautiful both in 
summer and autumn. Feed it as I do, and before 
doing so throw a few handfuls of Scillas, Snow- 
drops, and winter Aconites over the surface previous 
to putting on the 3 inches of top-dressing, and I 
guarantee expenses will be paid in enhanced 
pleasure in spring as well as in summer. Mention 
of this scattering of spring-flowering bulbs in 
outlandish places, as it were, will be considered 
barbarous in some estimation ; but I assure you it 
is most successful and satisfactory here, and gives 
an amount of pleasure at the time to those for 
whom it is intended. K , Laeien, January 13. 



©tuttiat^ 

Walter Henry Williams.— It is with much 

regret that we have to record the death of Walter 
Henry Williams, head of the well-known firm of 
Keynes, Williams & Co., at the early age of thirty- 
one, which took place, after a short illness, from 
pneumonia, early on the morning of the 14th iiiBt. 
at his house, Parkhurst, Salisbury. It is fifteen 
years since the deceased became connected with the 
Castle Street Nurseries, Salisbury, which occurred 
on the death of Mr. J. Keynes, and during that 
period of time the nurseries and business have been 
considerably extended. Mr. John Wyatt, who had 
been with the late Mr. John Keynes from the begin- 
ning, and is happily still hale, and as energetic and 
skilful in the management of the concern as ever, 
and his son, Mr. C. S. Wyatt, greatly assisting in 
the building-up and development of the business, 
like everyone who has had the pleasure of personal 
acquaintance with the late Mr. Walter Williams, 
greatly deplore the demise of their young chief. 
Mr. Williams took a great interest in the raising 
and exhibiting of Dahlias of the single and Cactus 
type, and readers of the Gardeners' Chronicle who 
saw the admirable arrangement of Dahlias at the 
great show held in Shrewsbury laBt August, under 
the supervision of the deceased, which differed from 
the old methods of staging Dahlias, and which was 
reproduced at the Agricultural Hall, London, a week 
later, will remember the fine effect obtained. By 
the death of Mr. Williams the Wilts Horticultural 
Society sustains a great lose, he having very effi- 
ciently filled the poBt of Honorary Secretary during 
the past twelve or thirteen years. Mr. Williams 
waB the youngest but one of four sons of the late 
Charles Williams, Esq., a J. P. for the city of Salis- 
bury. He was a Fellow of the Royal Horticultural 
Society, and a member of its Floral Committee. 

WILLIAM TrUELOVE, who waa foreman in the 
arboretum at Kew for twenty-six years, and who 
retired two years ago, at the age of Beventy, died at 
Brixton on the 10th inet., after a short illness. He 
superintended many large and important alterations 
made in the arboretum at Kew during the curator- 



January 20, 1894.] 



THE &ABDENEtiS' CHRONICLE. 



85 



ship of the late Mr. Smith, what is now the arbore- 
tum being little more than an ordinary English 
wood with a grass glade here and there, when Mr. 
Truelove was appointed. He was trained in the 
famous arboretum at Bicton, and in Mr. Barron's 
nursery at Borrowash. The burly figure, and genial 
nature which characterised Mr. Truelove, will be 
known to many of our readers who frequented the 
Kew arboretum. He had a wide knowledge of culti- 
vated trees and shrubs, and was an exemplary man 
in many ways. 

ROBERT MacMILLAN.— Many will learn with 
regret that Mr. MacMillan, the late well known gar- 
dener st Moreton House, Bideford, Devon, died re- 
cently at the age of forty-two years. He was an 
excellent gardener, and only resigned his situation 
as gardener in November of last year on account of 
ill-health, after having held it for more than 
eleven years. 




fBT the term " accumulated temperature" is meant the 
aggregate amount, as well as the duration, of degrees of 
temperature above or below 43° Fahr. for the period 
named ; and this combined result is expressed in Day- 
degrees — a " Day-degTee " signifying 1° continued for 
twenty-four hours, or any other number of degrees for 
an inversely proportional number of hours. J 





Temperature. 


Rainfall. 


Bright 
Sun. 




Iff 


Accumulated. 


s 





QQ 

go 


| 

11 

1 
9 


i 




is 2 a 

~v a 
I" 








1 • 

£s 
.23 

w CD 

£3 

Q 


a 
m • 

>>» - 
a "- 1 

Is 



6 

Z 


d 

S9 
t-a 




s 

1 


3 -* 

«00 

•° .-T 

1 

O <D 
to V 

8: .9 
g 

V 


n 

H 
O 

1 

a 

a 


a 

h 

«s 

« 

CM 9 

> 

S 

■4 



A 

h 
O , 

s 

I* 


"3 

M 


9 


a id ■ 

ill 

si- 

sis 
SM 


O 

)H '3 il 

"* a s 

i ° c 




< 






■< 


m 






H 




a< 






Day- 


Day- 


Day- 


Day 


lOths 














deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


Inch. 




Ins. 









2 + 


9 


27 


— 6 


+ 22 


3 — 


9 


11 


8 


16 


1 


1 — 


3 


49 


— 12 


+ 40 


1 + 


7 


10 


14 


3 


2 


3 — 





48 


- 15 


+ 49 


1 — 


10 


8J 8 


13 


3 


3 — 





49 


— 14 


+ 64 


2 — 


10 


0-6, 14 


14 


4 


aver 


1 


37 


— 14 


+ 55 


1 — 


10 


0'5i 15 


22 


5 


aver 


8 


33 


— 13 


+ 67 


aver 


8 


0-8; 19 


20 


6 


1 + 


8 


26 


— 12 


+ 29 


2 + 


8 


1-6 15 


14 


1 


aver 


7 


32 


- 10 


+ 46 


aver 


7 


era 22 


25 


8 


1 + 


26 


14 


— 4 


+ 59 


3 + 


8 


1-6! 23 


24 


9 


I + 


10 


24 


- 17 


+ « 


5 + 


8 


1'5 23 


22 


10 


aver 


29 


17 


_ 11 


+ « 


13 + 


9 


24 


23 


22 


. 


aver 


25 


6 


- 21 


+ 47 


7 + 


9 


1-8 


24 


31 



The districts indicated by number in the first column are 
the following : — 

0, Scotland, N. Principal Wheat-producing Districts — 
1, Scotland. E.; 2, England, N.E. : 3. England. E. ; 
4, Midland Counties; 5, England, including London, S. 
Principal Grazing, tyc. Districts — 6, Scotland, W. ; 7, 
England. N.W.: 8, England, S.W. ; 9, Ireland, N. 
10. Ireland. S. : * Channel Islands. 



THE PAST WEEK. 

The following summary record of the weather for 
the week ending January 13, is furnished from the 
Meteorological Office : — 

" The wiather continued cold and wintry during 
the first two days of the period, but mild and rainy 
conditions subsequently spread over the kingdom 
from the Atlantic, and remained with us throughout 
the rest of the week. 

" The temperature was very low at the opening of 
the period, but by Tuesday a very general and rapid 
rise had taken place, and during the latter part of 
the week it was rather high. The average for the 
week did not diner materially from the means for 
the time of year, taking the kingdom as a whole, 
bnt in England, N.E. and E , they were 3° below, 
and in Scotland, N., 2° above. The absolute minima 
(recorded on the 7th) were as low as — 1° in Scot- 
land, E. (at Braemar), + 2° in Ireland, S. (at 
Waterford), 6° in England, N.E.,and 8° in England, 



S.W., while elsewhere they varied from 10° in 
England, E., to 16° in England, N.W., and to 23° 
in the Channel Islands. Tne highest of the maxima 
were registered on the 12th, when the thermometer 
rose to 53° in most of the more northern 
districts, and to 57° over the Midland Counties and 
England, N.W. 

The rainfall was rather less than the mean over 
Scotland, N., and the eastern, north- eastern, and 
central parts of England, and just equalled the 
normal in EDgland, S. and N.W. ; in all other 
districts there was an excess, that over Ireland and 
in the Channel Islands being very considerable. 

" The bright sunshine exceeded the mean in the 
' grazing ' districts, but showed a deficit in most of 
the ' Wheat-producing' districts. The percentage 
of the possible duration ranged from 26 in Ire- 
land, N., and 24 in England, S.W., and the Channel 
Islands, to only 8 in Scotland, N., and England,N.E." 



ARKETS. 



COVEN J GABBEN, January 18. 
[We cannot accept any editorial responsibility for the sub- 
joined reports. They are furnished to us regularly every 
Thursday, by the kindness of several of the principal 
salesmen, who revise the list, and who are responsible 
for the quotations. It must be remembered that these 
quotations do not represent the prices on any particular 
day, but only the general averages for the week preceding 
the date of our report. The prices depend upon the 
quality of the samples, the supply in the market, and the 
demand ; and they fluctuate, not only from day to day, 
but often several times in one day. Ed.1 

Plakts ik Pots.— Average Wholesale Pbioes. 

t.d.t.d. 

Foliage plants, doz. 12 0-42 
Hyacinths, p. doz.... 6 0-90 
Lily of the Valley, p. 

doz. pots 15 0-24 

Marguerites, perdoc. 6 0-12 
Mignonette, doz. pots 6 0-9 
Palme, various, each 2 0-10 

— specimens, eachlO 6-84 
Poinsettias, per doz. 12 0-15 
Primulas, per dozeo 4 0-60 
Solanums, per doz.,.. 9 0-12 
Tulips, p. doz. pots .60-80 



i-diantum, per doz. 6 
Aspidistra, per doz. 15 

— specimen, each 7 
Azalea, per doz. ...24 
Chrysanthemums.doz 6 
Oyperus, per dozen 4 
Draosaoa, each ... 1 
Erica, various, p. dz. 9 
Evergreen Shrubs, in 

var., per dozen ... 6 
Ferns, various, doz. 4 

— small, per 100 4 
Ficus elastica, eaoh 1 



d. 


s.d. 


0- 


12 


0- 


30 


6-21 


0-36 


0- 


9 


0-10 


0- 


B 


0- 


24 


0- 


24 


0- 


- 9 


0- 


6 


8- 


- 7 6 



Out Flowebs.— Average Wholesaxe Prioes- 



Arum, per doz. M. ... 3 

Azalea, p. 12 sprays 
Bouvardias. per bun. 
Camellias, doz. blms. 1 
Oarnations, 12 blms. 1 
Chrysanthemums, 12 
bunches ... 2 

— doz. blooms ... 
Eucharis, per dozen 4 
Gardenia, per dozen 6 
Hyacinth, Roman, 

12 sprays 

Lilac (Fr.), per bun. 4 
Lilium Harrisii. doz. 6 
Lily of the Valley, 

per dozen sprays... 
Maiden Hair Fern, 

12 bunches ... 4 

Marguerite, 12 bun. 1 
Mignonette, 12 bun. 2 
Primula, dble. p. bun. 



d. s.d. 
0-6 
9-10 
6-10 
0-2 6 
6-3 

0-6 
6-3 
0-6 
0-10 

6-0 9 
0-6 
0-12 

0-0 

0-6 
6-3 
0-4 
6- 1 



Narciss, French, white, 
l2buoches ... 2 

— yellow, 12 bun. , 1 
Orchids :— 

Cattleya, 12 blms. 6 
Odontoglossum 
orispum,12blms. 2 
Pelargoniums, scar- 
let, p. 12 bun. 4 

— 12 sprays ... 
Poinsettia, 12 blooms 4 
Roses, French, p. doz. 

— — p. boxof 100 3 

— Tea, per dozen 

— coloured, dozen 2 

— yellow (Mare- 

ohal8),per doz. 3 

— red, perdozen... 1 
Tuberose. 12 blms. 
Violets, Panne, p. bn. 3 

— Czar, per bun. 2 

— English, per doz. 1 



3 

■ 2 6 



0-6 

0-9 
6-10 
0-6 
9-16 
0-6 
6-2 
0-4 

0-6 
0- 1 6 
6-10 
0-5 
0-3 
6-2 



Orohid-bloom in variety. 



FRDIT. 

Apples, per bush. 
Cobs, per 100 lb. 
Grapes, per lb. 



-Average Wholesale Prices* 

s.d. t.d. s.d. f, d. 

Pine-apples, St* Mi- 
chael, each ... 2 6-76 



.. 4 0-10 
,..45 0- ... 
...10-3 



Vegetables. 
i 

Beans, French, lb. ... 1 
Beet, red, per dozen 1 
Carrots, per bunch... 
Cauliflowers, eaoh .. 
Celery, bundle 
Cucumbers, each .. 
Endive, per dozen „ 
Herbs, per bunoh . 
Leeks, per bunch . 



— Average 
d. t. d. 



Bet ail Prices. 



0-2 
4-0 6 
4-0 6 
0-13 



Lettuaes, per doz. ... 1 
Mushrooms, punnet 1 
Mustard and Cress, 
punnet 



2 
2 



3- ... 

Parsley, per bunch... 2-06 

3- ... 

1 0- ... 
4-06 



0-16 Shallots, per lb, 
3- 1 6 | Tomatos, per lb. .„ 
3- 1 i Turnips, per bunch.. 
3- ... 



POTATOS. 

Demand for best samples better. Arrivals of common kinds 
too heavy for dem nd. Prices low. J. B. Thomas. 



FKUIT3 AND VEGETABLES. 

Borough: Jan. 16.— Quotations:— Savoys, 3s. to 5s; Cauli- 
flowers, 5s. to 7s. per tally; Turnips, Is, Qd. to 2s. ; Carrots, 
2s. to 5s. ; Parsley, Is. 6d, to Is. Qd. per dozen bunches ; 
Onions, 5s. Qd, to 6s. Qd. per bag; EnglUh do., 6s. Qd. to 7s. 
per cwt. ; Apples, Is. Qd. to 2s. per bushel. 

Stratford : Jan. 16.— There has been an abundance of all 
kinds of produce at this market during the past week, and a 
brisk tiade was done as under: —Cabbages, Is. Qd. to 3s" 
per tally; Savoys, 2s. to 5s, do. ; Greens, Is. to Is. Qd. per 
bag ; ditto, Is. 3d. to '2$. per dozen bunches; Brussel sprouts. 
Is. 3d. to Is. *..;■/. per half sieve ; do., Is. 9d. to 2s. Qd. per save ; 



Celery, Qd. to Is. per roll; Horseradish, Is. Qd. to Is. 9a\ per 
bundle; Turnips, Is. 3d. to 2s. per dozen bunches; do., 20s. to 
to 40s. per ton ; Carrots, household, 40s. to 47s. 6^. per ton ; 
do., cattle-feeding, 28s. to 35s. per ton ; ParBnips, Qd. to Is. 
per score ; Mangels, 22s. to 26s. per ton ; Swedes, 20s. to 24s. 
per ton ; Onions, English, 180*. to 200s. per ton ; do., Dutch, 
6s. Qd. to 7s. Qd. per bag ; Valencias, 7s. Qd. to 9s. per case ; 
Apples, English, 2s. Qd. to Qs. per bushel. 



SEEDS. 



London : Jan. 17,— Messrs. John Shaw A. Sons, Seed Mer- 
chants, of Great Maze Pond, Borough, London, S.E., write 
that there is now a nice quiet business doing. Red Clover seed 
is unchanged. Trefoil continues in especial favour ; choice 
samples realize up to nearly 70s. per cwt., an unprecedented 
price. Italian Rye-grass is strong. Spring Tares excite in- 
creased attention. Canary seed is unaltered. Hemp seed 
continues cheap. In Peas and Haricots there is rather more 
doing. 







Address of M. Ritzema Bos : C. E. H. Wageningen 
Holland. 

Carnation Disease : W. G. «f E. C. Williams. Plants 
are attacked with the slime fungus. See instruc- 
tions to " F." last week. 

Docble-spathed Aeums : T. W. Double-spathed 
Arums are not uncommon. As jour plant has 
produced such spathes for two years, it is worth 
growing on. It is not unusual for Cyclamens to 
develop leaves and flowers from their flower-stalks, 
but we are sorry not to be able to give a satisfactory 
reason. 

Fowls' Dung fob Vines : Grapes. You may use 
it as a top-dressing for Vines in pots and borders. 
Two or three ounces will suffice for dressing one 
square yard of soil. A dressing of this strength 
may be afforded once in three weeks. You need 
not use wood-ashes with it. Sift it through a fine- 
meshed sieve before using. 

Dressing for Lawns : G. K. The dried products of 
the ABC process of deodorising sewage, other- 
wise called native guano ; blood manure in the dry 
state ; fish manure, &c. ; but unless the lawn is very 
poor indeed, the materials you purpose using 
would suffice for one season. Farmyard drainings 
applied in the winter do much good to impoverished 
lawns. We should be chary of using the screened 
soil from the rubbish-heap, nnless this has been 
thoroughly subjected to strong fermentation in every 
part, asthis kind of material would introduce many 
kinds of weeds to the lawn through living seeds. It 
would be safer to char the heap of rubbish, and 
then the effects of the dressing would be more 
lasting, and at all events you would not be sowing 
weed seeds. If artificials are used, it may be 
roughly taken that between 2 and 3 oz. is a 
sufficient application for 1 yard superficial. 

Le Petit Jardin : J. H. B. At the office of Le 
Jardin, Argenteuil, France. 

Moving Large Camellias under Glass : 8. C. 
Unless the plant can be moved with a compact 
ball of earth and roots (in which case but little 
cutting-back would be necessary), it will be 
prudent to shorten all the main branches by 2 or 
3 feet. The removal should take place just at 
the time when growth re-commences. Keep the 
house close and moist for two or three weeks 
afterwards. 

Names of Fruits: J.B. Wilson. Your Pear is much 
past its character. Send again earlier next season. 
— W.A. Apple Annie Elizabeth. — Appledore. Next 
week. 

Names of Plants: W. C. 1, Jasminum nudiflorum ; 
2, Deodar, Cedar of Lebanon, or C. atlantica, im- 
possible to say which, from scrap sent; 3, Taxus 
baccate, variety ; 4, Picea, we cannot tell which, 
from the scrap sent ; 5, Salvia lanata. — Castag~ 
nolo. Lselia anceps Stella. There is a white Odon- 
toglossum crispum O. c. virginale. — T. H. Erica 
melanthera. — A. M., Chislehurst. Veltheimia 
viridifolia, a Cape bulbous plant. — J. S. Gale- 
andra dives. — B. M. A good variety of Odonto- 
glossum nebulosum. — F. W., Monmouth. 1, Pteris 
serrulata ; 2. Pteris serrnlata cristata ; 3. Asple- 
nium flaccidum ; 4. Begonia fuchsioides ; 5. 
Pteris cretica albo-lineata ; 6. Gymnogramma 
chrysophylla. — J. E. C. The insects on Stenan- 



86 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januaby 20, 1894. 



driam Lindeni are soft ecalea which are peculiar 
to some tender stove plants. Strike a batch of 
clean cuttings, and throw the old plant on the fire. 
The appearance on the Heliotrope leaves is caused 
by a fungoid growth fostered by the plants being 
kept warm during the winter. Try to winter them 
in a more airy situation. — W. S., Scotland. Maxil- 
laria punctata. — Golding. Lrelia albida, a small 
form of it. 

Notice to Dischaboe a Sebvant : Jack. Gardeners 
come under the designation of servants. If the 
hiring of a servant be general without aDy par- 
ticular time mentioned, the law construes the 
hi'ing to be for a year; and, in that casp, a quar- 
ter's warning must be respectively given before 
the expiration of the term. This refers more espe- 
cially to a servant in husbandry, for if no special 
contract be made, a domestic or menial servant 
is entitled only to a month's warning, or a month's 
wages in lieu of it. We should, therefore, suppose 
that young gardeners discharged at a week's notice 
only, could recover damages as against the em- 
ployer, who would be held responsible for the acts 
of hii head-gardener, the dismissal being, strictly 
speaking, illegal. 

Obchid Insect : B. E. 67. Your plants are badly 
attacked by the Cattleya-fly (Isosoma orchidea- 
rum), originally figured and described in our issue 
for Nov. 27, 1S69. and reproduced so lately as 
Oct. 14 last, p. 474, to which issue you had better 
refer for the full-grown fly. Keep a sharp look- 
out for any that may be flying among the plants, 
and you will prevent the pest from becoming more 
numerous. If this fails, there is nothing for it 
but to cut every young growth away as soon as 
attacked, and burn them. In future enquiries, 
please address the Editor, not the Publisher. 

PoLVGON'rjM Sachalinense : E. tj- W. Backet, Ade- 
laide South Australia. The plant is scarce as yet, 
and there is, so far as we know, no seed on offer 
in Europe. The creeping rhizomes may be obtain- 
able in some French and English botanical gardens, 
and we believe that M. Baltet of Troyes, and M. 
1'ynaert of Ghent, are getting together a stock of 
the plant for commercial purposes. 

Removal of Hothouses, Fixtures, &c. : J. What- 
ever is fixed to the soil, or outhouse, or farmyard 
wall, so as to become a part thereof, cannot b* 
removed ; but a tenant may remove what he has 
placed for the convenience of his tradp, and has 
nit expressly covenanted to the contrary. But it 
must b» done daring the continuance of bis term. 
A nurseryman may remove his greenhouses 
(Wyndbam v. Way, 4 Taunton, 346), also his 
small trees and shrubs. A tenant not a nur- 
serymen may remove his glasshouses, if they do 
not rest on brickwork built in the soil, and are 
fixed to the freehold by bolts or screws (Lyde v. 
Russell, 1 B. & Adol., 394). 

Rose of Pennsylvania : W. A. M. We know not 
which species of North American Rose has 
received this name. It may be Rosa lutescens. 
pale yellow, June; R. nitida, red, July; R. rubi- 
tolia, bramble-leaved, light red, August ; R. sua- 
veolens, the American Sweet Briar, pink, June; 
or R. Betigera, the climbing or Prairie Rose, deep 
rose, changing to white. All of the above may 
be obtained from nurseries or botanic gardens in 
this country. 

Willows barked by Rabbits: C. C. Mix clay, cow- 
dung, and a little water or sour milk, and to one 
pailful add two wine glassfuls of spirits of tar, and 
with this paint the stems to a height of 3 feet. It 
will do no harm to the trees, 



Communications Received.— T. M. & Sons.— T. W.— 
W. F. (we do not recognise the Iruit from the 

scrap sent. Can it be the Li Chi?) W. W. 

J. L. G.-Sir A. D.-J. N — W. & N.-J. K. B.— A. M. B. 
— L. L.— McB.— J. D. H.— T. V7.— A. E.— W. W.—J. M. M. 
—J. J. W.—J. D.— C. Baltet. Troyes.— M. D.— 0. Soret, 
Geneva.— J. D. H.— G. & W. H., Adelaide.— E. D.— A. Y.— 
C. W. D.— H. d. F.— E. O.—.l. B.-J. A.— J. M — D. R L.— 
J. E. — W. D. — H. C. P. — T. D. S. — J. G. B. — A. D.— 
Wild Rose.-T. F.— W. .1. G.-.T. S.— H. M,-.7ena (next 
week).— J. T. R.— P. W.—W. A. P.— H. N.— 0. G.— R. W. A ., 
Johannesburg— A.— J. M.— E. M.— S.,Tho Woods.— M. T. 
— N. B— H., Edinburgh.— Sir A. H. Dunbar. 

Specimens Received.— L. L. (with thanks).— P. B. (with 
thanks). 

Photographs Received, — H.Tunge, Haar]em(with thanks). 
— F. V. M,, Melbourne (with thank's). 



GARDEN REQUISITES. 

COCOA-NUT FIBRE REFUSE, 

8d. per bushel ; 100 for 30s. ; truck, loose (about 2 tons), 50s. 
Bags, id. each. 

SPECIALLY SELECTED OECBID PEAT. 

LIGHT BROWN FIBROUS PEAT, 5s. id. per saoR ; 5 sacks, 
25s. ; sacks, id. eaoh. 

BLACK FIBROUS PEAT, 5s. per saok ; 5 sacks, 22s. ; sacks, 
id. each. 

COARSE SILVER SAND, Is. id. per bushel; 16s. per hall 
ton ; 26s. per ton, in 2-bushel bags, id. eaoh. 

YELLOW FIBROUS LOAM, PEAT-MOULD, and LEAF- 
MOULD, Is. per bushel. 

SPHAGNUM MOSS. 8s. 6d. per sack. 

MANURES, GARDEN STICKS, VIRGIN CORK, TOBACCO 
CLOTH. RUSSIA MATS, &c. Write for Price LIST.— 
H. G. SMYTH, 21, Goldsmith Street. Drury Lane. W.C. 



HILL & SMITH, 

BRIEi.LEY HILL, NEAR DUDLEY, 
AJTD at 118, QUEEN VICTORIA ST., LONDON, E.G. 



IRON FENCING, HURDLES, GATES, &c. 




IRON ROOFING AND HAY BARNS. 




Special Estimates given for Large Contracts in Fencing, 
btoofing, &c. Personal Surveys of Estates made, and prac- 
tical advice given as to the best and most economical Fences 
to put down, juusfratefi Catalogues Free by Post. 



GREAT REDUCTION in FRAMES 

OTJE, WELL-KNOWN MAKE. 




PORTABLE PLANT FRAMES. 

These Frames are made of the Best Materials, and can be put 
together and taken apart in a few minutes by any one. 
Sizes and Prices, Glazed and Painted. £ 
6 feet long, 3 feet wide\ „ A eTT (2 



6 feet 


„ 4 feet 


12 feet 


„ 4 feet 


6 feet 


„ 6 feet 


12 feet 


„ 5 feet 


12 feet 


„ 6 feet 



CASH 

PRICES, 

CARRIAGE 

PAID. 

Larger lues at proportionate pricei. 



[5 12 



R. 



HALLIDAY & CO., 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL WORKS, 

MIDDLETON, MANCHESTER. 

London ^4pert(.Mr.H.SKELTON.Seedyman,&.c..2.HollowayRd.,N. 

CARSON'S PAINT 

Patroniaed by 20.000 of the Nobility, Gentry, 
and Clenry, for all kinds* of 

OUTDOOR WORK, CONSERVATORIES, 

Greenhouses, Frames, &c. 
1 Cwt., and OH Mixture, Free to all Stations. 

Liquid Non-Poisonoua Puint for IuBido of Conservatories, &o. 
Prices, Patterns, and Testimonials, Post-free. 

Grove Works, Lombard Road, Battersea, 
London, S.W. ; 

s.nd BACHELOR'S WALK, DUBLIN. 



PICTURESQUE ROCK GARDENS. 

Ferneries, Alpineries, and Winter Gardens ; Lakes, Cascades, 
and Meandering streams. 

BEAUTIFUL TERRACE GARDENS, 

With Balustrades. Fountains, Kerbod Partierre, and Flower 
Borders, Vases, Tazzae, Flower Baskets, Ac, designed and 
executed by — 

PULHAWI & SON, 

50. FINSBURY SQUARE. E.C. Works: BROXBOUHNE. 
Photographic book sept for inspection for 12 stamps. 

the IMPROVED GARDEN GULLY 

(VINCE'S PATENT). 

This useful invention is a great improvement on the ordi- 
nary Garden Grating, and is especially suitable for hilly walks 
and drives. As they never get stopped by rubbish or sand 
they effectually prevent the washing away of the gravel in 
heavy storms, and they save half the labour in cleaning out 
the cesspools. The prices are : — 

8- in., 2s. ; 10-in., 3s. ; 12-in., 6s. 6^. 
( The larger sizes are very strong for carriage drives,) 
Full Particulars and Testimonials on application. 

YINCE & VINE, 

68, Chester Road, Upper Holloway, London, N. 




THIS GREENHOUSE erected and heated complete, in 
any part of the country, best materials only, workmanship 
guaranteed, 25 ft. by 12 ft., £50 ; 30 ft. by 15 ft., £70. Brick- 
work excepted. Forparticulars, see our Catalogue, post-free. 



Superior Portable Frames, large stock ready for 
immediate use, well made, painted four coats, glazed with 
21-oz. glass, carriage paid: — 1-lifiht frame, 4 X 6. 365. 6d. ; 
2-light frame, 6x8. 58s. ; 3- light frame, 12 X 6, 85«. 6d. 

Span-roof Frames, 9 x 5, £3 16s. : 12 x 6, £5 ; 16 x 6, 

£7 105. Can send off same day as ordered. 

HARDY BRUIN sC0., G s r t r& m LEICESTER 





ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FREE. 

W. Jones' Treatise, "Heating by Hot-water," 

Second Edition, 216 pages and 96 Engravings, 
2s. 6rf. nett, per post, 2s. 9rf. 



:^f-: . - , .ATnimnp'jnr.r.. 



ROBERTS'S (IMPROVED) PATENT 

STOVES 

Terra-cotta i Portable I For Coal 

Pure and ample heat, 24 hours for about Id.., 
without attention. 

For Greenhouses, Bedrooms, &o. 

GREENHOUSES Heated 24 Hours for about One Penny. 

Pamphlets, Drawings, and authenticated Testimonials sent, 

See in use at Patentee's, 

THOMAS ROBERTS, 34, victoria St., Westminster 



JiNUABY 20, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



87 



Telegrmns—" CONSERVATORIES, LONDON." 



Telephone, No. 4652. 



NOTICE to Builders, Nurserymen, Market Gardeners, Timber Merchants, 



AND THE TRADE GENERALLY. 



WM. COOPER'S 

SALE BY TENDER. 

Office: 755, OLD KENT ROAD, LONDON, S.E. 



Having deckled to re-build my Warehouses C and D, I am induced to offer Stock therein {it being liable more or less to 

damage during re-building), for Sale by Tender. 

CONDITIONS OF SALE.— All offers are to be sent in by Jan. 31, in sealed envelopes marked " Tender." The Highest Bidder will be accepted 
as the Purchaser, and he will at onoe be informed whioh Lot or Lots has been sold to him. All Lots are to be paid for within Three Days of 
acceptance of Tender, and same will be carefully packed on Rail, London, upon reoeipt of remittance. All Lots are to be cleared by Feb. 16, as 
I shall oommence pulling Warehouses down on the 19th, after which date warehouse room will be charged. 

THE AMATEUR FORCING-HOUSE. " AMATEUR " SPAN-ROOF AND LEAN-TO GREENHOUSES. 



TENANT'S FIXTURE (Span-roof). 

These houses are offered at an 
exceedingly low rate, and should 
be readil\ approved by both ama- 
teur and professional gardeners, as 
brickwork, which is very expensive 
to a small house, iB entirely dis- 
pensed with. 

The utility of such a houpe for 
forcing or cultivati g Cucumbers, 
Tomatos, Melons, &c , wi'l be per- 
ceived at a glance, it being a struc- 
ture constantly in request but 
almost hitherto unknown. 
Specification. — Framework substantially constructed of red deal; the whole of sides, and 
2 ft. ti in. of ends, boarded with well-seasoned tongued and grooved matchboards. Half-gla^s 
door, complete with rim lock and brass fittings, in one end ; glass 16 oz. throughout, English 
cut. Ventilators supplied according to size of houee, and stays necessary for opening same ; 
stapes for plants each side of house, all woodwork painted one coat of good oil paint, and the 
whole structure securely packed and placed on rail. 




Tenant's Fixtures. 

especially for Amateurs 
at a nominal figure, thereby coming 
within reach of those who require 
a strong but inexpensive structure, 
and being constructed in complete 
sections, are erectable by any 
handy-man or gardener in a few 
hours. Framework is substantially 
constructed of red deal, the lower 
p*rt being filled in with well- 
seasoned tongued and grooved 
matchooards. The house is fitted 
with ' oor complete, with rim lock 
and brass furniture, painted one coat 
of good oil colour, supplied with all 
necessary ironwork and stages for - - 
each side, and good 16oz. glass throughout. 




Ail parts securely packed, aud put on rail. 











Usual Price. 


Lot. 


Length. 


Width. 


Height. 


Packed on rail. 


1 to 3 


7 ft. 


5 ft. 


7 ft. 


£2 10 


4 to 6 


8 ft. 


5 ft. 


7 ft. 


3 


7 to 9 


9 ft. 


6 ft. 


7 ft. 3 in. 


■ 3 10 


10 to 13 


10 it.. 


7 ft. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


4 10 


14 to 15 


12 ft. 


8 ft. 


8 ft. 


5 10 


16 to SO 


15 ft. 


10 ft. 


8 ft. 6 in. 


7 15 


21 to 24 


20 ft. 


10 ft. 


9 ft. 


10 15 


S5to58 


25 ft. 


10 ft. 


9 ft. 


15 5 


29 to 31 


50 ft. 


10 ft. 


9 ft. 


27 


3ito37 


100 ft. 


10 ft. 


9 ft. 


45 



SPAN-ROOF VILLA CONSERVATORIES. 

Adaptable for the lawn of a villa residence, being well and substantially-built, constructed 

of the best materials, and artisti- 
cally finished, with diagonal panels 
and barge-boards. The framework is 
composed of 2 in, by 3£ in. red deal, 
the lower part doubly-lined with 
tongued and grooved matchboards, 
and the roof properly fitted with 
sashes, which facilitates fixing or re- 
moving of same without disturbing 
glass. 

The houses are fitted with a half- 
glass door, complete with rim lock, 
t rass fittings and key, and is supplied 
with lattice staging for each side, 
footpath the entire length ; gutters, 
__1jT ^ down pipes, suitable ventilators, and 
■^^ necessary ironwork for opening same. 
All woodwork painted two coats of 
good oil paint, glass cut to sizes, and all parts securely packed on rail. Prices : — 

Usual Price. 

Packed 

on rail. 

£7 10 

10 

13 

16 16 
21 




Lot. 


Long. 


Wide. 


High. 


To Eaves. 


133 


9 ft. 


6 ft. 


7 ft. 


4 ft. 6 in. 


134 


12 ft. 


8 ft. 


8 ft. 


5 ft. 6 in. 


135 to 138 


15 ft. 


8 ft. 


8 ft. 6 in. 


5 ft. 6 in. 


139 to 141 


20 ft. 


6 ft. 


9 ft. 


6 ft. 


142 


25 ft. 


9 ft. 


9 ft. 


6 ft. 














LiSAfl-TU. 


Usual Price. 


Lot 






Long. 


Wide. 


High. To Eaves. 


Packed on rail. 


38 to 40 


Span-roof 


7ft. 


6lt. 


7ft. 4ft. 


.. £2 16 


41 to 43 






8ft. 


5ft. 


7ft. 4ft. 


3 10 


44 to 47 






9ft. 


6ft. 


7ft. 3 in. 4ft. 


4 


48 






10ft. 


7ft. 


7ft. 6 in. 4ft. 6 in. 


5 


49 to 53 






12ft. 


8ft. 


8ft. 5ft 


6 


[54 to 58 






15ft. 


10ft. 


8ft. 6 in. 5ft 


8 10 


59 to 64 






20ft. 


10ft. 


9ft. 5ft. 6 in. 


.. 12 


65 to 69 






25ft. 


10ft. 


Aft. 5ft. 6 in. 


.. 17 


70 to 73 






50ft. 


10ft. 


9ft. 5ft. 6 in. 


.. 30 


74 to 77 






100ft. 


10ft. 


9ft. 5ft. 6 in. 


50 


78 to 80 






30ft. 


10ft. 


8ft. 6 in. 5ft 


.. 20 


81 to 83 


Lean 


•to 


7ft. 


5ft. 


7ft. 4ft 


2 8 


84 to 86 






Bft. 


6ft. 


7ft. 3 in. 4ft 


3 10 


87 






12ft. 


8ft. 


8ft. 5ft 


6 10 


88 


,. 




15ft. 


10ft. 


8ft. 6 in. 5ft 


8 



SPAN-ROOF FORCING HOUSE. 
The illustration shown will convince 
£ all practical minds of the importance 
— in 'i utility of this class of house for 
feJii ■' Gentlemen, Nurserymen, Market Gar- 
' ' deners.and allthosewhorequireacheap 

3- strong House for Forcing, or growing 
Cucumbers, Tomatos, Melons, &c. 
Specification,— Built for brickwork, 3 feet high, of thoroughly well-Beasoned red deal ; roof 
ventilation according to size ; door at one end ; all 21-oz. glass ; painted one coat. 




88 



TEE GARDENERS' CERONIGLE. 



[Januaby. 20, 1894. 



WILLIAM COOPER'S SALS BY TENDE R-^^^ **>« pbecbbi ng^agk 



Carefully Packed on Rail. Feet. 

Lot 89 to 91 ... 25 by 9 

93 to 9i ... 20 by 13 

96 ... 20 by 14 

97 to 99 ... 40 by 9 

10) to 103 ... 40 by 12 

104 to 107 ... 40 by 14 

118 to 110 ... 100 by 9 

111 ... 100 by 12 

112 to 114 ... 100 by 14 



MELON AND CUCUMBFR FRAMES. 
¥7, 



Usual Price. 


£9 








11 








It 


10 





17 








21 








25 








40 








... 48 








... 55 








Side Wall* 


4 


y 




These are very useful Frames, beiog suitable or the storage 
of plants in winter, and well adapted for the cultivation of 
Melons, Cucumbers. &c, &c, in summer. (The illustration 
shows a Three-Light Frame. 12 ft. loDg, by 6 ft. wide, height 
at front 11 in., and height at bick 22 in.) 

They are composed of 1J in. thoroughly well-seasoned, 

tongued and grooved boards, have necessary Parting Pieces, 

and runners for the Lights, which are 2 in. thick, and which 

are glazed with good lb oz. glass, nailed and bedded in oiled 

putty, and fitted with an iron handle. All parts painted three 

coats of good oil piint, and securely packed and put on rail at 

the following prices : — 

Lot. 

143 to 147-1 Light Frame 4 ft. by 3 ft. 

148 tol50--2 ,. „ 6 ft by 4 ft. 

151 to 153-1 „ ,, 6 ft. by 4 ft. 

151-2 „ ,, 8 ft. by 6 ft. 

155-3 ,, „ 12 ft. by 6 ft. 



Usual 

Price. 

£0 18 I 

1 12 I 

1 10 I 

2 14 I 

3 15 I 



GARDEN LIGHTS. 




These Lights are well mortised, jointed together, and made 
in a good workmanlike manner, and are well worthy of 
inspection. Framework made of 2 in. by 2 in. styles, and 
properly rabbeted for the glass, with good 2 in sash-bars. The 
Glazed Lights are nailed and bedded in good oiled putty. 

Usual Price. 

Lot. s - d - 

156 to 163-3 ft. by 2 ft., Painted and Glazed ... 5 

161 to 170-4 ft. by 3 ft., ,, ., with 21 oz. 7 6 

171 to 283-6 ft. by 3 ft. 8J in., Painted and Glazed 

with 21 oz 10 6 

GARDEN HAND FR4MES. 

The e Frames will be found to be very useful for protecting 
plants, seeds, slips, and cuttings, during the spring, which, if 
left uocovered, woul 1 probably fall victims to the extreme 
cold so prevalent in this country during that season. 

Zinc open tops, with glass cut to sizes, and zinc clips for 
glazing same. Usual Price. 

Lot. *• d - 

281 to 290 -12 in. by 12 in 7 6 each. 

291 to 293— 14 in. by 14 in 8 6 „ 

294 to 297— 16 in. by 16 in 9 0,, 

298 to 301— 18 in. by 18 in 10 „ 

302 to 3H3—20 in. by 20 in 11 „ 

301 to 306-22 in. by 22 in 12 ,, 

307 to 310— 24 in. by 24 in 13 6 „ 

COOPER'S HYGIENIC HEATER. 

Burning Puraffin or Gas without 
smoke or smell. These Heaters are 
constructed as a means of Heating 
by Hot Air without the use of hot 
water or fires. Its peculiar con- 
struction economises the heat gene- 
rated, so that there is no waste of 
heat or fuel. There being perfect 
combustion in thisstove. and nothing 
whatever injurious to plants, but 
actually everything conducive to 
their health, it should be observed 
that plants may be had in full bloom 
throughout the severest winter. 
This cannot be obtained in stoves of 
other systems. See list for full 
description. 

Usual Price. 

£10 

1 10 




Lot. 
311 to 315— No. 
316 to 320— No. 1 
321— No. 2 
322— No. 3 
321— No. 4 
225-No. 5 



2 5 

3 5 
3 10 
1 



•INVINCIBLE" HOT-WATER APPARATUS. 

Most efficient and Cheapest IN Existence. 




Requires no sun 



k stokehole and no brick setting. Will last 
ht without attention. Will burn house cinders, there- 
fore costs nest to nothing for fuel Anyone can fix it. A 
child can stoke it. Success guaranteed. No. 1 boilers only, 
capable of heating 75 ft. of 4in. piping. ^ ^ 

226 to 235 £i 15s - 0d - 

Cost r,f complete Apparatus for Greenhouses wuh 4-in. pipes, 
flow and return skug one side cut and fitted; so that if the 
internal measurement iheGreenhouse isgiven, theapparatus 
will be sent completely ready for fixing, an advantage which 
will be appreciated by all Securely and carefully pack, ed on 
rail at thefollowing respective pnces:-7_t. by. ft. £tys.bd 
9f-. bvbit. £!ils.6i.\ 10ft. by 7ft., £i; 12ft by 8ft„ £3, 
15f't. by 10ft., £1 ; 20ft. by 10ft., £5 ; 25ft. by 10ft ,£o. 
- Usual Price. 

2 6-About 1000 yards 4 in. Socket Hot-water Pipss, 

in 6ft. and 9ft. lengths, at per yard 2s. 3d. 

237-Sets of Stoking Tools ... ••••••. - 3s - 0a - 

238-About Hcwt. of Round India Rubber Rings, 

for 4 in. Socket H.W. Pipes, at per lb. ... 6s. Od. 

239-About 2civt. Square India Rubber Kings, for 

4 in. Expa nsion Joint), at per lb 4s. bd. 

THE RAPID PROPAGATOR. 

The only perfect Propagator for raising Plants from Heeds, 
Slips, or Cuttings. 




Lot. , Vstt t l 

263-8000 ft. Run. No. 1 Sashbar, per 100ft. ruu ... 3S 
264— 7000 ft. Run. No. 2 Sishbar, per 100ft. run ... M 
265—6000 ft. Run. No. 3 Sashbar, per 100ft. run ... OS 
266— 7000 ft. Run. No. 4 Sashbar, per 100 ft- run ... 6s 

267 — 75 Top and side Ventilators. 2 ft. by 2 ft. 4 in. 2s 

268— 70 Marginal Light Doors. 6ft. 6in. by 2ft. Bin. 12s 

269— 50 Squares, § Tongued Grooved and Beaded 

Match Board 

270— 50 Squares 6 in. Feather Edge Boards 

271— 70 Squares 1 in. Floor Boarus 

272 — 45 Machine Turned Fiuals. per doz 

273— 25 doz. Casement Stays for opening Venti- 

lators, per doz 

274—9000 ft. Run Slating Battens, j b/2. per 100 ft. 



Price. 
Od. 
9d. 
Od. 
id. 
Od. 
Od. 

id. 
id. 
Od. 
Od. 

Od. 
Id. 



Lot. LOAM -SURREY. 

275 Splendid Quality, f u'l of Yellow Fibre. 

Usual price : 2s. 6i2. per sack ; 5 for i2s. ; 10 for 20s. 

WILLIAM COOPER'S GENERAL POTTING COMPOST. 

276 Specially prepared. 

Usual price : 2s id. per sack ; 6 for 13s. ; 10 for 20s. 






This Propagator is the best and cheapest now before the 
public, and will be found especially serviceable to Amateurs 
and Gardeners who require to strike cuttings aDd raise seeds 
in a short space of time. 

One of these Propagators will raise large quantities of plants 
in the spring ; thus, to a great extent, dispensing with the 
necessity of striking cuttings in the autumn, it being well 
known that many cuttings fall victim) to the frost and damp 
atmosphere so prevalent in this country. This method of pro- 
pagating saves the trouble and annoyance resulting from the 
loss of so many plants in the winter time, and also makes it 
unnecessary to occupy eo much space in storing a large 
quantity of cuttings. 

These Propagators are composed of an outside casing, with 
movable sheets of glass on top. The b^d or bottom is formed 
of a tank, in which a constant circulation of hot-water is kept 
up by the Heater (see illustration), the pots being plunged in a 
bed of Cocoa-nut fibre refuse, which should be kept moist. It 
is heated by oil. one pint of which will burn at least thirty 
hours. Securely packed (no charge for packing), and put on 
rails complete, at the following sizes and prices :— 

L 0T . Usual Price. 

2i0 to 245-1 ft. 8 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. £1 5s. 

246 to250-2ft. 6 iu. by lft. lOin. £1 10s. 

251-4 ft. by 2 ft £3 0s. 

WELL SEASONED RED DEAL. 

For Sections of the bove see Separate Sheet. 
Lot 252 to 262. SPECIFICATION. 
MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR SPAN ROOF 
100-FT. BY 12-FT. CUCUMBER HOUSE, 

Best red deal, nil planed, rabbeted, &c, ready for use, Door 
and Ventilators nude. Any alteration can be made to suit 
any size home at a corresponding alteration iu price. 
105 feet 1J by 6 Ridge, 
1)6 feet ]J by 4 Capping, 
230 feet 3 by 3$ Plate, 
210 feet } by 3 Drip, 
4—8 feet 2J. by 3 End Rafters, 
120-8 feet 1} by 3 Bars, 

16 Ventilators about 4 feet by 2 feet. 
15 Ventilators. Suats about 60 feet. 
1 Door and Frame 6 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. 
Packed free on rail. Usual Price, £9 10s. 



WILLIAM COOPER'S CELEBRATED 
CHRYSANTHEMUM COMPOST. 

277 Usual price : 3s. per bushel. 

WILLIAM COOPERS PREPARED COMPOST FOR 
POTTING FERNS. 

278 Specially prepared. 

Usual price : 2s. id per sack ; 6 for 13s. ; 10 lor 20s. 



WILLIAM COOPER'S PREPARED COMPOST FOR 
POTTING BULSS. 

279 Specially Prepared. 

U»u ll price : 2s. id. per sack ; 6 for 13s ; 10 for 20s. 

280 BEST BROWN FIBROUS PEAT. 

Fob Hardwood and move Plants. 
Usual price : 2s. id. per sack ; 6 for 13s. ; 10 for 10s. 

281 GOOD GENERAL PEAT. 

For Ferns, &c. 
Usual price : 2s. per sack ; 6 for 10s. ; 10 for 15s. 



RHODODENDRON PEAT. 

Usual price : 2s. per sack ; 6 for 10s. ; 10 for 15s. 



283 RICH BROWN LOOSE PEAT. 

Usual price : 2s. per sack; 6 for 10s. ; 10 for 15s. 



2S4 WILLIAM COOPER'S SUNSHADE 

SUPEtSEDES ALL OTHER PREPARATIONS OE THE KIND. 

The cheapest, most efficient, and convenient preparation for 
Bhading greenhouses, conservatories, glass roofs, and windows 
of all descriptions. Is applied cold— an enormous advantage 
over preparations requiring to be used whilst hot. May bs 
used either inside or outside, and produces a pleasing effect. 
Is not washed off by rain, but can b*. instantly removed when 
desired by rubbing over with a brush whilst it is wet. Made 
in various colours— White, Pale Blue, and Pale ureen. 
Usual prices, in tins : 1 lb., Is. ; 2 lb., 2s. ; 7 lb., 5s. 



COOPER'S WONDERFUL 
NEW MUSHROOM 
285 SPAWN. 

From many years' experience, I 
believe thiB brand of Spawn to be 
the very best procurable- fresh, 
very best quality, producing 
abundant crop* of Superior Fleshy 
'■ Mushrooms. Usual price, 4s. per 
bushel. 



WILLIAM "COOPER'S GENERAL FERTILISER. 

FOR FLUKISTS, GAROE.NEKS, AND aMaIEUKS. 

' Usual price: Tins, id. ; 7 lb. bags, Is.; ll-lb. bags, 2s.; 
tslb. 4s. ; S-cwt. 7s. ; 1 cwt.. 13s. 




SAWfe? 



287 



SILVER SAND. 

(Coarse or Fine). 
2-cwt. sacks. Usual price, 3s. 3d. 



288 SPECIAL OFFER TO THE TRADE 

100 tins Sunshade and 100 tins Fertilisers, to retail at id. 
and id. each. 



ODD GREENHOUSES. 

All Housks are Complete as per List. 
Lean- to Amateur Greenhouse, *0ft. by 14ft., ior 2ft. bin. 

Brickwork. Usual price, £28. 
Lantern Roof Conservatory, iiomplete, 10ft. by 8ft. 

Nearly new. Usual price, £17. , . 

Circular light Span-roof Conservatory, 15ft. by lott. 

Usual pi ice, £19. 
Span-roof Greenhouse. 40ft by 9ft., for Brickwork 

2ft. 6in. Side lights. Usual price, £i5. Sale 

j-Span-roof Greenhouse, for Biickwork, 25ft. by 10ft. 
Usual price, £17. 



GLASS. 

About 300 200-ft. Boxes, 4tbs, 21 oz. 

Sizes, 8 by 6, 9 by 7. 10 by 8, 12 by 8, 12 by 9. 13 by ■ £ I. 10 i by 11, 

13 by 10, 14 by 10. Usual price, £1 2s. bd. per J00 tt. 

5 tons Putty. Usual price, 6s. id. 



WILLIAM COOPER, 747 to 755, OLD KENT ROAD, LONDON, S.E. 



January 20, 1694 1 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



89 



7^4tii«P: (^m ! ^i^- l^^^S 

3lo3.A-nd1!;«rOREICN,of jbovt skes. in bows of 100 f ect * 200 feet supcij 
ENGLISH Gl«s, cut to buyers' sues , aA lowes"t pnte» 
tlcJwercd /"ree. SiJjttnd in the country, m qua.nti.ty. 



>vCON/SElWATpMES,fi;P.KivATE'H' 



f^fo^gEi^T^KIEsX^ 1 ^ 




GEQRjGE FAKMILOE&S0N5 

"Lifio, GLASS. Oil/, And Cot-OUl<_ MERCHANT*. 

^4 S>*,J0HN Streea^ESTSMlTHFIELD.XONDO^X 
Stoci^liaM And prices on application . Plgise quote Chronicle. 



EPPS'S 



ite* 



For ORCHIDS, STOVE PLANTS, 

Hardwood do.. Ferns, and Rhododendrons, bv sack, yard, ton, 

or truckload. SPECIAL ORCHID PEAT, in sack only. 
Rich fibrous LOAM, superior LEAF-MOUU>. Coarse. Crystal, 
and F.ne SILVEK SAND. CHARCOAL, C. N. FIBRE REFUSE, 
freshSPHAGNUM. Patent MANURES, FERTILISERS. INSEC- 
TICIDES, and allother Garden requisites. Peat Moss Litter. 

The Original Peat Depot, RINGWOOD, HANTS, 

ORCHID PEAT. 

PREPARED, ready for use, all fibre, 10s. per sack ; 5 for 47s. 6d. 
SELECTED, in blocks, very fibrous, 8s. per sack; 5 for 
37J. 6rf. SECOND QUALI I Y, 5s. per sack ; 5 for 22s. 6rf. 

BROWN FIBROUS PEAT, for Azaleas. Rhododendrons, and 
Ferns, 4s. per sack, 5 for 18s. ; and 3s. per sack, 5 for 12s. 6rf. 

PEAT-MOULD, LEAF-MOULD, and FIBROUS LOAM, each 
St. 6rf. per sack ; 5 for 10s. PREPARED POTTING COM- 
POST, 4s. per sack ; 5 for 18s. All sacks included. 
Send Po-tal Order for Sample Sack. 
Special terms to the Trade. For Price List apply to 
THE FORESTER. Joyd en WOOd, near Bexley, Kent. 

RICHARDS' NOTED PEAT. 

(Trade supplied on best terms). 

VERY CHOICE SELECTED FOR ORCHIDS. 
For Stove and Greenhouse Plants. Ferns, Rhododendrons, &c. 
By the sack, cubic yard, ton or truck load, A large stock at 
London Wharf. Immediate despatch by any Rail or Steamer. 
Prompt and Special Quotations for celivery to any Station. 

G. H. RICHARDS, Old Shot Tower Wharf, Lambeth, 
London, S.E. ; Peat Grounds and Depots, Ringwood and Ware- 
ham. Address all letters to London Wharf. 

Made of prepared Hair and 

» mini nnniin » w ° o1 . a perfect protection 

rnlUl UUIViU t0 a11 Plants and Blooms. 

Cheaper than any kind of 

fiANVAft mat ' aQ d W 'H la't for years. 

UHI1IHU. Tq fae had from aU Nur _ 

serymen and Seedsmen. 

FOR TRICE LIST*. PARTICULARS ADDRESS* 



SDuke ST Li London P.h/dge. 



w®m ■mMwm, 



BUy D/ftECT FROM^Zfi 

THE 

IMPROVED 

IS10N JOINT 
OT WATER PIPES 



STOURBRIDGE, 



% 



' A " s fiARKIR0NViO^J^^' wt ST Op 



Free ^^ 



9} 



'TXLEGRAMS:- 

"ALPHA'' 

'BRETTELL-LANE 



' IVATER i° S ' 



GLASS I 



CHEAP GLASS I 

In Stock Sizes. 



16-01., per 100 ft., 8s. 6rf. 
21-oz., „ lis. 9rf, 



Jto. 



1} X 3 Prepared Sash Bar at 5s. per 100 feet. 

Paints and Varnishes at Low Prices. Flooring, 5/9 per square ; 

Matching, 4/9 ; 2X4, at id. per foot run ; 2X7atlrf. 

Horticultural Work of all descriptions. Ironmongery, &c. 

CATALOGUES Free. THE CHEAP WOOD COMPANY, 

73, Bishopsqate Street Withut, London. B.C. 



HORTICULTURAL Best weish ANTHRACITE 

COAL. 

LONG LASTINO and ABSOLUTELY SMOKELESS. 

AMMANFORD COLLIERY, 

AMMANFORD R.S.O., CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

A small Trial Truck, direct from Colliery, to any Station. 

Apply to ThOS. FENARD. Agent. LLANELLY, South Wales. 

WARE and SONS' 
«-— FLOWER POTS BE9T 

THE SUSSEX POTTERY WORKS, UCKFIELL. 
Quotations given for quantities. Carriage paid to any 

Tbe Best Railway station. are Cheapest. 

SAMPLES and LISTS FREE. Crates packed. 

Railway Passengers' Assurance 

COMPANY insures against 

RAILWAY ACCIDENTS, 

PERSONAL ACCIDENTS, 
EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY. 

Capital £1,000,000. Established 1849. 



64, COENHILL, LONDON. 



Established 1851. 

BIRKBEGK BANK, 

Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

TWO -AND- A -HALF per Cent. INTEREST allowed on 
DEPOSITS, repayable on demand. 

TWO per Cent, on CURRENT ACCOUNTS, on the minimum 
monthly balances, when not drawn below £100. 

STOCKS and SHARES purchased and sold. 

SAVINGS DEPARTMENT. 

For the encouragement ot Thrift the Bank receives small 
sums on deposit, and allows interest, at the rate of TWO- 
AND-A-HALF PER CENT, per annum, on each completed £1. 

BIRKBECK BUILDING SOCIETY. 
HOW TO PURCHASE A HOUSE FOR TWO GUINEAS 
PER MONTH. 

BIRKBECK FREEHOLD LAND SOCIETY. 

HOW TO PURCHASE A PLOT OF GROUND FOR FIVE 
SHILLINGS PER MONTH. 

The BIRKBECK ALMANACK, with full particulars, pof t- 
free. FRANCIS RAVENSCROFT, Manager. 



THE FRUIT GARDEN of the UNIVERSE. 
—THE AUSTRALIAN IRRIGATION COLONIES 
(Chaffey Brothers), established and regulated by Government, 
OFFER an enjoyable Life and OCCUPATION, a sunny and 
salubrious Climate, and most highly remunerative returns to 
Cultivators with small or large Capital. Pamphlet free. 

CHAFFEY BROTHERS, Limited, 35, Queen Victoria Street 
London. E.C. J. E. M. Vincent. Chief Commissioner. 

TECHNICAL HORTICULTURE. 



COUNTY COUNCIL LECTURES. 



PAXTON'S GOTTACERS' CALENDAR 

OF OAKDEN OPERATIONS. 

Will be useful to Leoturers and Students in the 
above subjeot. 

Price 3d.; post-free, 3§d. 

41, WELLINGTON STREET, STRAND, W.C. 



%raitltunt{ licmtamiBt 

An ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINE, of 52 pages 
and cover. Exponent of scientific and high farming; advocate 
of co-operation in agriculture, in the supply of farm requisites, 
and the sale of produce ; organ of the Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Association, the pioneer society for mutual supply of 
pure oilcakes, complete manures, reliable seedB, and imple- 
ments on wholesale terms. Specimen copy free. Subscription, 
per annum, 1 fis., inclusive of postage. Single copies 6rf. each, 
through all Newsagents. 

3, Agar Street, Strand, London, W.C. 



BOILING WATER OR MILK. 

P P S ' S 

GRATEFUL-COMFORTING. 

COCOA 

BREAKFAST-SUPPER 



WANTED, a MAN who k:,ows the Leading 
Gardeners and Horticulturists in the United Kingdom 
to SELL a SPECIALTY on Salary and Commission.— Address 
H. H., 2_>47, Deacon's Advertising Offices, 154, Leadenhall 
Street, E.C. 



VyANTTD, a GARDENER, for Athens.— 

TT Salary. ±70 per annum, with advance. Apartments, 
washing, and pirt meals supplied. Must b- qualified to take 
Charge of Hothouses, House and Table Decorations Mu9t 
begin duties at oace.— Apply to ALEXANDER BRUCE, 
Forres, N.B. 



WANTED, a PROPAGATOR FOREMAN 
and SALESMAN for the Houses; an industrious man 
who has had experience with Flowering and Soft-wooded 
stuff. Situation permsnent to a suitable man.— Apply, givir g 
particulirs as to ability, wages expected, and where last, 
emp'oyd, J.N'O. JEFFERIES and S'N, Royal Nurseries, 
Cirencester. 



WANTED, a WORKING PROPAGATOR 
and GROWER, for a Market Nursery. Must be well- 
up in Raiting and Growing large quantities of Ferns, Soft- 
wooded Plants Cut Blowers. &c. Must be used to the Trade. 
Apply, stating age. references, and wages required, to J»ME3 
WINliFIELD. stands 19 and 3W. Flower Market, Covent 
Garden, or Widmore Hill Nursery, Bromley, Kent. 

WANTED, as ORCHID GROAVER, a Man 
who thoroughly understands the Treatrnen of Im- 
poited Plants.— F. KNIGHT, 13, Gutter Lane, E.C. 



WANTED, early in February, a single MAN, 
about 19. Well up in Kitchen Garden and Ou'door 
Flowers. Must take his turn at Mowing and the fires. Church 
of England; can sleep on premises; wages 16s, with rise. 
Good character indispensable —Apply by letter only to Mrs K 
Rawnhams House, near Southampton. 

WANTED, a WORKING GARDENER.— 
Must be a good Cucumber grower. References 
required.— Apply to JOHN NE LSON. Hunstanton. 

WANTED, as FOREMAN, a good all-round 
Man, well-up in his work, industnou and obliging- 
wages 18s. aud bothy, commencing.— App'y, J. HILL, Babra- 
hani Gardens, ( ambridge. 



WANTED.— A WorkiDg Greenhouse FORE- 
MAN and GROWER of Softwooded Plants, Palms, 
Roses, &c. ; must be well up in tbe Fore iug and Urowing of 
Cut flowers. Also young MAN fjr P.,lius and Ferns or 
GENERlL GROWER. State age, wages expected, and full 
pirticulars to— 

WM. TKOUGHT W, Nurseryman, Preston, L ancashire. 

WANTED, a GENERAL FOREMAN.— 
Must be well-up in the Management of Men ; Forcing 
of Fruit, Flowers, Vegetables, and thoroughly understand 
Herbaceous Plants.— Apply, giving particulars as to abilities, 
wages, references, &c, to C. WOKsLEY. Steward and Head- 
Gardener, Bosworth Park, Market Bosworth. 

WANTED, an active MAN for Pleasure 
Ground and Kitchen Garden, and to Assist in the 
Houses when required. Wages 15s. with good bothy.— Apply 
to W. HIGGS. the Gardens, Fetcham Park, Leatherhead. 

WANTED, an OUTDOOR MAN.— Must be 
asuccessful Budder and Grafter. Permanent situation 
for a good reliable man. State wages and particulars. 
H. ENGLISH AND Co., Clapton Nursery, near Cleavedon, 
Somerset. 

WANTED, a young MAN to take charge of 
Soft-wooded and Bedding Plants Department. — One 
used to Market Nurseries preferred.— State experience and 
wages expected, to W. FROMOW AND SONS, Sutton Court 
Nurseries, Chiswick, W. 

WANTED, in a Market Garden, a steady 
willing young MAN, used to Growing Tomatos, 
Cucumbers, Giapes, Plants in Pots. &c. for market.— Write, 
6tatingage, wages expected, and full particulars to GEO. E. 
COX, Oswald Villa, Cheltenham. 

OT ANTED, an Energetic Working MAN, 

V T who is fond of Hybridising, to take Charge of a Seed 
Trial Ground. State Wages, &c. to HYBRID, Gardeners' 
Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

WANTED, Young NURSERY HANDS.— 
Must be reliable Builders. Send reference and state 
wages req .ired.— SYDNEY S. MARSHALL, Barn ham Nursery, 
Barnham Junction, aus^ex. 

WANTED, a young MAN, accustomed to 
general Propagating and work in houses.— THOM- 
SONS' Nurseries, Spark Hill, Birmingham. 

WANTED, a NURSERYMAN'S JOUR^ 
NEYMAN, for Inside and Out —Knowledge of Cucum- 
bers and Tomatos.— Age, references, and wages, to GEORGE 
JONES, Nurseries, Storeton Road, Birkenhead. 



90 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 20, 1894. 



WANTED, a Youth, as IMPROVER, for 
Retail Seed Busiaess. — Some experience necessary. — 
State Mages required, and particulars of experience, to 
HEWITT and CO., 8, Worcester Street. Birmingoam. 

WANTED, an IMPROVER in the Seed, 
Plant, and Floral Department, state Wages, *c— 
A. COOKERILL, 18 & iO, Drapery, Northampton. 

WANTED, a CLERK and TRAVELLER 
in Country Seed Trade.— SUKRET ORCHARD CO., 
Bed HiU. 

WANTED, a young man as SHOPMAN in 
a general Seed, Nursery, and Floral Business.— Wages 
and full particulars to LAXTON BROTHERS, Bedford. 

WANTED, an intelligent LAD, as 
ASSISTANT in Seed Shop.— One who has some know- 
ledge of the Trade preferred.— State age, particulars and wages, 
to W. FROMOW ASD SONS, Sutton Court Nurseries, 
Chiswick, W. 

WANTED, a good GENERAL bERVANT, 
by January 27. Age 25 to 35. Early riser. Plain cook. 
Good references essential. Good wages, no beer. Comfort- 
able quid home. Family two. Washing part put out. —Address, 
stating experience or qualifications, and wages required, 
Mrs. JONES, 182, Stockwell Park Road. London, S.W. 
Applicants from a distance might inclose recent photo. 



WANT PLACES. 

TO GARDENERS AND OTHERS 
SEEKING SITUATIONS. 

Advertisers are cautioned against having letters 
addressed to initials at Post-offices, as all 
Letters so addressed are opened by the 
authorities and returned to the sender. 



F SANDER and CO. oan reoommend 
• several highly qualified and energetio HEAD and 
UNDER GARDENERS, of excellent character, and proved 
ability; men thoroughly fitted for all the various duties of 
their profession. For all particulars, please apply to— 
F. SANDER AND CO.. St. Albans. 

RICHARD SMITH and CO. 
beg to announce that they are constantly receiving 
applications from Gardeners seeking situations, and that 
they will be able to supply any Lady or Gentleman with 
particulars. Sec. — St. John's Nurseries. Worcester. 

Gardeners, Farm-Bailiffs, ForesterB, &c. 

DICKSUNS, Royal Nurseries, Chester, are 
always in a position to RECOMMEND MEN of the 
highest respectability, an 1 thoroughly -practical at their busi- 
ness. All particulars on application. 
Tele graphic and Postal Address—" DICKSONS. Chester. 

GARDENER (Head), where two or more are 
kept.— Age 30. married; twelve years' experience in 
Fruit. Flower, and Kitchen Gardens. Good testimonials. — 
FRAMPTON, Rhinefield, Brockenhurst. Hants. 

GARDENER (Head), where three or four 
men are kept.— Wm. Meads, Buscot Park Gardens, 
Fariogdon. Berks, can thoroughly recommend William Poole 
to any Lady or Gentleman requiring a go d man. 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 38, married, two 
children, ages 8 and 6; twenty-four years' good practical 
experience in all branches. Good r ference for reliability, 
honesty, sobriety, and abilities.— G. WARRINGTON, 4. Glad- 
stone Terrace, Milton Riad, Sitringbourne. 

GARDENER (Head)— Age 32; married ; 
seventeen years' experience in firBt-class establishments. 
Qualified in oil branches of the profession, and thoroughly 
understands the requirement* of a large establishment. 
Well-up in the culture of Roses, Carnations, and Violets under 
glass. Highly recommended. — Apply, H. G.. Gardeners' 
ChronicU Ofli'ie. 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 35, married ; 
twenty-one years' experience in all branches. Nine 
years as Head.— Apply, stating wages and particulars, to B. 
DANIELS, Oporto Villa. Snakes Lane, Woodford, Essex. 

GARDENER (Head), where two or three 
are kept.— Age 27 ; fifteen years' experience Inside and 
Out. Good character from present and previous employer.— 
C. HOBDS, Gardener, Erlwood, Bagshot, Surrey. 

C"1 ARDENER (Head).— Age 37; seeks re- 
T engagement with any Lady or Gentleman Thoroughly 
understands Orchids. Stove and Greenhouse Plants. Grapes, 
Peaches. Melons. Tomatos. flower and Kit.-h-n Gar. en. 
Awarded three Bonksian Medals from Royal Horticultural 
Society. — MAY. The Gardens, Oakfleld, Eden Park, 
Beckenham. 

CI ARDENER (Head).— Mr. Leach, A I bury 
X Park, Guildford, can highly recommend his Foreman to 
any Lady or Oentlemnn in want of a thorough practical man 
in all branches of Gardening.— Address as above. 

GARDENEU i IIkai.i. where two or three 
are kept. — Thorough good all-round general experi- 
ence both Inside and Out. Four and a half years' excellent 
oharacter. Near London preferred. — Apply, stating wages, to 
W. GARDENER, Effingham Park, Crawley Down. 



GARDENER (Eead) ; age 30, married when 
suited.— C. Fielder, Gardener to the Dowager Lady 
Howard de Walden, The Mote, Maidstone, begs to recorrmend 
Wm. Bacon, who has been Foreman in these gardens during 
the pa9t three and a half years, to any Lady or Gentleman 
requiring a thoroughly trustworthy man, with six men uuder 
him. Fourteen years' experience in good situations. 

ARDENER (Head). — Advertiser, with 

scientific training, and twenty years' practical experi- 
ence in first class establishments seeks situation as above. 
Seven years in present situation as managing Foreman under 
the Steward. Very highly recommended. Address W. T. H., 
Gardeners Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington St., Strand, W.C. 

ARDENER.— Age 34; married; one boy, 

aged 11 years. A gentleman wishes to recommend hi 
pre'ent Head-Gardener, who has been with him five years amis 
now wishes to better himself, to any Lady or Gentleman re- 
quiring the services of a good all-round Gardener.— Apply, in 
first instance, to J. A. WORSFOLD, The Gardens, Seremby 
Hall, Spilsby. Lines. 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 42 ; married, 
no family; seeks re-engagement where a reliable and 
trustworthy man is required. Life experience. — MORRISS, 
East Street. Kimbolton, St. Neot's. 

GARDENER (Head). — Age 36; married, 
without family. £5 Bonus is offered by Advertiser to 
anyone who procures him an appointment as above in a good 
Establishment. Thoroughly qualified, four certificates of prizes 
won in competition, 18*3. Excellent Testimonials.— HORTI, 
Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington St., Strand, W.C. 

GARDENER (Head), where not fewer than 
three or four are kept.— W. Sutton, Head Gardener, 
Silverlands, Chertsey, Surrey, wishes to find for his Foreman, 
who has held his appointment over five years, a situation as 
above. He is married (age 31), and has three in family. — 
Every particular given upon application to the above. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 31 ; 
thoroughly experienced in Vines, Melons, Cucumbers, 
Tomato?, &c. ; Stove and Greenhouse Plants, and Flower and 
Kitchen Girdens. Character will bear strictest investigation. 
— Z., Willow Cottage, Wellington Heath, Ledbury. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 32, 
married ; eighteen years' practical experience in first- 
cliss establishments, four years in last place as Head Gardener, 
with three unaer. Good references from last and previous 
employers.— H. BICKERSTAFF, Snow Hill, Crawley town, 
Sussex. 

/ A ARDENER (Head Working), where iour 

V^ or more are kept. — Age 40 ; twenty-six years' prac- 
tical experience Inside and Out. Eighteen years in last 
situation— G. BARTLE. 18, BrownLane South. Beeston, Notts. 

r\ ARDENER (Head Working).— Age 43, 

V.T" raarried.no incumbrance; thoroughly practical in all 
branches. Life experience. Good references.— W. H., 17, 
Stratford Grove. Putney. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 36, 
married ; experienced with Grapes, Peaches, Melons, 
Stove and Greenhouse Plants. Flower and Kitchen Garden. 
Excellent character.— GARDENER, Dragon Street, Petersfield, 
Hants. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 30; 
married when suited. Where two or three are kept; 
Well up in all branches of the profession. Parly and late 
fo-cing. Good references. Abstainer— K. H., Jubilee Terrace, 
Eynsham. Oxon. 

GARDENER (Head Working), where two 
or more are kept — Age 35. Experienced in all branches. 
Good character.— H. S., 6, Ecton Road, Addlestone, Surrey. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 40; 
no family. Thoroughly experienced in all branches; 
good testimonials — HOBBS, Shenley, Herts. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 28; 
single; practical experience, both Inside and Out. in 
good Gardens. Good character?.— G. A. P., 1, Hutley's 
Cottages, Lichfield Grove, Finchley, N. 

GARDENER (Head Working).— Age 26. 
Mr. Cook, Compton Basset Gardens, Calne, Wilts, will 
be glad to recommend his Foremao. H. Silk, who has been 
with him four years and who is a good practical all-round 
Man in his profession. 

GARDENER (good Single-handed). — 
Age 26, married, one child; life experience in all branches 
of Gardening Eighteen months' good character from la&t 
(mployer.— GARDENER, High Street, Great Shelford, Cam- 
bridge. _____^_^^_ 

GARDENER (good Single-handed, or one 
or more under).— Age 28; can be well recommended. 
Total nbitiiiner.-D., C. Hott, Head Gardener, Caversham 
Park, Reading. 

G.ARDENBR (Single-handed), Inside and 
Out.— A young Man seeks situation as above; good 
references.— J. P., Young's Library, 36, Kensington High 
Street, W. 

GARDENER (Single-handed). — Age 25, 
married; recommended aH a good competent Gardener. 
Character will bear strictest investigation.— A. S., 16, Carlisle 
Place, Edgware Road. 

GARDENER (Single-handed).— 
Thoroughly understands his work. Sixteen years' 
experience. Personal references.— PRICE, 173, Lower Ken- 
nington Lane, S.E 



GARDENER (Single-Handed, or where one 
or two more are kept*. — Age 33, married ; well recom- 
mended. Left through establishment be ng rednced.— DIGBY 
GISSING, Diss, Norfolk. 

G^ ARDENER (Single-handed, or one or 
T more under).— C. J. Pltjmptre, Esq., Fredville, withes 
to strongly recommend F. Cooper as above.— The Gardens, 
Fredville, near Dover. 



GARDENER (Single-handed).— Age 20, 
married when suited. Fourteen years' experience in all 
branches. Abstainer. Two years' good character.— EGGLE- 
TON, 20, The Common, Ealing, W. 

GARDENER (Single-handed, or where 
one under is kept). — Age 31, married; good character, 
and can be well recommended.— GARDENER, Home Farm 
Cottage, Langley. Slough. 

GARDINER (good Single-handed, or 
where or two are kept). — Married, one child ; ten years' 
experience. Inside and Out.— H. WOOD, Severn Stoke, 
Worcstershire. 

GARDENER (Single-Handed, or with help). 
Mb. Bird can recommend a young Man as above.— H. D.. 
Mr. Bird, 32, New CroxtedRiad, West Dulwich, S.E. 

GARDENER, where two or more are kept. 
—Age 30. single; well-up in all branches of the profes- 
sion. Excellent characters — J. DEAN, Manor House, CatJn 
Bishop, Hereford. 

GARDENER.— Bulb and Lily Grower and 
Forcer requires situation. Thorough knowledge of 
bath.— W. F.., Gardeners' C ' ironicle Office, 41, Wellington 
Street, Strand. W.C. 

Gl ARDENER (Second), in a good establish- 
I ment. — Age 26; eleven years' practical experience in 
large places. Good character and testimonials from present 
and previous employers. — W. H., The Gardens, Mouseh 11 
Manor, Godalming. Surrey. 

GARDENER"(Second). — Where three or 
four are kept. Age 23. Thoroughly experienced In- 
side and Out. Good characters. Abstainer. — W. G., 1, Rofe 
Villas, Feltham, Middlesex. 

GARDENER (Second), in a good Establish- 
ment. — Age 21 last birthday; six years' experience, 
Inside and Out.— For full particulars, apply to A. SPEAK- 
MAN, 20. Collins Street, Blackheath, S.E. 

GARDENER (Seconi ), where about four are 
kept. Age 23; experienced both Inside and Out. left 
through reduction of establishment. — H. S., 126, Chatham 
Road, New Wandsworth. 

ARDENER (good Second).— Age 27 ; tho- 

roughly experienced, Inside and Out.— Mr. Braddy 
can with confidence recommend as above. — R. LLMON, 
Knightons Ease Finchley. London. N. 

GARDENER (Second, or First JOURNEY- 
MAN). — Age 21 ; ten years' experience in Plant ani 
Fruit-growing and Conservatory Decoration ; good referencec. 
— E. R., 20, King Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

GARDENER, Scotch.— Situation wanted, as 
SECOND. Four years' experience. Bothy preferred. — 
W. S., Gardeners' Ch onicle Oltice, 41, Wellington Street, 
Strand, W.C. 

GARDENER (Under), in a private estab- 
lishment, Inside and Out preferred. — Age 21, Three 
years' excellent character fron present employer. Strong and 
willing.— ClcTTERILL, Greenford Road, Sudbury, Middlesex. 

GARDENER (Third, or good Under)^ 
Age 22; six years Inside and Out; three years' goo I 
re ommendation. Near Loudon preferred.— A. HUNTLEY, 
Newtown Hever, Edenbridge, Kent, 

GARDENER (Under), Inside preferred.— 
A young Man, age 21. Two years character from last 
situation.— H. JaMES, 18. Windmill Street, Brighton. 

ARDENER (Under), Inside and Out, in 

a Gentleman's Establifhment. — Age 22; six years' ex- 
perience ; Kitchen and Pleasure Gardens, Stove and Green- 
house Plants; good characters; abstainer.— W. G. JONES, 
Milburn Gardens, Esher, Surrey. 

GARDENER (Under), or take charge of a 
small place.— Age 21 ; bix years' experience. Good 
references.— H.. PATTEN DEN, LittleWrotham.nearyevenoaks, 
Kent. 

GARDENER, Inside, or Inside or Out.— 
Age 21 ; private place, nnder good Foreman. Bothy 
preferred. Disengaged,— A. FRANK LAND, Gomersal, Leeds. 

GARDENER, or as GARDENER ami 
BAILIFF.— Age 38; brought up to Gardening nnd has 
a general knowledge of It. Nine years since a Tenant Farmer. 
Active strong, and healthy. w ife understands Dairy and 
Poultry. Re ommenoed by the Couutess of Guilford.— W. M., 
Waldershare, Dover. 

ORCHID COLLECTOR. — A young Man 
experienced as -such, wants similar employment as soon 
as po esibl.e— COLLfl TOR. 6, Oswald Koad. St. Albans, Herts ' 

ORCHID GROWER. — Advertiser seeks 
situation as above. Has bad charge of good collections. 
Eighteen years' experience ; excellent testimonials.— HORTI, 
3, Garden Terrace. Heaton. Bradford, Yorkshire. 

ROPAGATORandGROYVER(Sort-wooded) 

Thirteen years' experience ; good references.— W. MOLLS 
2, Holly Cottages, School Road, East Moleaey. 



Januaby 20, 1894.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



91 



PROPAGATOR or GROWER.— Age 27; 
thirteen years' experience, six of which in London 
Market and Trade Nurseries. Good refererces.— PITTS, Ivy 
Terrace, Baddow Road, Chelmsford. 

FOREMAN, or JOURNEYMAN (First) 
age 22; good Chrysanthemum Grower, and knowledge 
of Orchids.— Mr. C. Woolford can highly recommend a 
youDg Man as above.— The Priory, St. Helens, Isle of Wight. 

To Nurserymen. 
IT^OREMAN and MANAGER (General), or 

J? SALESMAN iND PROPAGATOR; well-up in the 

Growing and Selling of Rhododendrons, Conifers, and all 
other hardy stock.— W. H. B.. Bagshot. 

FOREMAN; age 27; fourteen years' experi- 
ence. —Mr. Geo. Goodill. Gardener, Henley Hall, 
Ludlow, will be pleased to recommend J. Marwood as above, to 
any gtrdent-T requiring a good all-round energetic and trust- 
worthy man. 

IpOKEMAN. — Age 25; well recommended. 
Fruit, Forcing, Orchids.— A. C, The Grove Gardens, 
Stanmore, Middlesex. 4 

\i OREMAN ; age 28.— G. Weekes, Penoyre 

Jl Gardens, Brecon, can highly recommend Henry Morse as 
a sound practical man, who has served here as Foreman (of 
four under glass) for two and a half years. Well experienced 
in Stove and Greenhouse Plants. House Decorations, Vines, 
Peaches, &e. Excellent testimonials previ* usly at Ashton 
Court. 

FOREMAN, PROPAGATOR, and GROWER 
of Hard and Soft-wooded Plants.— Twenty years in 
leading Nurseries. Experienced in the production of Cut 
Flowers. Can be well recommended. — H. L. J., Cambridge 
Road. Godmanchester, Hunts. 

FOREMAN, in a first-class establishment.— 
Age 30; thoroughly experienced. Three years present 
situation.— C. LACBY, Berkeley Castle Gardens, Gloucesttr 
shire. -_^ 

FOREMAN, or SECOND, Trade or Private. 
— Age 21, single ; eight years' experience in Stove, 
Greenhouse, and Hardy Plants and Fruits, Forcing. &c. 
Excellent reference for efficiency and respectability.— JOHN 
MORGAN, Belvedere Nursery, Ipswich. 

FOREMAN ; Age 25.— Mr. Geo. Humphrey, 
Gardener, hash Court, Faversham, will have much 
pleasure in recommending W. H. Yates, who has been with 
him here for the past two years, as above, to any Gardener 
requiring a good all-round, energetic and trustworthy man. 

OREMAN, Outside.— Age 33 ; fifteen years 7 

experience. Inside and Out. Thoroughly understands 
Early and Late Forcing. Two years' good character from 
present place. Please state wages.— ODD, The Gardens, 
Stoughton Grange, Leicester. 

OREMAN, Inside.— Age 28; thirteen years' 

experience in Plant and Fruit Houses, and Outside. 

Good references from last and previous places. HILL, 

Ketton Cottage, Stamford. 

FOREMAN (General). — Age 25; ten years' 
experience in Fruit, Plants, and Decorating. Three 
years in present situation. Good references. — G. PIKE, 
Waddesdon Gardens, Aylesbury. 

FOREMAN (Outside). — Well up in growing 
Trees, Shrubs, Conifers. Roses, and Fruit Trees. Good 
Budder and Grafter. Good references.— F. ROBERTS, 1, 
Palace Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

FOREMAN in the Houses. — A young Man, 
age 24. seeks situation as above. Practical experie >ce 
in all branches. — F. SMITH, Lockerley Hall Gardens, Romsey, 
Hants. 

OREMAN (Inside).— Age 28; twelve years' 

experience in Plant and Fruit Houses. Good references, 
—GEORGE THOMPSON, Park Gatehouse. Westwell, Ashford, 
Kent. 

FOREMAN.— Age 27 ; thorough knowledge 
of Garden Work, Inside and Out. Highest testimonials 
from present and past situations.— A. WATERS, The Gardens, 
Grittleton Houte, Chippenham. 

FOREMAN, Inside.— Age 25; well up in 
Plant and Fruit culture. Highly recommended by pre- 
sent and previous emplo\ ers. Foreman in present situation. — 
S. H.. Fairholme, Deuham Park, Egbam. 

TVTURSERY FOREMAN (General Outside).— 

-i-i Age 25; single; thoroughly experienced in Fruits, 
Roses. Conifers, and all branches; good Salesman; excellent 
references.— T. H. FULLER, Messrs. Jackman & Son, Woking, 
Sur'ey. 

Herbaceous and Alpine Plants. 

FOREMAN or PROPAGATOR.— Age 31 ; 
good knowledge of Herbaceous and Alpine Plants. 
Fiftsen years' experience. Has held Bimilar position. Near 
London preferred.— B. F. MAKTIN, Winter's Bridge, Long 
Ditton. 

FOREMAN (Inside).— Age 26; life experi- 
ence in good establishment?. Good knowledge of Or- 
chids, Stove and Greenhouse Plants — W. DYER, Falkland 
Park Gardens, South Norwood Hill, S.E. 

FOREMAN GROWER.— Accustomed to take 
a real interest in his work, and who knows all branches 
in Gardening to perfection, but preferrs a situation where'fore- 
ing of choice Cut-flowers is the chief thing. -Life experiences 
A. F„ Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Strand, W.C. 



FOREMAN, in a good establishment. — Age 25; 
well up in Plants ana Fruit. Two years in present 
situation.— Mr. Robertson, Holboro Court, Gardens, Snod- 
Iaud, Kent, can with coufidt-nce recommend G. HaLL. as above. 

OURNEYMAN (First;, under Glass, in 

good establishment. — Age 2A ; ten years' experience in 
all branches. Highest testimonials.— W. SEARS, Whatton 
Manor Gardens, Nottingham. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside.— Age 20; abstainer. 
Seven years' experience, three in present situation, one 
as Improver, two as Journeyman. Well recommended. — 
DAVID CURTIS, Welby Park Gardens, Broseley, Salop. 

OURNEYMAN (First), in good establish- 

ment, — Age 24; nine years' experience. Well accus- 
tomed in general routine. Inside Work. Good references. — 
W. REiD, Marden Park Gardens, Caterham, Surrey. 

JOURNEYMAN; age 21. — Mr. Biggs, 
Garnstone Weobley, Herefordshire, can highly recommend 
E. Powell as above. 

JOURNEYMAN, in the Houses.— Age 20; 
five years' experience, two in present situation. Good 
characters. — J. B., Watergate Garden, Emsworth, Hants. 

JOURNEYMAN (Inside).— A Young Man, 
aged 24, seeks situation in a Gentleman's Garden ; two 
years' character from last place; bothy preferreJ. — A. C. 
CHEESMAN, Cold Waltham, near Pnlborough, Smsex. 

JOURNEYMAN, in the Houses.— Age 22; 
seven years' experience under Glass. Last two yeais 
and a half in Fruit Department. Can be well recom- 
mended.— W. FOSTER, The Gardens, Cricket St. Thomas, 
Chard, Somerset. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside. — Age 22; eight 
years' experience. Inside and Out. Can b j well recom- 
mended.— G. IMPEY, Beoacre Hall Gardens, Wrentham. 

JOURNEYMAN, in the houses. — Age 20; 
tix years* experience"; two years lii "present situation. — 
E. LAfllMORE, The Gardens, Lockerley ".Hail, Romsey, 
Hants; .r\ 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside. -^Age 26; twelve 
years' experience in good establishments, both Inside and 
Out. Can be well recommended. Bothy preferred. — A. B., 
North wood Cottage, North Hill, Highgate, N. 

JOURNEYMAN (Inside) in a Private Esta- 
blishment.— Age 23; eight and a half years' experience. 
G, SIMMONDS, Benfield Heath, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon. 

OURNEYMAN, Inside and Out.— Age 23; 

nine years' experience in Private and Nursery. Well up 
in the Houses and all-round Gardening. Good testimonials.— 
T, WESTON, Wellbury Cotts. near Huehin, Herts. 

JOURNEYMAN, in the Houses.— Age 22; 
bothy preferred. Eight years' experience. Inside and 
Out. Can be recommended.— E. RICHARDSON, Albury Park 
Gardens, near Guildford. 

JOURNEYMAN (First).— Age 25; single. 
Good references ; life experience. Bothy preferred. (Or 
Foreman where rive or six are kept). — J. GAY, The Gardens, 
South Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside. — Age 23 ; eight 
years' experience Left through death of owner. Good 
reference.— F. BOURNE, 2, Glenny Terrace, Wilton Road, 
Ilford. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside, in good Establish- 
ment; age 22. —Mr. J. Thomas. Nlnrdeloes Gardens, Amer- 
sham, Bucks, can strongly recommend G. Stacey, as above. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside, or Inside and Out; 
age 20 ; sixyears' experience. Left through a death. Six- 
teen months* good character ; abstainer.— F. HOBDtN, South 
Common, Chaiiey, Sussex. 

JOURNEYMAN (First), under a good 
Foreman.— Age 21. TJ.^ed to Fruit and Flowers; good 
references.— FRANK HARRIS, Whitstone, Holsworthy. Devon. 

JOURNEYMAN, Inside, or Inside and Out.— 
Age 24. Can be strongly recommended.— E. YOUNG, 
The Gardens, Poynter's Gio^e, Totieiidge, Herts. 

JOURNEYMAN (First), Inside, in a good 
establishment.— Age 24. Life experience.— J. COX, The 
Gardens, Balls Park, Hertford, Herts. 

JOURNEYMAN; age 20— Five years' expe- 
rience Inside and Out, can be well recommended. — Apply, 
G. BALDWIN, The Gardens, Oakhurst, Manningham, Bradford 

JOURNEYMAN (Under), age 20; three and 
a half years' experience.— Mr. Owles, Apley Castle 
Gardens, Wellington, Salop, will be pleased to recommend 
B. Jones as above. 

JOURNEYMAN (First), in a large establish- 
ment, where Vines are done well — Age 23; nine years 
experience. Can be well recommmended.— W. SMITH, 
Gardens, Ecton, North Hants. 

JOURNEYMAN, in a good establishment.— 
Age 22.— Situation wanted, by a stronsr willing young 
man |as above. Excellent character. — S. J. MILLS, Crayford 
House, Crayford, Kerjt. __^ ___„ 

JOURNEYMAN (Fibst), Inside, under a 
good Foreman. — Age 25 ; eleven years' experience in 
Vines, Peaches, Stove/aml- Greenhouse Plants ^ knowledge of 
Orchids ; can be well recommended. — O. K , Gardeners' 
Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 



JOURNEYMAN, Inside under a Foreman.— 
Age 24; gond experience. Disengaged,— R. JKTlEN, 
Isington, Alton Hants. 

UUUNhiYMAN, Inside, or Inside and Out.— 

Age 23. Eight years' experience ; excellent character. 
H. PLANCE, Frimley Road, Yorktown, Surrey. 

JOURNEYMAN.— Age 22; tall and strong. 
Used to Plants and Fruit. Three years' character from 
last place.— The GARDENER, Bickton, Fordingbridge. Hant 9 

TMPROVER, in the Houses, will pay a 

A Premium. — Age 19; has had four years' experience in 
general Garden Work. Good character.— H. WRIGHT. Little 
Houghton, Northamptonshire. 

IMPROVER. —